This is page 142 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

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bysmerung blasphemy; blasphemia, Mk. Bos. 3, 28. v. bysmrung. bysmor filthiness, reproach, calumny, Ælfc. T. 15, 21: Ps. Th. 8, 3: Deut. 28, 29. v. bismer.

bysmor-full; adj. [bismer, bysmor pollution, abomination, disgrace; full full] Polluted, abominable, disgraceful; pollutus, detestabilis, turpis :-- Ðæt híg búgan ne sceoldon to ðam bysmorfullum hæ-acute;ðengilde that they should not bow to the abominable heathen idol, Jos. 23, 7.

bysmorian to mock, Gen. 39, 14. v. bysrnerian.

bysmor-líce disgracefully, irreverently, L. Ælf. C. 35; Th. ii. 356, note 2, line 20. v. bismor-líce.

bysmor-spræc, bysmur-spræc, bysmer-spæc, e; f. [bismer, bysmer blasphemy; spræc, spæc a speaking, word, speech] A speaking blasphemy, blasphemy; blasphemia :-- Ðes sprycþ bysmorspræce this [man] speaketh blasphemy; hic blasphernat, Mt. Bos. 9, 3. Ælc synn and bysmur-spræc byþ forgyfen mannum, sóþlíce ðæs Hálgan Gástes bysmurspræc ne byþ forgyfen omne peccatum et blasphemia remittetur hominibus, Spiritus Sancti autem blasphemia non remittetur, 12, 31. Ðis ys bysmorspræc this is blasphemy, 26, 65. For ðínre bysrnerspæce on account of thy blasphemy, Jn. Bos. 10, 33.

bysmrian; p. ode; pp. od To deride, irritate, reproach, defame, revile, Gen. 39, 17: Ps. Spl. 58, 9: Ps. Th. 105, 14: Lev. 19, 13: Andr. Kmbl. 1923; An. 964. v. bysmerian.

bysmrigan to mock, revile, Mt. Bos. 20, 19: Andr. Kmbl. 2713; An. 1359. v. bysmerian.

bysmrung, bysmerung, e; f. [bismer, bysmer infamy, blasphemy] Deceit, infamy, blasphemy; illusio, infamia, blasphemia :-- Ðeós bysmrung nis to ondræ-acute;danne hæc illusio non est timenda, Bd. 1, 27; S. 496, 39, 41: 497, 6. Is on ðære ylcan bysmrunge swýde nýdþearflíc gesceád est in eadem illusione valde necessaria discretio, 1, 27; S. 496, 34, 21. Hió hyre firenluste fulgán ne móste bútan manna bysmrunge she could not fulfil her wicked desire without the infamy of mankind, Ors. 1, 2; Bos. 27, 14. Ealle sinna synd manna bearnum forgyfene, and bysmerunga, ðám ðe hí bysmeriaþ omnia dimittentur filiis hominum peccata, et blasphemiæ, quibus blasphemaverint, Mk. Bos. 3, 28.

bysmur-spræc blasphemy, Mt. Bos. 12, 31. v. bysmor-spræc.

býanian, bísnian, býsnigan, býsenian; p. ode; pp. od [býsen, býsn an example] To give or set an example; exemplum dare :-- We læ-acute;raþ, ðæt preóstas aa wel býsnian we enjoin that priests always set a good example, L. Edg. C. 52; Th. ii. 254, 28. Gif ða láreówas wel tæ-acute;caþ, and wel býsniaþ, beóþ hí gehealdene if the teachers teach well, and give good example, they shall be saved, Homl. Th. ii. 50, 3. Ne bísnode ðé nán man, forðamðe nán æ-acute;r ðé næs no man set thee an example, for no one was before thee, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 128, 20. Ða bísnodon hiora æfter-gengum they set an example to their successors, 39, 11; Fox 230, 2. Gif he yfel býsnige if he give evil example, Homl. Th. ii. 48, 35: L. Edg. C. 66; Th. ii. 258, 17. DER. ge-býsnian, mis-.

býsnigan to give or set on example, Homl. Th. ii. 48, 35: L. Edg. C. 66; Th. ii. 258, 17. v. býsnian.

býsnung, bísnung, býsenung, e; f. [býsen, býsn an example] An example; exemplum :-- For ðære miclan bísnunge for the great example, Ælfc. T. 5, 15. DER. ge-býsnung.

byst art, shalt be, Lk. Bos. l, 76: Ælfc. Gr. 25; Som. 26, 12. v. beón.

býst biestings, Ælfc. Gl. 31; Som. 61, 102. v. beóst

býst commandest, offierest; 2nd pers. pres. of beódan.

býsting, es; m. BIESTINGS, the first milk of a cow after calving; colostrum :-- Býsting, þicce meolc biestings, thick milk, Ælfc. Gl. 33; Som. 62, 20; Wrt. Voc. 28, 3. v. beóst.

BYT, bytt, e; f: pl. bytta A bottle, flagon, BUTT, tun; uter, dolium :-- Byt uter, Wrt. Voc. 85, 82. Bytt uter, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 18; Som. 9, 58. Ne híg ne dóþ niwe wín on ealde bytta; gyf hí dóþ, ða bytta beóþ tobrocene, and ðæt wín agoten, and ða bytta forwurðaþ. Ac híg dóþ niwe wín on niwe bytta, and æ-acute;gðer byþ gehealden neque mittunt vinum novum in utres veteres; alioquin rumpuntur utres, et vinum effunditur, et utres pereunt. Sed vinum novum in utres novas mittunt, et ambo conservantur, Mt. Bos. 9, 17: Jos. 9, 4: Ps. Lamb. 32, 7. [Ger. butte, biitte, f: M. H. Ger. büte, bütte, f; Dan. bötte, m. f: Swed, bytta, f: Icel. bytta, f.]

byt asks, prays, Lk. Bos. 11, 11: Ex. 5, 16, = bit; 3rd pers. pres. of biddan.

být commands, bid's, offers, Ex. 5, 10; 3rd pers. pres. of beódan.

byþ is, shall be, Mt. Bos. 5, 14. v. beón.

býþ inhabits; 3rd pers. pres. sing, of búan.

byÞne a keel. v. bytne.

býtl, bítl, es; n. m? [být, pres. of beátan to beat, strike] A BEETLE, hammer; malleus :-- Seó wífman án ðæra teldsticcena geslóh mid ánum býtle búfan his þunwengan the woman struck one of the tent-nails with a hammer above his temples, Jud. 4, 21. Nán mon ne gehiérde bítles swég no man heard the sound of hammer, Past. 36, 5; Cott. MS. [Plat, bötel.]

býtla, an; m. [býtl a hammer, -a UNCERTAIN q. v.] A hammerer, builder; ædificator :-- Se býtla ðæ-acute;r háligne hám aræ-acute;rde the builder raised up a holy home there, Exon. 34b; Th. 110, 36; Gú. 119.

býtlian; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed [býtla a builder] To build; ædificare :-- Hí ongunnon býtlian heora burh they began to build their town, Cd. 90; Th. 112, 33; Gen. 1880: 99; Th. 131, 15; Gen. 2176. He ne býtlaþ of ðam grúndwealle he builds not from that foundation, Homl. Th. i. 368, 25. Býtlode ædificavit, R. Ben. in proœm. Hí worhton ðæt geweorc æt Tæmeseforda, and hit búdon, and býtledon they wrought the work at Tempsford, and inhabited it, and built, Chr. 921; Erl. 106, 18. DER. ge-býtlian.

býtlung, e; f. [býtl, ung] A building, edifice; structura, ædificium :-- Seó býtlung is ofer Criste gelogod the building is founded on Christ, Homl. Th. i. 368, 22.

bytne the keel or bottom of a ship; carina, Cot. 32.

býtst commandest, offerest; 2nd pers. pres. of beódan.

býtt ordains, Homl. Th. i. 358, 31, = být, q. v.

bytta bottles, Mt. Bos. 9, 17; pl. of byt.

bytte-hlid, es; n. A lid of a butt; dolii opertorium, Cot. 208: Mann.

bytt-fylling, e; f. A filling of butts; doliorum impletio, L. Ath. v. § 8, l; Th. i. 236, 4.

býwan; p. de; pp. ed To prepare, adorn; parare, ornare :-- Ða ðe beadogrímman býwan sceoldon those who should prepare the war-helmet, Beo. Th. 4507, note; B. 2257. [O. Nrs. búa parare.] DER. a-býwan.


In Gothic and Icelandic C is entirely wanting, being always represented by k. It is remarkable that the Anglo-Saxons have seldom made use of k; but, following the Latin, have preferred the use of c. 1. the letter c is found as an initial, medial, and final. -- As an initial letter it corresponds to the Gothic amd Icelandic k; as, -- A. Sax. corn corn, Goth. karn, Icel. korn; A; Sax. ceósan to choose, Goth. kiusan, Icel. kjósa. As a medial and final letter c corresponds to the Gothic and Icelandic k, -- thus A. Sax. æcer a field, Goth. akrs, Icel. akr; A. Sax. eác also, Goth. auk, Icel. ok [og]. 2. c and cc are often changed into h or hh before s or þ, and especially before t; as, strehton they stretched, for strecton from streccan. Ahsian for acsian or axian to ask; séhþ for sécþ seeks, from sécan to seek. In words immediately derived from Anglo-Saxon, k is frequently substituted for the Anglo-Saxon c ; as, cyning a king; cyn kin or kindred. Sometimes q or ch; as, cwén queen; cild a child; cin a chin. 3. the Runic letter RUNE not only stands for the letter c, but also for the name of the letter in Anglo-Saxon cén a torch, v. cén and RÚN.

cac, es; m? Dung, excrement; stercus, foria, merda, Som. Ben. Lye. [Plat, kak, kakk: Dut. kak, m: Kil. kack: Ger. kack, m: Dan. kag, m. f: Grk. GREEK : Lat. cacare: Grk. GREEK .]

cac-hús, es; n. A privy; latrina, Som. Ben. Lye. [Kil. kack-huys.]

cæd, ced, es; m. A boat; linter, Mone B. 120, Ettm.

cæder-beám, es; m. A cedar-tree; cedrus :-- Hériaþ Drihten, muntas and ealle beorgas, treówu wæstmbæ-acute;ru, and ealle cæder-beám laudate Dominum, montes et omnes colles, ligna fructifera, el omnes cedri, Ps. Spl. 148, 9. v. ceder-beám.

Cædmon, es; m. [Cædrnon, MS. C. C. C. Oxford: Cædrnon, Bd. 4, 24; S. 170, 50; Cedmon, S. 597, 12: Ceadmon, MS. B. S. 597, note 12: Cadmon, Runic Monmnts. by Prof. Stephens, fol. Cheapinghaven, 1868, p. 419, 11: cæd linter, mon homo] A man employed by the monks of Whitby in the care of their cattle in the early part of the seventh century. He is the first person of whom we possess any metrical composition in our vernacular language. So striking and similar are some of his thoughts to Paradise Lost, it has been supposed that Milton had read his Poems. He became a monk of Whitby, and died in the monastery about A. D. 680. A full account is given of him in Bede's History, bk. iv. ch. 24. The origin of his Poem is thus recorded in king Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Bede :-- Ðá stód him sum mon æt þurh swefen, and hine hálette and grétte, and hine be his naman nemde, Cædmon [Cedmon, Bd. 4, 24; S. 597, 12], sing me hwæt-hwegn. Ðá andswarede he and cwæþ, ne con ic nán þing singan . . . Eft he cwæþ, se ðe mid him sprecende wæs, hwæðere ðú meaht me singan. Cwæþ he, hwæt sceal ic singan? Cwæþ he, sing me frumsceaft. Ðá he ðá ðás andsware onféng; ðá ongan he sóna singan, in hérenesse Godes scyppendes, ða fers and ða word ðe he næ-acute;fre ne gehýrde . . . Ðá arás he from ðam slæ-acute;pe and eall ðæt he slæ-acute;pende song fæste on gemynde hæfde . . . Song he æ-acute;rest be middangeardes gesceape, and be fruman moncynnes, and eall ðæt stæ-acute;r Genesis, and eft be útgonge Israhéla folces of Ægypta lande, and be ingonge ðæs gehát-londes, UNCERTAIN and be óðrum monigum spellum ðæs hálgan gewrites Canones bóc; and be Cristes menniscnesse, and be his þrówunge, and be his uppastígnesse on heofonas; and big ðæs hálgan Gástes cyme, and ðæra Apostola láre; and eft big ðam ege ðæs toweardan dómes, and be fyrhto ðæs tintreglícan wítes, and be swétnesse ðæs heofonlícan ríces: he monig