This is page 174 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Bosworth/Toller. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 25 Mar 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.


the hollow of a vessel, cup, bowl; GREEK a basin: Wel. cwm, m. a hollow, deep valley: Sansk. kumbha, m. a pot, jug.] DER. fild-cumb.

cumbel-gehnád, es; n. [cumbel = cumbol, gehnád a conflict] A conflict of ensigns or banners, a battle; signorum conflictus, prœlium, Chr. 937; Erl. 114, 15; Æðelst. 49, note.

Cumber-land, Cumbra-land, Cumer-land, es; n. [Sim. Dun. Cumbreland: Hunt. Hovd. Brom. Cumberland] CUMBERLAND; Cumbria :-- Hér Eádmund cyning oferhergode eal Cumbraland in this year [A. D. 945] king Edmund overran all Cumberland, Chr. 945; Th. 212, 10; 213, 10, col. 1, 2: Cumberland, 213, 10, col. 3. On ðisum geáre se cyning férde into Cumerlande [Cumberlande, col. 2] in this year the king went into Cumberland, 1000; Th. 248, 29, col. 1; 249, 29.

CUMBOL, cumbl, cuml, es; n. I. a sign, image, military standard, ensign, banner; signum, imago, signum militare, vexillum :-- In campe gecrong cumbles hyrde the standard's guardian fell in battle, Beo. Th. 5004; B. 2505. Hie fór ðam cumble on cneówum sæ-acute;ton they sat on their knees before the image, Cd. 181; Th. 227, 1; Dan. 180. Cumbol lixton wíges on wénum ensigns glittered in hopes of battle, 151; Th. 188, 29; Exod. 175: Andr. Kmbl. UNCERTAIN 8; An. 4. To weallgeatum wígend þrungon, céne under cumblum the warriors thronged to the wall-gates, bold beneath their ensigns, Andr. Kmbl. 2409; An. 1206: Judth. 12; Thw. 26, 18; Jud. 333. II. a sign or evidence of disease, a wound; morbi signum, vulnus :-- Se læ-acute;ce, ðonne he cymþ ðone untruman to sníðanne, æ-acute;rest [MS. æresð] he sceáwaþ ðæt cumbl [cuml MS. Oth.] the surgeon, when he comes to cut the patient, first examines the wound; ad ægrum medicus venerat, secandum vulnus videbat, Past. 26; Hat. MS. 36a, 7. [O. Sax. kumbal, n. a heavenly sign: O. H. Ger. cumpal cohortes: Swed. kummel, n. tessera, signum: Icel. kuml, kumbl, kubl, n, a sign, badge, mark, war-badge.]

cumbol-gebrec a crash or clashing of banners. v. cumbul-gebrec.

cumbol-gehnád a conflict of ensigns or banners, a battle. v. cumbel-gehnád.

cumbol-gehnást, es; n. [cumbol I. an ensign, banner; gehnást a conflict] A conflict of ensigns or banners, a battle; signorum conflictio, bellum :-- Ðæt hie beadoweorca beteran wurdon on campstede, cumbolgehnástes that they were better in works of war on the battle-field, at the conflict of banners, Chr. 937; Th. 206, 2, col. 2; 207, 2.

cumbol-haga, an; m. [haga a hedge] A compact rank, phalanx; phalanx :-- Ic sceal sécan óðerne under cumbolhagan cempan I must seek another soldier in the rank, Exon. 71b; Th. 266, 8; Jul. 395.

cumbol-hete, es; m. [hete hate] Warlike hate; bellicum odium :-- Þurh cumbolhete through warlike hate, Exon. 75a; Th. 280, 30; Jul. 637.

cumbol-wíga, an; m. [wíga a warrior] A warrior, soldier; bellator, miles, Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 5; Jud. 243: 12; Thw. 25, 14; Jud. 259.

cumbor; gen. cumbres; n. [ = cumbol, q. v.] A banner, standard, ensign; signum militare :-- Hroden hilte cumbor a banner adorned on the hilt, Beo. Th. 2048.

Cumbra-land Cumberland, Chr. 945; Erl. 116, 29. v. Cumber-land.

cumbul-gebrec, es; n. [cumbul = cumbol I, gebrec a noise, crashing] A crashing of banners or ensigns; signorum fragor, Ps. C. 50, 11; Ps. Grn. ii. 277, 11.

cumen come, Gen. 48, 2; pp. of cuman.

cumende coming, Ps. Lamb. 125, 6; part. of cuman.

cú-meoluc, e; f. [meolc milk] Cow's milk; vaccæ lac :-- Gáte geallan meng wið cúrneoluc mingle goat's gall with cow's milk, L. M. 1, 3; Lchdm. ii. 40, 19.

Cumer-land Cumberland, Chr. 1000; Erl. 137, 1. v. Cumber-land.

cum-feorm, e; f. [cuma a stranger, feorm food, support, hospitality] Entertainment of strangers; hospitium, Th. Diplm. A. D. 848; 102, 30.

cú-migoþa, an; m. [migþa, migoþa urine] Cow's urine; vaccæ urina :-- Gesomna cúmigoþan [MS. -migoþa] collect cow's urine, L. M. 1, 38; Lchdm. ii. 98, 5.

cumin the herb cummin, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cymen.

cuml a wound, swelling, Past. 26; MS. Oth. v. cumbol II.

cum-líðe; adj. [cuma a comer, líðe mild, gentle] Kind to comers or strangers, hospitable; hospitalis :-- Cumlíðe hospitalis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. 11, 37. Cild cumlíðe a child will be hospitable, Obs. Lun. § 15; Lchdm. iii. 192, 1: 16; Lchdm. iii. 192, 8. Beóþ cumlíðe eów betwýnan buton ceorungum be hospitable among yourselves without grudging, Homl. Th. ii. 286, 14.

cum-líðian [cuma a guest, líðian to nourish] To lodge, to receive as a guest; hospitari, R. Ben. Interl. 1.

cum-líðnys, -nyss, e; f. Hospitableness, hospitality; hospitalitas :-- Cumlíðnys is swíðe hlísful þing hospitality is a very excellent thing, Homl. Th. ii. 286, 16. Þurh ða cumlíðnysse by hospitality, 286, 2, 7, 8, 11, 13, 17, 27.

cummáse a coal-titmouse, coal-tit, Wrt. Voc. 281, 10. v. cól-máse.

cum-pæder, es; m. A godfather; compater :-- Ðe Æðeréd his cum-pæder healdan sceolde which Æthelred his godfather had to defend, Chr. 894; Erl. 92, 2.

cumul, es; pl. nom. acc. cumulu; n. A glandular swelling; tumor glandulósus :-- Wið cyrnlu and wið ealle yfele cumulu for kernels and for all evil lumps, Herb. 158, 5; Lchdm. i. 286, 17. v. cumbol II.

cúna of cows, Gen. 32, 15; gen. pl. of cú.

-cund, an adjective termination, denoting KIND , sort, or origin, likeness; as, æðel-cund, deóful-, engel-, eorþ-, feor-, feorran-, gæ-acute;st-, god-, heofon-, híw-, in, sáwel-, ufan-, up-, woruld-. [O. Sax. -kund oriundus, in god-kund divine: O. H. Ger. -kund: Goth. -kunds: Grk. GREEK : Lat. -gena.]

cune-glæsse, an; f. The herb hound's or dog's tongue; cynoglossos = GREEK , cynoglossum officinale, Lin :-- Wið cancerádle, cune-glæsse nioðoweard for cancer, the netherward part of hound's tongue, L. M. 1, 44; Lchdm. ii. 110, 1.

cunelle, an; f. Thyme; thymus [ = GREEK ] vulgaris :-- Wylcunellan [MS. cunille] boil thyme, L. M. 1, 31; Lchdm. ii. 74, 22. DER. wudn-cunelle.

cuning a king, Greg. Dial. MS. Hat. Bodl. fol. 9a, 7. v. cyning.

CUNNAN, ic can, con, ðú canst, const, he can, con, pl. cunnon; p. ic, he cúðe, ðú cúðest, pl. cúðon; subj. cunne, pl. cunnen; p. cúðe, pl. cúðen; pp. [on]-cunnen, cúþ; v. a. I. to be or become acquainted with, to know; nosc&e-short;re, scire :-- Ic ða stówe ne can I know not the place, Elen. Kmbl. 1363; El. 683: 1267; El. 635. Ic eów ne con I know you not, Cd. 227; Th. 304, 13; Sat. 629. ÐÚ canst thou knowest, Andr. Kmbl. 135; An. 68. Const, Beo. Th. 2759; B. 1377. Cann, Ps. Th. 91, 5: 93, 11. Conn, Exon. 43a; Th. 145, 12; Gú. 693. Ge ne cunnon ye know not, Cd. 179; Th. 224, 25; Dan. 141. Ðæt ðú cunne that thow knowest, 228; Th. 308, 34; Sae. 702: Elen. Kmbl. 748; El. 374. Ic cúðe I knew, Cd. 216; Th. 273, 26; Sat. 142: 19; Th. 24, 30; Gen. 385: Ors. 1, 2; Bos. 26, 34. Hwanon cúðest ðú me unde me nosti? Jn. Bos. 1, 48. Cúðon, Cd. 18; Th. 23, 10; Gen. 357: Andr. Kmbl. 1504; An. 753: Gen. 29, 5. Heó weán cúðon they became acquainted with woe, Cd. 4; Th. 5, 20; Gen. 74. Men ne cunnon men know not, Beo. Th. 327; B. 162. Ic ne conn þurh gemæcscipe monnes ówér I know not anywhere of a man through cohabitation, Exon. 10b; Th. 13, 6; Cri. 198. II. with inf. To know how to do, to have power, to be able, CAN; scire, posse :-- Ic can eów læ-acute;ran I can teach you, Cd. 219; Th. 280, 3; Sat. 250. Ðe can naman ðínne neóde hérigean qui scit jubilationem, Ps. Th. 88, 13. Hérian ne cúðon wuldres waldend they knew not how to praise the ruler of glory, Beo. Th. 367; B. 182. Dydon swá hie cúðon they did as they could, Cd. 187; Th. 232, 11; Dan. 258. [Cunnan is the second of the twelve Anglo-Saxon verbs, called præterito&dash-uncertain;præsentia, given under ágan, q. v. The inf. cunnan and the pres. can, pl. cunnon, retaining preterite inflections, are taken from the p. of the strong verb cinnan, ascertained from can, pl. cunnon, which shews the ablaut or internal change of the vowel in the p. tense of the twelfth class of Grimm's division of strong verbs [Grm. i. edn. 2, p. 898; Koch, i. p. 252], and requires, by analogy with other verbs of the same class, the inf. cinnan, q. v. and the pp. cunnen. Thus we find the original verb cinnan, p. can, pl. cunnon; pp. cunnen. The weak p. cúðe, pl. cúðon, for cunde, cundon, is formed regularly from the inf. cunnan. The pp. generally takes the weak form, in Anglo-Saxon as well as in the cognate words; but strong and weak forms are both found, in A. Sax. the strong on-cunnen, and the weak cúþ, and in M. H. Ger. the strong ver-kunnen, and the weak kunt. The same præterito-præsens may be generally observed in the following cognate words :--

inf. pres. pl. p. pp.
Eng. can, could,
Laym. cunne, can, cunnen, cuðe, conðe, cup.
Wyc. kunne, can, kan, cunnen, kunnen, konde, kouthe, cunde, koud.
Plat. könen, kann, könen, kunden, kunnen, kunt.
O. Sax. kunnan, kan, kunnun, costa, kuþ.
O. Frs. kunna, kan, kunnon, kunda, kuth, kud.
Ger. können, kann, können, konnte, gokonnt.
M.H.Ger. kunnen, kan, kunnen, kunde, -kunnen, kunt.
O.H.Ger. kunnan, kan, kunnumés, kunda, kunsta, kund.
konda, konsta,
Goth. kunnan, kann, kunnum, kunþa, kunþs.
O. Nrs. kunna, kann, kunnum, kunna, kunnat.]

DER. for-cunnan, on-.

cunne, pl. cunnen know, can, Cd. 228; Th. 308, 34; Sat. 702: Elen. Kmbl. 748; El. 374; subj. pres. of cunnan.

cunnere, es; m. A tempter; tentator, Mt. Lind. Stv. 4, 3.

cunnian; p. ode, ade, ede; pp. od, ad, ed; v. a. I. to prove, try, inquire, search into, seek for, explore, examine, investigate, tempt, venture; probare, tentare, explorare, requirere, experiri, periclitari :-- Woldon cunnian, hwæðer. . . they would prove, whether. . . , Andr. Kmbl. 257; An. 129. Mót ic nú cunnian may I now inquire? Bt. 5, 3; Fox 10, 34. Uncúþne eard cunnian to seek for an unknown home, Exon. 28b; Th. 87, 1; Cri. 1418: Beo. Th. 2893; B. 1444. Se cunnaþ Dryhtnes meahta he tempteth the Lord's might, Salm. Kmbl. 454; Sal. 227. He ðín cunnode he has proved thee, Cd. 163; Th. 204, 16; Exod. 420: Bd. 3, 2; S. 525, 15. II. with gen. To have, experience of,