This is page 248 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

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248 ELN-BOGA -- EMBE-GANG.

Persian ell, or cubit, is very nearly 20-1/2 inches; for Herodotus says that the GREEK, bk. i. § 178, is 3 GREEK longer than the common Grk. GREEK = cubit or ell: 24 GREEK, i. e. 24 + 3 = 27 GREEK; 27 × 3/4 of an inch and 1/12 of an 8th, GREEK a finger's breadth = about 75/100 of an inch, that is 3/4 of an inch and 1/12 of an 8th = 3/4 + 1/96 = 72/96 + 1/96 = .76] .76 = 20-50/100 [ = 20-1/2 inches, and 2/100 or 1/50 of an inch] :-- Se weall Babilónes is fíftig elna brád, and twá hund elna heáh ... and ymbútan ðone weall is se mæ-acute;sta díc ... and wiðútan ðani díce is geworht twegra elna heáh weall the wall of Babylon is fifty ells broad, and two hundred ells high ... and round the wall is a very great dike ... and outside the dike a wall is built two ells high, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 23-28. III. the ell in A. Sax. was sometimes about 24 inches, or 2 feet :-- Se hwæl biþ micle læssa ðonne óðre hwalas: ne biþ he lengra ðonne syfan elna lang; ac, on his ágnum lande, ða beóþ eahta and feówertiges elna lange, and ða mæ-acute;stan, fíftiges elna lange; ðara, he sæ-acute;de, ðæt he syxa sum ofslóge syxtig on twám dagum this whale is much less than other whales: it is not longer than seven ells; but, in his own country [Norway], they are eight and forty ells long, and the largest, fifty ells long; of these, he said, that he was one of six, who killed sixty in two days. Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 18-23. In giving the size of the Horse-whale or Walrus, and of the Whale, Ohthere, a Norwegian, would most probably calculate by the measure of Scandinavia, the ell of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Molbeck, in his Dansk Ordbog, thus defines it :-- 'Alen, et vist længdemaal, som deles i 24 tommer ... Tomme een 12te fod, og een 24de alen,' ... That is, Ell, a certain measure of length, which is divided into 24 inches ... An inch one 12th of a foot, and one 24th of an ell. King Alfred, in his Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius, followed the calculation of Ohthere, who says that the Horse-whale or Walrus is 7 ells long, that is 14 feet, and the Whales 48 ells, and the largest 50, that is 96 feet, and the largest 100 feet long. These calculations approach very nearly to those given by Mr. Broderip, who says the length of the Walrus is from 10 to 15 feet, and Dr. Scoresby, who gives the lengen of the Physalus to be about 100 feet, Ors. Eng. p. 43, note 45. 2. ells of different lengths were used in Anglo-Saxon times; and, even in the present day, 3 sorts of ells are known in England :-- The Flemish ell is 3 quarters of a yard or 27 inches; the English 5 quarters or 45 inches; and the French 6 quarters or 54 inches. [Early English, Wrt. spec. 35, án elne long: R. Glouc. 429, 3, elnen, pl: Plat. eel, f: Frs. jelne; O. Frs. ielne, elne, f: Dut. el, elle, f: Ger. elle, f: M. H. Ger. elne, eln, elline, ellen, f: O. H. Ger. elina, elna, elle, f: Goth. aleina, f: Dan. alen, f: Swed. aln, f: Icel. alin, f: Lat. ulna. f: Grk. GREEK, f. Eln the ell is found in A. Sax. eln-boga, el-boga the elbow: Dut. elle-boog: Ger. ellen-boge.] Ell is an old Teutonic word being used in the oldest German, the Gothic translation of Ulphilas about A. D. 360: in Anglo-Saxon about 895. The date of its use in other parts of Europe may be ascertained by referring to the languages quoted above, and in the list of contractions where the names and dates of the authors are given.

eln-boga, an; m. An elbow; c&u-short;b&i-short;tum :-- Se earm næ-acute;nige bígnesse on ðam elnbogan hæfde the arm had no bending at the elbow, Bd. 5, 3; S. 616, 23. v. el-boga.

elnes of strength. Beo. Th. 3063; B. 1529; gen. of ellen.

elnes = ellenes of elder :-- Elnes rinde sele give elder-rind, L. M. 2, 30; Lchdm. ii. 230, 14. v. ellen an elder-tree.

eln-gemet, es; n. An ell-measure, the length of an ell, two feet? c&u-short;b&i-short;t&a-long;lis mensura, ulnae mens&u-long;ra :-- Ðæt fær gewyrc fíftiges wíd, þrittiges heáh, þreó hund lang elngemeta make the vessel fifty wide, thirty high, three hundred long, of ell measures, Cd. 65; Th. 79, 10; Gen. 1309. v. eln I. and III.

elnian; part. elnende; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad [ellen strength]. I. to make strong, strengthen; confort&a-long;re :-- Elnode he hine and sæt upp confort&a-long;tus s&e-long;dit in lect&u-short;lo, Gen. 48, 2. II. to strive with zeal after another, endeavour to be equal, emulate; æm&u-short;l&a-long;re, z&e-long;l&a-long;re :-- Nyl ðú elnian betwih awergde, ne elnende ðú sié dónde unrehtwísnisse n&o-long;li æm&u-short;l&a-long;re inter m&a-short;lignantes, neque æm&u-short;l&a-long;tus fueris f&a-short;cientes iniqu&i-short;t&a-long;tem, Ps. Surt. 36, 1, 7. Ic elnode [elnade, Ps. Th. 72, 2] ofer ða unrihtwísan z&e-long;l&a-long;vi s&u-short;per in&i-long;quos, Ps. Spl. C. 72, 3. Ne elna ðú ne æm&u-short;l&e-long;ris, Ps. Surt. 36, 8. DER. ge-elnian.

elnung, ellnung, e; f. Zeal, hot emulation, envy; z&e-long;lus, æm&u-short;l&a-long;tio :-- Elnung z&e-long;lus. Rtl. 192, 5. Elnung oððe æfista húses ðínes ge-et [=ge-æt] mec z&e-long;lus do)mus tuæ c&o-short;m&e-long;dit me, Jn. Lind. War. 2, 17.

elone the herb elecampane, L. M. 1, 23; Lchdm. ii. 66, 2. v. eolone.

elp an elephant, Som. Ben. Lye. v. ylp.

elpen-bæ-acute;nen; adj. Made of ivory; &e-short;burn&e-short;us :-- Fram húsum elpenbæ-acute;nenum a d&o-short;m&i-short;bus &e-short;burn&e-short;is, Ps. Lamb. 44, 10.

elpen-bán, es; n. An elephant's bone, ivory; &e-short;bur :-- Elpenbánum with ivory, Ps. Spl. 44, 10: Cot. 71. v. ylpen-bán.

elpend, es; m. An elephant; &e-short;lephas = GREEK :-- Hwæðer ge seón máran on eówrum líchoman ðonne elpend if ye were greater in your body than the elephant, Bt. 32, 1; Fox 114, 25. Elpendes hýd wyle drincan wæ-acute;tan gelíce and spinge déþ an elephant's hide will drink wet like a sponge, Ors. 5, 7; Bos. 107, 10. He genéþde under ánne elpend he went boldly under an elephant, Ors. 4, 1; Bos. 77, 20: 78, 9. He hæfde xx elpenda he had twenty elephants, 4, 1; Bos. 77, 5: 5, 7; Bos. 107, 8. To ðám elpendum [MS. elpendan] to the elephants, 4, 1; Bos. 77, 26. Hét Pirrus dón ða elpendas on ðæt gefeoht Pyrrhus ordered the elephants to be brought into the battle, 77, 16, 23: 78, 5, 28.

elpend-tóþ, es; m. An elephant's tooth; &e-short;lephantis dens, Cot. 78.

elra; comp? Stranger :-- He ne métte on elran men mundgripe máran he did not find a stronger hand-gripe in a stranger man, Beo. Th. 1509; B. 752.

el-reord, ell-reord, æl-, sell-, eall-; adj. Foreign-speaking, barbarous; barb&a-short;rus :-- Wæ-acute;ron heó mid elreordre dysignesse onbláwne infl&a-long;ti &e-short;rant barb&a-short;ra stult&i-short;tia, Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 13: 1, 5; S. 4. 76, 11: 1, 14; S. 482, 12: Ps. Surt. 113, 1.

el-reordig, ell-reordig; adj. Foreign-speaking, barbarous; barb&a-short;rus, p&e-short;regr&i-long;nus :-- Of gramum folce ða elreordige ealle wæ-acute;ron de p&o-short;p&u-short;lo barb&a-short;ro, Ps. Th. 113, 1.

el-reordignes, -ness, e; f. -Barbarousness, outlandishness; barb&a-short;ries, Som. Ben. Lye.

el-riord; adj. Barbarous; barb&a-short;rus :-- Mid elriordre dysignesse barb&a-short;ra stult&i-short;tia, Bd. 2, 5; Whelc. 122, 3. v. el-reord.

el-þeód, æl-þeód, el-þiód [ell-]; gen. e; pl. nom. acc. a. e; f. A foreign nation, strange people; gens p&e-short;regr&i-long;na, alien&i-short;g&e-short;næ, p&e-short;regr&i-long;ni :-- Éhton elþeóda they pursued the strange nations, Elen. Kmbl. 277; El. 139. Fóre elþeódum before strange nations, Exon. 27 b; Th. 83, 12; Cri. 1337: 23 b; Th. 67, 6; Cri. 1084. On ellþeóde among a strange people, Andr. Kmbl. 1943; An. 974: Exon. 123 b; Th. 474, 25; Bo. 36.

el-þeodian foreigners; barb&a-short;ros, = el-þeódigan; acc. pl. def. of el-þeódig, Bd. 1, 14; S. 482, 12, note.

el-þeódig, æl-þeódig, el-þiódig [ell-]; adj. Strange, foreign, barbarous, one who is abroad; p&e-short;regr&i-long;nus, barb&a-short;rus, adv&e-short;na, alien&i-long;g&e-short;na, qui p&e-short;regre est :-- Eorlas elþeódige strange men, Andr. Kmbl. 397; An. 199. Þearfum and elþeódigum symble eáþmód paup&e-short;r&i-short;bus et p&e-short;regr&i-long;nis semper h&u-short;m&i-short;lis, Bd. 3, 6; S. 528, 10, note. Ðæt Bryttas ða elþeódian of heora gemærum adrífan ut Britt&o-long;nes barb&a-short;ros suis e f&i-long;n&i-short;bus p&e-short;p&u-short;l&e-short;rint, 1. 14; S. 482, 12, note. Nú cwom elþeódig now a stranger has come. Elen. Kmbl. 1813; El. 908: Cd. 124; Th. 159, 3; Gen. 2629. Hwonne me wráþra sum ellþeódigne aldre beheówe when some enemy might bereave me, a stranger, of life, 128; Th. 163, 20; Gen. 2701: Exon. 82 a; Th. 308, ii; Seef. 38: 87 b; Th. 329, 5; Vy. 29. Ða elþeódigan ealle Drihten lustum healdeþ D&o-short;m&i-short;nus cust&o-long;dit adv&e-short;nam, Ps. Th. 145, 8: 110, 4. v. el-þeód.

el-þeódiglíce, ael-þeódiglíce; adv. In foreign parts, among foreigners; p&e-short;regre. v. æl-þeódiglíce.

el-þeódignes, -þeódines, æl-þeódignes, -ness, -nyss, e; f. A being or living abroad, pilgrimage; p&e-short;regr&i-long;n&a-long;tio :-- Ferde on elþeódignysse p&e-short;regre pr&o-short;fectus est, Mt. Bos. 21, 33. On elþeódinysse, 25, 14. Elþeódignys oððe eardbegengnes mín afeorrad oððe gelængd is inc&o-short;l&a-long;tus meus pr&o-long;long&a-long;tus est, Ps. Lamb. 119, 5. v. eard-begengnes.

el-þeódisc; adj. Foreign, strange; p&e-short;regr&i-long;nus :-- To bebyrgenne elbeódisce men in s&e-short;pult&u-long;ram p&e-short;regr&i-long;n&o-long;rum, Mt. Bos. 27, 7. v. elþeódig.

el-þiód, e; f. A foreign nation :-- In elþióde p&e-short;regre, Mt. Rush. Stv. 21, 33. v. el-þeód.

el-þiódgian, -þiódigian; p. ode; pp. od [el, þeód a people] To live in foreign parts, to lead a pilgrim's life; p&e-short;regr&i-long;n&a-long;ri :-- Wilnode he on neáweste ðara háligra stówe to tíde elþiódgian on eorþan c&u-short;p&i-long;vit in v&i-long;c&i-long;nia sanct&o-long;rum l&o-short;c&o-long;rum ad tempus p&e-short;regr&i-long;n&a-long;ri in terris, Bd. 5, 7; S. 621, 12.

el-þiodig strange, foreign, Bt. 39, 2; Fox 212, 17, note 3: Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 62, 35: Mt. Lind. Stv. 25, 14. v. el-þeódig.

eltst eldest; n&a-long;tu maxímus :-- -Seó mæ-acute;gþ asprang of Noes eltstan suna, se wæs geháten Sem that family sprang from Noah's eldest son who was called Shem, Homl. Th. i. 24, 7, = yldest; sup. of eald.

eluhtre, an; f. The plant lupine; l&u-short;p&i-long;nus albus, Lin :-- Wyl eluhtran on ealaþ boil lupine in ale, L. M. 1. 41; Lchdm. ii. 106, 11: 1. 63; Lchdm. ii. 136, 26. v. elehtre.

élys hedgehogs, Ps. Spl. C. 103, 19. v. íl.

em- in composition, denotes even, equal: v. efen even, emb about. v. em-lícnes, em-niht, etc.

emb, embe about, round, around :-- Emb eahta niht about eight nights, Menol. Fox 418; Men. 210: 76; Men. 38: 188; Men. 95: 109; Men. 54: 259; Men. 131: 449; Men. 226. Embe fíf niht about five nights, Menol. Fox 21; Men. ii: 30; Men. 15: 38; Men. 19: 82; Men. 41: 385; Men. 194. v. ymb.

embe-fær, es; n. [fær a going, journey] A going round, circuit; circu&i-short;tus :-- Embefær túna circu&i-short;tus vill&a-long;rum, Proœm. R. Conc.

embe-gán to go round, Lye. v. ymb-gán.

embe-gang, es; m. A going round, circuit; circu&i-short;tus :-- Se embegang ðara landa the circuit of the lands, Cod. Dipl. Apndx. 402; A. D. 944;