This is page 185 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Bosworth/Toller. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 17 Jun 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.

CYNE-ÞRYM - CYNING

cyne-þrym; gen. -þrymmes; m. [þrym a multitude, majesty, glory] A kingly host, royal majesty or glory; regia multitudo, regis majestas :-- Mid cyneþrymme with a kingly host, Cd. 209; Th. 260, 8; Dan. 706 : Exon. 120 b; Th. 462, 12; Hö. 51. He cwom on cyneþrymme he came in royal majesty, Ps. Th. 95, 12. Ryhtfremmende cyneþrym cýðaþ the righteous doers shall proclaim the royal majesty, Exon. 65 a; Th. 240, 5; Ph. 634 : Andr. Kmbl. 2645; An. 1324. Ðú me gecýðdest cyneþrymma wyn thou declaredst to me joy of kingly glories, Exon. 120 b; Th. 463, 23; Hö. 74.

cyne-wíse, an; f. [wíse an affair] The state, republic, commonwealth; respublica :-- Se náht freomlíces ongan on ðære cynewísan he began nothing profitable in the state, Bd. 1, 3; S. 475, 21. Rehte ða cynewísan rempublicam rexit, 1, 5; S. 476, 8.

cyne-wiððe, an; f. A royal wreath, diadem; redimiculum :-- Cyne-wiððan redimicula, Mone B. 6270 : Cot. 185.

cyne-word, es; n. [word a speech] A proper speech or word; proprium verbum :-- Mon cýðe cynewordum, hú se cuma hátte let a man make known in fitting words, how the guest is called, Exon. 112 b; Th. 430, 29; Rä. 44, 16.

Cynewulf, es; m. An Anglo-Saxon poet, who has preserved his name in Runes, in his poem on Elene's Recovery of the Cross. Mr. Kemble will best describe his own discovery. - In the Vercelli MS. is contained a long poem on the finding of the Cross by the Empress Helena [ = Elene]. After the close of the poem, and apparently intended as a tail-piece to the whole book, comes a poetical passage, in which the author principally refers to himself, and after a reference to his own increasing age and the change from the strength and joyousness of youth, he breaks out, in the 15th Canto, into a moralizing strain, in which he concludes his work. The following thirty lines, containing Runes, form a portion of this Canto:
Á wæs sæc óþ-ðæt,Ever was contest till then,
cnyssed cearwelmumwith waves of sorrow tossed
&c-rune; [cén] drúsende,C [the torch] sinking,
ðeáh he, in medoheallethough he, in meadhall
máþmas, þegetreasures, handled
æplede gold,appled gold,
&y-rune; [yr] gnornode,Y [sorrow] he mourned,
&n-rune; [nýd] geféra,N [need] his consort,
nearu sorge dreáh,narrow sorrow he suffered,
enge rúne,a close rune,
ðær him &e-rune; [éh] fórewhere E [the horse] before him
mílpaðas mæt,measured the mile paths,
módig þrægdeproudly hastened
wírum gewlenced.with wires adorned.
&w-rune; [wén] is geswíþrad,W [hope] is overpowered,
gomen æfter gearum,my joy in my old age,
geógoþ is gecyrredyouth is turned back
ald onmedla.my old pride.
&u-rune; [úr] wæs geáraU I was of old
geógoþhádes glæ-acute;m,a gleam of youth,
nú synt geárdagasnow are the days of my life
æfter fyrstmearceafter the appointed space
forþgewitene,departed,
lífwynne geliden,the joy of life flowed away,
swá &l-rune; [lagu] toglídeþ,as L [lake or water] glideth,
flódas gefýsde.the floods that hasten.
&f-rune; [feoh] æ-acute;ghwam biþF [wealth] will be for every man
læ-acute;ne under lyfte,failing under the heaven,
landes frætwethe ornament of the land
gewítaþ under wolcnum.will depart under the welkin.
Elen. Kmbl. 2512-2541; El. 1257-1272.
The extreme rudeness and abruptness of these lines, and the apparent uselessness of the Runes, led me to suspect that there was more in them than merely met the eye. This I found to be the case; for, on taking the Runes out of the context, using them as single letters and uniting them in one word, they supplied me with the name CYNEWULF, undoubtedly no other than the author of the poems. I cannot here bestow space upon a long argument to shew who this Cynewulf was. I believe him to have been the Abbot of Peterborough of that name, who flourished in the beginning of the eleventh century, who was accounted in his own day a celebrated poet, both in Latin and Anglo-Saxon, whose works have long been lost, but whose childish ingenuity has now enabled us with some probability to assign to him the authorship of the Vercelli and Exeter Codices, Archæologia, vol. xxviii. 1840, by Kemble, pp. 327-372. The Reverend Jn. Earle, M. A. etc. Rector of Swanswick, with some pertinent remarks, supposes Cynewulf to be the same person as Cyneweard. v. Chr. Erl. Introduction, pp. xx-xxii.

cyng a king, Chr. 664; Erl. 34, 20 : 894; Erl. 91, 32 : L. Ath. iv. pref; Th. i. 220, 1. v. cyning.

cyngc a king, L. Edg. S. 1; Th. i. 270, 7. v. cyning.

Cynges tún, es; m. [cynges tún king's town] KINGSTON; regia villa :-- Aðelstán wæs to cynge æt Cynges túne gehálgod Athelstan was consecrated king at Kingston, Chr. 924; Th. 199, 8, col. 1: 979; Th. 234, 10, col. 2. Æt Cyninges tún at Kingston, Chr. 979; Th. 235, 9, col. 1. v. Cinges tún, Cyninges tún.

cyning, cyng, es; m. [cyn people, -ing originating from, son of]. I. a king, ruler, emperor; rex, imperator. He is the representation of the people, and springs from them, as a son does from his parents. The Anglo-Saxon king was elected from the people; he was, therefore, the king of the people. He was the chosen representative of the people, their embodiment, the child, not the father of the people. He was not the lord of the soil, but the leader of his people. He completed the order of freemen, and was the summit of his class. As the freeman [ceorl] was to the noble [æðele], so was the noble to the king. The Anglo-Saxon king was the king of a tribe or of a people, but never of the land. We read of kings of the West Saxons or of the Mercians, but not of Wessex or of Mercia. The king was, in truth, essentially one with the people, by them and their power he reigned; but his land was like theirs, private property. It was not the feudal system, and was never admitted that the king was owner of all the land in a country :-- Se cyning mildelíce onféng the king received [him] gladly, Ors. 1, 8; Bos. 30, 44. Se Iudéa cyning the king of the Jews; &omicron-tonos; βασιλε&upsilon-tonos;s τ&w-circ;ν 'Ioυδα&iota-tonos;ων, Mt. Bos. 2, 2. Saul wæs gecoren æ-acute;rest to cyninge on Israhéla þeóde Saul was first chosen king of the people of Israel, Ælfc. T. 13, 3. Eart ðú wítodlíce cyning ergo rex es tu? o&upsilon-tonos;κoûν βασιλε&upsilon-tonos;s ε&iota-tonos; σ&upsilon-tonos;; Jn. Bos. 18, 37. Cyninges botl a king's dwelling, palace, Bd. 2, 14; S. 518, 18. Cyninga [MS. cininga] bóoc the book of kings, Ælfc. T. Grn. 6, 38 : 8, 3. Cyninga [MS. kyninga] byrgen a burying-place of kings; mausoleum, bustum, Ælfc. Gl. 85; Som. 74, 3; Wrt. Voc. 49, 27. Maximian, árleás cyning Maximian, the wicked emperor, Exon. 65 b; Th. 243, 1; Jul. 4. 2. a spiritual King, God, Christ; Deus, Christus :-- Heofona Cyning the King of heaven, Andr. Kmbl. 3008; An. 1507 : 3017; An. 1511 : Cd. 137; Th. 172, 18; Gen. 2846. Crist is ealra cyninga Cyning Christ is King of all kings, Homl. Th. ii. 588, 9 : Exon. 9 b; Th. 9, 17; Cri. 136 : 11 a; Th. 14, 6; Cri. 215 : Andr. Kmbl. 1955; An. 980. 3. the devil; diab&o-short;lus, sat&a-short;nas :-- Hellwarena cyning the king of hell's inhabitants, Exon. 70 a; Th. 261, 28; Jul. 322. Se ofermóda cyning, Satan the haughty king, Satan, Cd. 18; Th. 22, 9; Gen. 338. II. Anglo-Saxon kings were at first elected from a family or class, by Witena gemót the assembly of the wise. 2. fidelity was sworn to them by the people, in the following words :-- Ðus man sceal swerigean hyld-áþas. 'On ðone Drihten, ðe ðes háligdóm is fóre hálig, ic wille beón N. hold and getríwe, and eal lufian ðæt he lufaþ, and eal ascúnian ðæt he ascúnaþ, æfter Godes rihte and æfter woroldgerysnum, and næ-acute;fre, willes ne gewealdes, wordes ne weorces, ówiht dón ðæs him láþre biþ; wið ðam ðe he me healde swá ic earnian wille, and eall ðæt læste ðæt uncer fórmæ-acute;l wæs, ðá ic to him gebeáh and his willan geceás thus shall a man swear oaths of fidelity [or homage]. By the Lord, before whom this relic is holy, I will be to N. faithful and true, and love all that he loves, and shun all that he shuns, according to God's law, and according to the world's principles, and never, by will nor by force, by word nor by deed, do aught of what is loathful to him; on condition that he keep me as I am willing to deserve, and all that fulfil that our agreement was, when I submitted to him and chose his will,' L. O. 1; Th. i. 178, 2-9. If this was taken in A. D. 924, it was not long before the power of the king was limited, for we have the following oath administered to Æðelréd, when he was consecrated king at Kingston in A. D. 978, as is stated in the Chronicle, - On ðys geáre wæs Æðelréd to cininge gehálgod æt Cinges túne in this year Æthelred was consecrated king at Kingston, Chr. 978. [MS. 979]; Th. 234, 9, col. 1. 3. the king took a corresponding oath to his people. The words of the king's oath are, - Ðis gewrit is gewriten, stæf be stæfe, be ðam gewrite ðe Dúnstán arcebisceop sealde úrum hláforde æt Cinges túne á on dæg ðá hine man hálgode to cinge, and forbeád him æ-acute;lc wedd to syllanne bútan ðysan wedde, ðe he up on Cristes weofod léde, swá se bisceop him dihte. 'On ðære hálgan Þrýnnesse naman, Ic þreó þing beháte cristenum folce, and me underþeóddum :-- Án æ-acute;rest, ðæt ic Godes cyrice and eall cristen folc mínra gewealda sóðe sibbe healde. Oðer is, ðæt ic reáflác and ealle unrihte þing eallum hádum forbeóde. Þridde, ðæt ic beháte and bebeóde on eallum dómum riht and mildheortnisse, ðæt us eallum æ-acute;rfæst and mildheort God þurh ðæt his écean miltse forgife, se lifaþ and ríxaþ' this writing is copied, letter for letter, from the writing which archbishop Dunstan delivered to our lord at Kingston on the very day when he was consecrated king, and he forbade him to give any other pledge but this pledge which he laid upon Christ's altar, as the bishop instructed him. 'In the name of the Holy Trinity, three things do I promise to this christian people, my subjects. First, that I will hold God's church and all the christian people of my realm in true peace. Second, that I will forbid rapine and all injustice to men of all conditions. Third, that I promise and enjoin justice and mercy in all judgments, whereby the just and merciful God may give us all his eternal favour, who liveth and reigneth,' Relq. Ant. W. ii. 194. 4. from the freedom with which the educated spoke of the Doom's Day Survey of William the Conquerer, indicating their love of freedom, we have no reason to suppose this oath was the first oath taken by kings in our limited monarchy. The spirit of the monks may be seen in the following extract from the Chronicle :-- Willelm, Engla landes cyng, ðe ðá wæs sittende on Normandige, forðig he áhte æ-acute;gðer ge Engla land ge Normandige . . . sende ðá ofer eall Engla land into æ-acute;lcere scíre his men . . . Swá swýðe nearwelíce he hit lett út aspyrian, ðæt næs án æ-acute;lpig híde, ne án gyrde landes, ne, furðon, hit is sceame to tellanne, ac hit ne þuhte him nán sceame to dónne, án oxa [MS. oxe], ne án cú, ne án swín næs belyfon, ðæt næs gesæt on his gewrite, and ealle ða gewrita wæ-acute;ron gebroht to him syððan William, king of England, who was then resident in Normandy, for he owned both England and Normandy . . . then sent his men over all England into each shire . . . So very narrowly did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a rood of land, nay, moreover, it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it, not an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was left, that was not set down in his writ, and all the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him, Chr. 1085; Erl. 218, 2-4 . . . 24, 25 . . . 33-38. 5. the Anglo-Saxon king had royal power to pardon transgressors :-- Gif hwá in cyninges healle gefeohte, oððe his wæ-acute;pn gebrede, and hine mon gefó; sié ðæt on cyninges dóme, swá deáþ, swá líf, swá he him forgifan wille if any one fight in the king's hall, or draw his weapon, and he be taken; be it in the king's power, either death or life, or pardon, L. Alf. pol. 7; Th. i. 66, 8, 9. Sié on cyninges dóme hwæðer he líf áge ðe náge be it in the king's power whether he shall or shall not have life, L. In. 6; Th. i. 106, 3, 4. Búton him cyning [MS. kyning] árian wille unless the king will be merciful to him, 36; Th. i. 124, 19. Ðæt he wæ-acute;re his feores scyldig, búton he cyng gesóhte, and he him his feorh forgifan wolde; eall swá hit æ-acute;r æt Greátan leá and æt Exan ceastre and æt Þunres felda gecweden wæs that he should be liable in his life, unless he should flee to the king, and he should give him his life; all as it was before ordained at Greatley and at Exeter and at Thundersfield, L. Ath. v. § 1, 4; Th. i. 230, 6-9 : L. Edm. S. 6; Th. i. 250, 11 : L. Edg. ii. 7; Th. i. 268, 24, 25 : L. Eth. iii. 16; Th. i. 298, 14 : vii. 9; Th. i. 330, 24. 6. of all forfeits the king had one half - to healfum :-- Fó se cyng to healfum, - to healfum ða men ðe on ðære ráde beón let the king take possession of half, of [the other] half the men, who may be in the riding [shall take possession], L. Ath. i. 20; Th. i. 210, 6, 7. 7. treasure-trove, or treasure or money found, of which the owner was unknown, belonged to the king. It is designated in Anglo-Saxon charters by the words - ealle hordas búfan eorþan, and binnan eorþan all hoards above the earth, and within the earth. As we learn from Beowulf, in early and heathen times, much treasure was buried in the mound raised over the ashes of the dead, besides what was burned with the body :-- Hí on beorg dydon bégas [MS. beg] and siglu, forléton eorla gestreón eorþan healdan, gold on greóte, ðæ-acute;r hit nú gén lífaþ yldum swá unnyt swá hit æ-acute;r wæs they placed rings and jewels in the mound, they left the treasure of earls to the earth to hold, gold in the dust, where it now yet remains as useless to men as it was before, Beo. Th. 6307-6318; B. 3164-3169. The legend of Guthlac [about A. D. 700, v. Crúland] supplies a very early instance of the search for gold and silver in the mounds :-- Wæs ðæ-acute;r on ðam eálande sum hláw mycel ofer eorþan geworht, ðone ylcan men iú geára for feós wilnunga gedulfon and bræ-acute;con : ðá wæs ðæ-acute;r on óðre sídan ðæs hláwes gedolfen swylce mycel wæterseáþ wæ-acute;re there was on the island a great mound raised upon the earth, which some, men of yore had dug and broken up in hopes of treasure : then there was dug up on the other side of the mound as it were a great water-pit, Guthl. 4; Gdwin. 26, 4-8. 8. Pastus or Convivium = Cyninges feorm. The king visited different districts personally or by deputy to see that justice was done to all his subjects. In these periodical journeys the king received support and entertainment wherever he went. Hence perhaps the privileges of our judges. In A. D. 814 Cénwulf released the bishop of Worcester from a pastus of twelve men, whom he was bound to find. This was so great an expense that the exemption was worth an estate of thirteen hides, v. Cod. Dipl. 203; A.D. 814; Kmbl. i. 256. 9. Vigilia = heáfodweard head ward, or a proper watch set over the king, which he claimed when he came into any district. The sæ-acute;weard or coast guard was also a regal right, performed by the tenants of those land owners whose estates lay contiguous to the sea. 10. the mint or coinage of money. The king exercised a superintendence over the circulating medium. Æðelræ-acute;d not only enacted that there should be no moneyers besides the king's, but that their number should be diminished :-- Nán man ne áge næ-acute;nne mynetere búton cyng let no man have a moneyer except the king, L. Eth. iii. 8; Th. i. 296, 15. Ut monetarii pauciores sint quam antea fuerint, iv. 9; Th. i. 303, 2. 11. the grant of a market, with power to levy tolls, was also a royalty, Cod. Dipl. 1075; A. D. 873-899; Kmbl. v. 142 : 1084; A. D. 904; Kmbl. v. 157. v. The Rights of Anglo-Saxon Kings, explained more fully in Kemble's Saxons in England, 2 vols. 8vo. 1849. Bk. ii. chap. 2; vol. ii. pp. 29-103. [Prompt. kynge : Wyc. kyng : Piers P. Chauc. king : R. Glouc. kyng : Laym. Orm. king : Plat. könig : O. Sax. kuning, cunig, m : Frs. kening : O. Frs. kining, kinig, kening, keneng, koning : Dut. koning, m : Kil. koningh, m : Ger. könig, m : M. H. Ger. künic, künec, künc, m : O. H. Ger. kuning, m : Dan. konning, konge, m : Swed. konung, kong, kung, m : Icel. konungr, kóngr, m : Lett. kungs dominus.] DER. æðel-cyning, Angel-, beorn-, brýten-, eorþ-, éðel-, folc-, gást-, geár-, gúþ-, hæ-acute;ðen-, heáh-, heofon-, leód-, mægen-, ródor-, sæ-acute;-, segn-, self-, sige-, sóþ-, swegl-, þeóð-, þrym-, þryþ-, woruld-, wuldor-.