This is page 298 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

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298 FOLC-LÁR -- FOLC-SCEARU.

an efficient state of defence, [c] Fyrd a contribution for maintaining the military and naval force of the kingdom :-- Gif hwá Burh-bóte, oððe Brycg-bóte, oððe Fyrd-fare forsitte; gebáte mid hund-twelftigum scillinga ðam cyningce on Engla lage, and on Dena lage, swá hit æ-acute;r stód if any one neglect Burh-bót, or Brycg-bót, or Fyrd-fare; let him make amends with one hundred and twenty shillings to the king by English law, and by Danish law, as it formerly stood, L. C. S. 66; Th. i. 410, 8-10. Þegenes lagu is, ðæt he sý his bóc-rihtes wyrðe, and ðæt he þreó þinc of his lande dó, fyrd-færeld, and burh-bóte, and brycg-geweorc [MS. bryc-] thane's law is, that he be worthy to make his will, and that he perform three things for his land, military service, repairs of fortresses, and of bridges, L. R. S. 1; Th. i. 432, 1-3. II. Folk-land was subject to many burthens and exactions from which book-land was exempt. The possessors of folk-land were bound to assist in the reparation of royal vills, and in other public works. They were liable to have travellers and others quartered on them for subsistence. They were required to give hospitality to kings and great men in their progress through the country, to furnish them with carriages and relays of horses, and to extend the same assistance to their messengers, followers, and servants, and even to the persons who had charge of their hawks, horses, and hounds. Such at least are the burthens from which lands are liberated when converted by charter into book-land. 2. Folk-land might be held by freemen of all ranks and conditions. It is a mistake to imagine with Lambarde, Spelman, and a host of antiquaries, that it was possessed by the common people only. Still less is Blackstone to be credited, when, trusting to Somner, he tells us it was land held in villenage by people in a state of downright servitude, belonging, both they and their children and effects, to the lord of the soil, like the rest of the cattle or stock upon the land. [Blackstone, ii. 92.] -- A deed published by Lye, exposes the error of these representations. [Anglo-Saxon Dict., App. ii. 2.] Alfred, a nobleman of the highest rank, possessed of great estates in book-land, beseeches King Alfred, in his will, to continue his folk-land to his son, Æthelwald; and if that favour cannot be obtained, he bequeaths, in lieu of it, to his son, who appears to have been illegitimate, ten hides of book-land at one place, or seven at another. From this document it follows, first, that folk-land was held by persons of rank; secondly, that an estate of folk-land was of such value, that seven, or even ten hides of book-land were not considered as more than equivalent to it; and, lastly, that it was a life-estate, not devisable by will, but in the opinion of the testator, at the disposal of the king, when by his own death it was vacated. 3. It appears also from this document, that the same person might hold estates both in book-land and in folk-land; that is, he might possess an estate of inheritance of which he had the complete disposal, unless in so far as it was limited by settlement; and with it he might possess an estate for life, revertible to the public after his decease. In the latter times of the Anglo-Saxon government it is probable there were few persons of condition who had not estates of both descriptions. Every one was desirous to have grants of folk-land, and to convert as much of it as possible into book-land. Money was given and favour exhausted for that purpose. 4. In many Saxon wills we find petitions similar to that of Alfred; but in none of them is the character of the land, which could not be disposed of without consent of the king, described with the same precision. In some wills, the testator bequeaths his land as he pleases, without asking leave of any one [Somner's Gavelkind, 88, 211; Hickes, Pref. xxxii; Diss. Epist. 29, 54, 55, 59; Madox, Formul. 395]; in others he earnestly beseeches the king that his will may stand, and then declares his intentions with respect to the distribution of his property [Lambarde, Kent, 540; Hickes, Diss. Epist. 54; Gale, i. 457; Lye's Append. ii. 1, 5; Heming. 40] ;-- and in one instance he makes an absolute bequest of the greater part of his lands, but solicits the king's consent to the disposal of a small part of his estate [Hickes, Diss. Epist. 62.] There can be no doubt that book-land was devisable by will, unless where its descent had been determined by settlement; and a presumption, therefore, arises, that where the consent of the king was necessary, the land devised was not book-land, but folk-land. If this inference be admitted, the case of Alfred will not be a solitary instance, but common to many of the principal Saxon nobility. 5. That folk-lands were assignable to the thegns, or military servants of the state, as the stipend or reward for their services, is clearly indicated in the celebrated letter of Bede to Archbishop Ecgbert [Smith's Bede, 305-312]. In that letter, which throws so much light on the internal state of Northumberland, the venerable author complains of the improvident grants to monasteries, which had impoverished the government, and lefe no lands for the soldiers and retainers of the secular authorities, on whom the defence of the country must necessarily depend. He laments the mistaken prodigality, and expresses his fears that there will be soon a deficiency of military men to repel invasion, no place being left where they can obtain possessions to maintain them suitably to their condition. It is evident from these complaints, that the lands so lavishly bestowed on the church had been formerly the property of the public, and at the disposal of the government. If they had been book-lands, it could have made no difference to the state whether they belonged to the church or to individuals, since in both cases they were beyond its control, and in both cases were subject to the usual obligations of military service. But if they formed part of the folk-land, or property of the public, it is easy to conceive how their conversion into book-land must have weakened the state, by lessening the fund out of which its military servants were to be provided. 6. A charter of the eighth century conveys to the see of Rochester certain lands on the Medway, as they had been formerly possessed by the chiefs and companions of the Kentish kings. [Text. Roffens. 72, edit. Hearne; Kemble, Cod. Dipl. No. cxi.] In this instance folk-land, which had been appropriated to the military service of the state, appears to have been converted into book-land, and given to the church, L. Th. ii. Glossary, Folc-land: Sandys' Gavel. 97. v. Stubbs' Const. Hist, folk-land, v. fyrd, scip-fyrd, bóc-land.

folc-lár, e; f. Popular instruction, a sermon; p&o-short;p&u-short;l&a-long;ris instit&u-long;tio vel instructio, h&o-short;m&i-long;lia, sermo, Cot. 143, Som. Ben. Lye. v. lár.

folc-leásung, e; f. Folk-leasing, public lying, slander; publ&i-short;cum mendäcium, c&a-short;lumnia :-- Be folcleásunge gewyrhtum. Gif mon folcleásunge gewyrce, mid nánum leóhtran þinge gebéte ðonne him mon aceorfe ða tungan of of those committing slander. If a man commit slander, let him make amends with no lighter thing than that his tongue be cut out, L. Alf. pol. 32; Th. i. 80, 19-82, 1.

folc-líc; adj. Folklike, common; p&o-short;p&u-short;l&a-long;ris, comm&u-long;nis :-- Folclíc lár h&o-short;m&i-long;lia [MS. &o-short;m&i-long;lia = GREEK ], Ælfc. Gl. 35; Som. 62, 75; Wrt. Voc. 28, 53. He sæ-acute;de ðæt he folclíc man wæ-acute;re rust&i-short;cum se fuisse respondit, Bd. 4, 22; S. 591, 6: Nar. 18, 4.

folc-lond folk-land; p&o-short;p&u-short;li terra, Exon. 115b; Th. 444, 14; Kl. 47. v. folc-land.

folc-mægen, es n. People's force; p&o-short;p&u-short;li r&o-long;bur :-- Ðá ðæ-acute;r folc-mægen fór then there marched a people's force, Cd. 160; Th. 199, 31; Exod. 347.

folc-mæ-acute;gþ, e; f. A nation-tribe, tribe; n&a-long;tio, tr&i-short;bus :-- Folc-mægþa of nation-tribes, Cd. 64; Th. 77, 18; Gen. 1277.

folc-mæ-acute;lum in bands, Chr. 1011; Erl. 145, 5, = floc-mæ-acute;lum. v. flocc-mæ-acute;lum.

folo-mæ-acute;re; nom. pl. n. folc-mæ-acute;ro; adj. Folk-known or popular; c&e-short;l&e-short;ber, p&o-short;p&u-short;l&o-long;sus :-- Ofer folc-mæ-acute;ro land over celebrated lands, Cd. 86; Th. 108, 5; Gen. 1801.

folc-mót, es; n. A popular assembly; p&o-short;p&u-short;li consessus :-- On folcmóte at the folk-moot, L. Ath. i. 12; Th. i. 206, 11, note 25. v. folc-gemót.

folc-néd, e; f. A people's need; p&o-short;p&u-short;li necess&i-short;tas :-- Him wísode wolcen unlytel daga æ-acute;ghwylce, swá hit Drihten hét; and him ealle niht, óðer beácen, fýres leórna, folcnéde heóld a large cloud directed them every day, as the Lord commanded it; and to them all night, another sign, a pillar of fire, supplied the people's need, Ps. Th. 77, 16.

folc-ræ-acute;d, -réd, es;m. A public benefit, that which serves for the good of the people; pubi&i-short;cum b&e-short;n&e-short;f&i-short;cium :-- Dryhten gumena folcræ-acute;d fremede the Lord of men did public benefits, Andr. Kmbl. 1243; An. 622. He folcréd fremede he accomplished public benefit, Beo. Th. 6004, note; B. 3006.

folc-ræ-acute;den, -ræ-acute;denn, e; f. A nation's law; pl&e-long;bisc&i-long;tum :-- Sum mæg folcræ-acute;denne gehycgan one may deliberate a nation's law, Exon. 79a; Th. 295, 32 ; Crä. 42.

folc-riht, -ryht, es; n. Folkright, common law, public right, the understood compact by which every freeman enjoys his rights as a freeman; publícum jus, comm&u-long;ne = GREEK :-- Aræ-acute;re up Godes riht; and heonanforþ læ-acute;te manna gehwylcne, ge earmne ge eádigne, folcrihtes wyrðe, and him man rihte dómas déme let God's right be exalted; and henceforth let every man, both poor and rich, be worthy of folk-right, and let a man have right dooms judged to him, L. C. S. 1; Th. i. 376, 10: L. Ed. 11; Th. i. 164, 20: L. Edg. ii. 1; Th. i. 266, 4: L. Eth. vi. 8; Th. i. 316, 28. Hit he becwæþ mid fullan folcrihte he bequeathed it with full folk-right, L. O. 13; Th. i. 184, 1: 2; Th. i. 178, 13. To folcryhte to folk-right, L. Ath. i. 2; Th. i. 200, 7: i. 8; Th. i. 204, 7: i. 23; Th. i. 212, 1. He him forgeaf wícstede wéligne, folcrihta gehwylc, swá his fæder áhte he had given him the wealthy dwelling place, every public right, as his father had possessed, Beo. Th. 5209; B. 2608. Gesealde wæ-acute;pna geweald ofercom mid ðý feónda folcriht he gave him power of weapons with which he overcame the folkright [liberty] of enemies, Cd. 143; Th. 179, 1; Exod. 22.

folc-riht, -ryht; adj. According to folk-right, lawful; secundum publ&i-short;cum jus, l&e-long;g&a-long;lis :-- Síe he wyrðe folcryhtre [-rihtre MS. G.] bóte let him be worthy of lawful compensation, L. Alf. 13; Th. i. 46, 25.

folc-sæl, es; pl. nom. acc. -salo; n. A folk-building; p&o-short;p&u-short;l&a-long;ris ædes :-- Ie folcsalo bærne I burn public structures, Exon. 101a; Th. 381, 3; Rä. 2, 5.

folc-scearu, -sceru, -scaru, e; f. A division of the people, nation, multitude; n&a-long;tio, provincia :-- Ðæt hie hine onsundne gebrohten of ðære folcsceare that they should bring him uninjured from that tribe of people, Cd. 90; Th. 112, 17; Gen. 1872: 114; Th. 149, 20; Gen. 2477. Ðu UNCERTAIN úsic woldest on ðisse folcsceare besyrwan thou wouldest deceive us among