This is page 186 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Bosworth/Toller. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 16 Jun 2018. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
and reigneth,' Relq. Ant. W. ii. 194. 4. from the freedom with which the educated spoke of the Doom's Day Survey of William the Conquerer, indicating their love of freedom, we have no reason to suppose this oath was the first oath taken by kings in our limited monarchy. The spirit of the monks may be seen in the following extract from the Chronicle :-- Willelm, Engla landes cyng, ðe ðá wæs sittende on Normandige, forðig he áhte æ-acute;gðer ge Engla land ge Normandige . . . sende ðá ofer eall Engla land into æ-acute;lcere scíre his men . . . Swá swýde nearwe-líce he hit lett út aspyrian, ðæt næs án æ-acute;lpig híde, ne án gyrde landes, UNCERTAIN ne, furðon, hit is sceame to tellanne, ac hit ne þuhte him nán sceame to dónne, án oxa [MS. oxe], ne án cú, ne án swín næs belyfon, ðæt næs gesæt on his gewrite, and ealle ða gewrita wæ-acute;ron gebroht to him syððan William, king of England, who was then resident in Normandy, for he owned both England and Normandy . . . then sent his men over all England into each shire . . . So very narrowly did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a rood of land, nay, moreover, it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it, not an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was left, that was not set down in his writ, and all the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him, Chr. 1085; Erl. 218, 2-4. . . 24, 25 . . . 33-38. 5. the Anglo-Saxon king had royal power to pardon transgressors :-- Gif hwá in cyninges healle gefeohte, oððe his wæ-acute;pn gebrede, and hine mon gefó; sié ðæt on cyninges dóme, swá deáþ, swá líf, swá he him forgifan wille if any one fight in the king's hall, or draw his weapon, and he be taken; be it in the king's power, either death or life, or pardon, L. Alf. pol. 7; Th. i. 66, 8, 9. Sié on cyninges dóme hwæðer he líf áge ðe náge be it in the king's power whether he shall or shall not have life, L. In. 6; Th. i. 106, 3, 4. Búton him cyning [MS. kyning] árian wille unless the king will be merciful to him, 36; Th. i. 124, 19. Ðæt he wæ-acute;re his feores scyldig, búton he cyng gesóhte, and he him his feorh forgifan wolde; eall swá hit æ-acute;r æt Greátan leá and æt Exan ceastre and æt þunres felda gecweden wæs that he should be liable in his life, unless he should flee to the king, and he should give him his life; all as it was before ordained at Greatley and at Exeter and at Thundersfield, L. Ath. v. § 1, 4; Th. i. 230, 6-9: L. Edm. S. 6; Th. i. 250, 11: L. Edg. ii. 7; Th. i. 268, 24, 25: L. Eth. iii. 16; Th. i. 298, 14: vii. 9; Th. i. 330, 24. 6. of all forfeits the king had one half -- to healfum :-- Fó se cyng to healfum, -- to healfum ða men ðe on ðære ráde beón let the king take possession of half, of [the other] half the men, who may be in the riding [shall take possession], L. Ath. i. 20; Th. i. 210, 6, 7. 7. treasure-trove, or treasure or money found, of which the owner was unknown, belonged to the king. It is designated in Anglo-Saxon charters by the words -- ealle hordas búfan eorþan, and binnan eorþan all hoards above the earth, and within the earth. As we learn from Beowulf, in early and heathen times, much treasure was buried in the mound raised over the ashes of the dead, besides what was burned with the body :-- Hí on beorg dydon bégas [MS. beg] and siglu, forléton eorla gestreón eorþan healdan, gold on greóte, ðæ-acute;r hit nú gén lífaþ yldum UNCERTAIN swá unnyt swá hit æ-acute;r wæs they placed rings and jewels in the mound, they left the treasure of earls to the earth to hold, gold in the dust, where it now yet remains as useless to men as it was before, Beo. Th. 6307-6318; B. 3164-3169. The legend of Guthlac [about A. D. 700, v. Crúland] supplies a very early instance of the search for gold and silver in the mounds :-- Wæs ðæ-acute;r on ðam eálande sum hláw mycel ofer eorþan geworht, ðone ylcan men iú geára for feós wilnunga gedulfon and bræ-acute;con: ðá wæs ðæ-acute;r on óðre sídan ðæs hláwes gedolfen swylce mycel wæterseáþ wæ-acute;re there was on the island a great mound raised upon the earth, which some men of yore had dug and broken up in hopes of treasure: then there was dug up on the other side of the mound as it were a great water-pit, Guthl. 4; Gdwin. 26, 4-8. 8. Pastus or Convivium = Cyninges feorm. The king visited different districts personally or by deputy to see that justice was done to all his subjects. In these periodical journeys the king received support and entertainment wherever he went. Hence perhaps the privileges of our judges. In A. D. 814 Cénwulf released the bishop of Worcester fróm UNCERTAIN a pastus of twelve men, whom he was bound to find. This was so great an expense that the exemption was worth an estate of thirteen hides, v. Cod. Dipl. 203; A. D. 814; Kmbl. i. 256. 9. Vigilia = heáfodweard head ward, or a proper watch set over the king, which he claimed when he came into any district. The sæ-acute;weard or coast guard was also a regal right, performed by the tenants of those land owners whose estates lay contiguous to the sea. 10. the mint or coinage of money. The king exercised a superintendence over the circulating medium. Æðelræ-acute;d not only enacted that there should be no moneyers besides the king's, but that their number should be diminished :-- Nán man ne áge næ-acute;nne mynetere búton cyng let no man have a moneyer except the king, L. Eth. iii. 8; Th. i. 296, 15. Ut monetarii pauciores sint quam antea fuerint, iv. 9; Th. i. 303, 2. ll. the grant of a market, with power to levy tolls, was also a royalty, Cod. Dipl. 1075; A. D. 873-899; Kmbl. v. 142: 1084; A. D. 904; Kmbl. v. 157. v. The Rights of Anglo-Saxon Kings, explained more fully in Kemble's Saxons in England, 2 vols. 8vo. 1849. Bk. ii. chap. 2; vol. ii. pp. 29-103. [Prompt. kynge: Wyc. kyng: Piers P. Chauc. king: R. Glouc. kyng: Laym. Orm. king: Plat. köni'g: O. Sax. kuning, cunig, m: Frs. kening: O. Frs. kining, kinig, kening, keneng, koning: Dut. koning, m: Kil. koningh, m: Ger. könig, m: M. H. Ger. künic, künec, künc, m: O. H. Ger. kuning, m; Dan. kouning, konge, m: Swed. konung, kong, kung, m: Icel. konungr, kóngr, m: Lett. kungs dominus.] DER. æðel-cyning, Angel-, beorn-, brýten-, eorþ-, éðel-, folc-, gást-, geár-, gúþ-, hæ-acute;ðen-, heáh-, heofon-, leód-, mægen-, ródor-, sæ-acute;-, segn-, self-, sige-, sóþ-, swegl-, þeód-, þrym-, þryþ-, woruld-, wuldor-.
cyning-bald; adj. Kingly or nobly bold; nobiliter audax :-- Férdon forþ cyningbalde men the nobly bold men went forth, Beo. Th. 3273; B. 1634.
cyning-cynn, es; n. [cynn a sort, race, v. cynn] A royal race; regium genus :-- Of ðæs strýnde monigra mæ-acute;gþa cyningcynn fruman læ-acute;dde the royal race of many tribes drew its beginning from his stock, Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 30. Eanfriþ wæs ðære mæ-acute;gþe cyningcynnes Eanfrith was of the royal race of that province, 3, 1; S. 523, 14. Penda wæs se fromesta esne of Mercna cyningcynne Penda was the boldest man of the royal race of the Mercians, 2, 20; S. 521, 9. v. cyne-cyn.
cyning-dóm, es; m. [-dom dominion, power] Kingly power, a KINGDOM; regimen, regnum :-- Cyningdom habban to have kingly power, Cd. 173; Th. 216, 7; Dan. 3. Metod ðec aceorfeþ of cyningdóme the lord will cut thee off from thy kingdom, 202; Th. 251, 24; Dan. 568. Caldéas cyningdóm áhton the Chaldeans held the kingdom, 209; Th. 258, 24; Dan. 680. v. cyne-dóm.
Cyninges tún Kingston, Chr. 979; Th. 235, 9, col. 1. v. Cynges tún.
cyninges wyrt, e; f. The herb marjoram; sampsuchum = GREEK , origanum majorana, Lin :-- Cyninges wyrt sampsuchum, Mone A. 529.
cyning-feorm, cyninges feorm, e; f. [feorm food, support] Royal purveyance, tribute for the royal household; regis firma :-- Ic heó gefreóge écelíce ðæs gafoles, ðe hió nú get to cyninges handa ageofan sceolan of ðam dæ-acute;le ðe ðæ-acute;r ungefreód to láfe wæs ðære, cyningfeorme, ge on hlutrum alaþ, ge on beóre, ge on hunige, ge hryðrum, ge on swýnum, ge on sceápum I free them for ever from the impost which they have still to pay into the king's hand, from that portion, which was there left unfreed of the royal purveyance, whether in pure ale, or in beer, or in honey, or in oxen, or in swine, or in sheep, Cod. Dipl. 313; A. D. 883; Kmbl. ii. 111, 4-9. Ðe cyninges feorm to belimpe to which the royal purveyance belongs, L. Alf. pol. 2; Th. i. 60, 24.
cyning-gereord, -gereorde, es; n. [gereord food, a repast, feast] A royal feast; regis convivium :-- Cyning-gereorde fercula, Cot. 93.
cyning-gierela, an; m. A royal crown, diadem; regalis tænia [ = GREEK ] diadema = GREEK , Som. Ben. Lye.
cyning-ríce a kingdom, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cyne-ríce.
cyn-líc; adj. [cyn suitable, fit] Becoming, fitting; d&e-short;c&o-long;rus :-- Suilce iów cynlíc þynce as to you may seem fitting, Th. Diplm. A. D. 804-829; 461, 36. Swá him rihtlíc and cynlíc þince as to them may seem just and becoming, Th. Diplm. A. D. 905; 493, 12.
cyn-líce; adv. Becomingly, fitly; congruenter :-- Hí cynlíce to ðé cleopiaþ they fitly call upon thee, Ps. Th. 64, 14: 118, 57, 82, 145, 147: 126, 2.
cynn, es; n. A sort, kind; genus, Ps. Th. 144, 13. v. cyn.
cynn suitable, fit, Bt. 35, 4; Fox 162, 24: L. In. 42; Th. i. 128, 11. MS. H. v. cyn.
cynnan to declare, clear, prove; advoc&a-long;re, purg&a-long;re, manifest&a-long;re :-- Gif he cynne ðæt he hit bohte if he declare that he bought it, L. Edg. S. 11; Th. i. 276, 12, note 7. v. cennan II.
cynnestre, an; f. [cennan to bring forth, -estre a female termination, q. v.] One who brings forth, a mother; genitrix, mater :-- Ðæt cild oncneów Marian stemne, cynnestran the child knew the voice of Mary, the mother, Homl. Th. i. 352, 27.
cynning-stán, es; m. [cennan II. to try, prove; stán a stone] A trying-stone; tessera :-- Cynning-stán on tæfle a little wooden tower on the side of a gaming-board, hollow and having steps inside, through which the dice were thrown upon the board; pyrgus [ = GREEK ], turricula, Ælfc. Gl. 61; Som. 68, 65; Wrt. Voc. 39, 48.
cynn-recceniss, e; f. [reccenys a narration, history] A reckoning of relationship, a genealogy; genealogia, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 1, title.
cyn-recen; gen. -recenne; f. A pedigree, genealogy, parentage; generatio, genealogia, parentela, Som. Ben.
cyn-ren, -ryn, es; n. [cyn a kindred, race, nation, family, generation; ren, ryn a course] A family course, family, generation, kind, nation, posterity; generatio, genus, natio, progenies, propago :-- He forlét his ríce and his cynren he left his country and his family, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 27. Cynren generatio, Wrt. Voc. 72, 49. Ðis ys Thares cynryn this is the generation of Terah, Gen. 11, 27. On cynrynum cynrena [MS. kynrynum kynrena] in generationes generationum, Ps. Lamb. 71, 5. On ðam fiftan dæge úre Drihten gesceóp ða mycelan hwalas on heora cynrynum on the fifth day our Lord created the great whales with their kinds, Hexam. 8; Norm. 14, 8. Fisc sceal on wætere cynren cennan [MS. cynran cennen] a fish shall propagate, his kind in the water,