This is page 355 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Bosworth/Toller. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 18 Mar 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.

FYRSTIG - G

fyrstig; adj. [forst frost] Frosty; g&e-short;l&i-short;dus :-- Ðæt se winter wæ-acute;re ceald and fyrstig that the winter was cold and frosty, Bd. 3, 19; S. 549, 27.

fyrst-mearc, frist-mearc, e; f. [mearc a mark] Marked or appointed time, a space of time, interval; tempus const&i-short;t&u-long;tum, temp&o-short;ris spatium, interc&a-short;p&e-long;do :-- Sunne oncneów fyrstmearc his the sun knew his appointed time, Ps. Spl. T. 103, 20. Him eft-cymeþ æfter fyrstmearce feorh life returns to it after a space of time, Exon. 59 a; Th. 213, 11; Ph. 223 : Andr. Recd. 269; An. 133 : Elen. Kmbl. 2065; El. 1034. Ymb geára fyrstmearc after a space of years; interjecio temp&o-short;re aliquanto, Bd. 3, 17; S. 543, 47 : Cd. 202; Th. 251, 8; Dan. 560. Bútan fyrstmearce æ-acute;nigre reste s&i-short;ne ulla qui&e-long;tis interc&a-short;p&e-long;d&i-short;ne, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 3.

fýr-sweart; def. se -swearta; adj. Fire-swart, blackened with fire; igne obsc&u-long;r&a-long;tus :-- Færeþ æfter foldan [se] fýrswearta lég the fire-swart flame shall pass along the earth, Exon. 22 a; Th. 61, 14; Cri. 984,

fýr-tang fire-tongs; forceps igni&a-long;ria, Som. Ben. Lye.

fýr-þolle? An oven; cl&i-long;b&a-short;nus :-- Ðú setst hig swá swá fýrþolle fýres p&o-long;nes eos ut cl&i-long;b&a-short;num ignis, Ps. Spl. T. 20, 9.

fyrþran, fyrþrian; p. ede, ode; pp. ed, od [furðor further] To further, support, advance, promote; provehere, prom&o-short;v&e-long;re :-- Ðæt ic eáðe mæg ánra gehwylcne fremman and fyrþran freónda mína that I may easily advance and further every one of my friends, Andr. Kmbl. 1867; An. 936. Ðæt hí mágen hénan ða yflan, and fyrþrian ða gódan that they may humiliate the evil, and further the good, Bt. 39, 2; Fox 212, 22. Friðaþ and fyrþraþ protects and supports, Bt. 34, 10; Fox 148, 29. Ealle Godes gerihto fyrþrie man georne let every one zealously further all God's dues, L. E. G. 5; Th. i. 168, 25, note 28, MS. B. DER. gefyrþran.

fyrþringnes, -ness, e; f. A furthering, furtherance, promotion; prom&o-long;tio, L. I. P. 3; Th. ii. 306, 21.

fyrþrung, e; f. A furthering, furtherance, promotion; prom&o-long;tio :-- Ceápes fyrþrung furtherance of trade, Somn, 167; Lchdm. iii. 208, 6.

fýr-tor, -torr, es; m. A fire-tower, light-house; ph&a-short;rus = φ&alpha-tonos;ρos, Cot. 93.

FYRWET, -wit, -wyt, es; n. Curiosity; c&u-long;ri&o-long;s&i-short;tas :-- Hyne fyrwet bræc curiosity urged him, Beo. Th. 5562; B. 2784 : 3975; B. 1985. Mec ðæs on worulde full oft fyrwit frineþ my curiosity enquireth very often about this in the world, Salm. Kmbl. 117; Sal. 58. Hine fyrwyt bræc curiosity urged him, Beo. Th. 470; B. 232. He his fyrwites ganges gylt forgeaf he forgave him the guilt of his walk of curiosity, Homl. Th. ii. 138, 24. Þurh fyrwet through curiosity, Exon. 9 a; Th. 6, 30; Cri. 92. [O. Sax. firiwit, m. n : O. H. Ger. firiwizzí, f. c&u-long;ri&o-long;s&i-short;tas, portentum : Icel. fyrir-wissa, f. a foreboding.]

fyrwet-georn, firwet-georn; adj. Curious, inquisitive; c&u-long;ri&o-long;sus :-- Fela biþ fyrwetgeornra there are many inquisitive, Exon. 90 b; Th. 339, 31; Gn. Ex. 102.

fyrwet-geornnes, se; f. Curiosity :-- For fyrwetgeornnesse ðæs wundres for curiosity on account of the miracle, Blickl. Homl. 69, 22.

fyrwit, -witt, -wytt; adj. Curious, inquisitive; c&u-long;ri&o-long;sus :-- Menn ða ða fyrwytte [fyrwite, MS. L.] beóþ men who are inquisitive, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 15, 9; Lchdm. iii. 268, 5.

fyrwit curiosity, Salm. Kmbl. 117; Sal. 58. v. fyrwet.

fyrwitnys, -nyss, e; f. Curiosity; c&u-long;ri&o-long;s&i-short;tas :-- Hefigtyme leahter is ungefóh fyrwitnys immoderate curiosity is a grave sin, Homl. Th. ii. 374, 3. Ðæt he his fyrwitnysse fæderlíce miltsode that he would paternally compassionate his curiosity, ii. 138, 19.

fýr-wylm, es; m. A fire-boiling, raging flame; flamma æstuans :-- Wyrm cwom óðre síþe, fýrwylmum fáh the dragon came a second time, coloured with raging flames, Beo. Th. 5335; B. 2671.

fyrwyt curiosity, Beo. Th. 470; B. 232. v. fyrwet.

fýryn, es; n. A fire; ignis :-- On fýrynes midlene de m&e-short;dio ignis, Deut 5, 24. v. fýr.

FÝSAN; p. de; pp. ed [fús ready, prompt, quick]. I. v. intrans. To hasten; fest&i-long;n&a-long;re :-- He ongan fýsan to fóre he began to hasten for the way, Cd. 138; Th. 173, 12; Gen. 2860 : Elen. Kmbl. 451; El. 226. II. v. reflex. To speed oneself, make haste, take oneself away, hasten away; se fest&i-long;n&a-long;re, prop&e-short;r&a-long;re, se abr&i-short;p&e-short;re :-- He ongan hine fýsan and to flote gyrwan he began speedily to prepare [lit. to speed himself and to prepare] for sailing, Andr. Kmbl. 3392; An. 1700. Gæ-acute;st hine fýseþ on écnegeard the soul hasteneth to an eternal mansion, Exon. 51 a; Th. 178, 7; Gú. 1240. He fýsde hine he hastened himself, 120 a; Th. 461, 9; Hö. 33. III. v. trans. To incite, stimulate, to send forth, drive away; st&i-short;m&u-short;l&a-long;re, inc&i-short;t&a-long;re, acc&e-short;l&e-short;r&a-long;re, emitt&e-short;re :-- Ðú here fýsest to gefeohte thou excitest the host to a battle, Andr. Kmbl. 2376; An. 1189. He fýsþ ðé of getelde emigr&a-long;bit te de tabern&a-long;c&u-short;lo, Ps. Lamb. 51, 7. He fýsde forþ flána genehe he sent forth arrows abundantly, Byrht. Th. 139, 44; By. 269. Fýse hí man út of ðysan earde let them be driven out of this country, L. Eth. vi. 7; Th. i. 316, 22 : L. C. S. 4; Th. i. 378, 8. [Laym. fusen, fuse, ifusen to proceed, rush, drive : O. Sax. fúsian to incline, strive : Icel. fýsa to exhort.] DER. a-fýsan : ge-fýsed.

fýsian, fésian to send forth, to drive away; rel&e-long;g&a-long;re :-- Ðonne fýsie hí man of earde let them then be driven from the country, L. E. G. 11; Th. i. 174, 1. v. fýsan.

FÝST, e; f. A FIST; pugnus :-- Fýst pugnus, Ælfc. Gl. 72; Som. 71, 3; Wrt. Voc. 43, 57. Gif men cídaþ and hira óðer hys néxtan mid ýste slicþ si rix&a-long;ti fu&e-short;rint v&i-short;ri et percuss&e-short;rit alter prox&i-short;mum suum pugno, Ex. 21, 18. On ðone eádgan andwlitan helfúse men hondum slógun, folmum areahtum, and fýstum eác wicked men struck on the blessed visage with their hands, with outstretched palms, and with fists also, Exon. 24 a; Th. 69, 24; Cri. 1125; Blickl. Homl. 23, 33; Mk. Bos. 14, 65. [Piers P. fust : Chauc : fest : R. Glouc. fustes, pl : Laym. uustes, fustes, pl. fists : Plat. fuust, fust, f : Frs. O. Frs. fest, f : Dut. vuist, f : Ger. faust, f : M. H. Ger. vúst, f : O. H. Ger. fúst,f : Dan. pust, n. a blow : Swed. pust, m. a blow with the fist, box on the ear : Icel. pústr, m. a box on the ear.]

fýst-gebeát, es; n. A blow with the fist; pugni ictus, Past. 1, 3, 6? Lye.

fýst-slægen; part. Struck with the fist; pugno cæsus :-- Fýstslægenu wæs exalap&a-long;r&e-long;tur, pugno cæsus erat, Cot. 79.

fyðer-, fiðer-, feðer- four-, found only in the compounds, - fyðer-dæ-acute;led, -féte, -hiwe, -ling, -ríca, -ríce, -scýte. v. feówer.

fyðera, fyðeru, fyðru, pl. nom. acc; gen. fyðera, fyðerena; dat. inst. fyðerum; n : also pl. nom. acc. fyðeras; m. Wings; &a-long;læ, pennæ :-- Fyðera [Lamb. fyðeras] culfran ofersylfrede pennæ c&o-short;lumbæ deargent&a-long;tæ, Ps. Spl. 67, 14. Sunu manna on wæ-acute;felse fyðera ðínra hihtaþ f&i-long;lii h&o-short;m&i-short;num in tegm&i-short;ne &a-long;l&a-long;rum tu&a-long;rum sp&e-long;r&a-long;bunt, Ps. Spl. 35, 8 : 56, 2 : 60, 4 : 62, 8. Under sceade fyðerena ðínra gescyld me sub umbra &a-long;l&a-long;rum tu&a-long;rum prot&e-short;ge me, Ps. Lamb. 16, 8. Under his fyðerum ðú trúwast oððe ðú gehihtest sub pennis ejus sp&e-long;r&a-long;bis, Ps. Lamb. 90, 4. Hwilc silþ me fyðera swá swá culfran quis d&a-short;bit mihi pennas s&i-short;cut c&o-short;lumbæ? Ps. Spl. 54, 6. Seó henn hyre cicenu under hyre fyðeru gegaderaþ gall&i-long;na congr&e-short;gat pullos suos sub &a-long;las, Mt. Bos. 23, 37. Ofer fyðeru [Lamb. fyðeras] winda s&u-short;per pennas vent&o-long;rum, Ps. Spl. 103. 4. He fleáh ofer fyðru winda v&o-short;l&a-long;vit s&u-short;per pennas vent&o-long;rum, Ps. Lamb. 17, 11. v. fiðere, es; n : but generally pl.

fyðer-dæ-acute;led; part. Divided into four, quartered; quadripart&i-long;tus, Leo. 151.

fyðered having wings; winged; &a-long;l&a-long;tus, Som. Ben. Lye.

fyðer-féte, -fóte; adj. Four-footed; quadr&u-short;pes :-- Fyðerféte nýten a four-footed animal, Med. ex Quadr. 1; Lchdm. i. 326, 11. Fyðerféte quadr&u-short;pes, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 26; Som. 11, 6. Ne on fyðerfótum ne on creópendum neither among the four-footed nor the creeping, Homl. Th. i. 486, 28. v. feówer-féte.

fyðer-hiwe; adj. Four-formed; quadriformis, Leo. 151.

fyðerling, es; m. The fourth part of a number or measure, a farthing; quadrans, Som. Ben. Lye. v. feórþling.

fyðer-ríca, an; m. A ruler over a fourth part, tetrarch; tetrarches, tetrarcha, æ; m. = τετρ&alpha-tonos;ρχηs, oν; m :-- Ða sind gecwedene tetrarche, ðæt sind, fyðerrícan; fyðerríca biþ se ðe hæfþ feórþan dæ-acute;l ríces who are called tetrarchs, that is, rulers over a fourth; a tetrarch is he who has a fourth part of a kingdom, Homl. Th. i. 478, 21.

fyðer-ríca, es; n. A tetrarchy; tetrarchia, Som. Ben. Lye.

fyðer-scýte; adj. Four-cornered, quadrangular; quadrang&u-short;lus :-- Se arc wæs fyðerscýte the ark was quadrangular, Boutr. Scrd. 21, 3. v. feówer-scýte.

fýtung, e; f. A fighting, quarrelling; rixa :-- Ascúnige man swýðe fracodlíce fýtunga turpes rixæ adm&o-short;dum evitentur, L. Eth. vi. 28; Wilk. 122, 23. v. fítung, feohtan to fight.

fyxum fishes, Hexam. 11; Norm. 20, 5, = fixum, fiscum; dat. pl. of fisc.

G

G WHEN g is the last radical letter of an Anglo-Saxon word, and follows a long vowel or an r, it is often changed into h, but then the g is resumed when followed by a vowel; as, - Beáh a ring; gen. es; m. beáges of a ring; pl. beágas rings; burh a town; gen. e; f. burge of a town; beorh a hill; gen. es; m. beorges of a hill; pl. beorgas hills. The same change takes place after a short vowel in wah a wall; gen. wages. In the conjugation of verbs, in some cases; h is found taking the place of g; thus from belgan to be angry, bilhst, bilhþ; from ágan to own, áhte. 2. g is generally inserted between the vowels -ie, making -ige, -igende, etc. the first sing. pres. and part of verbs in -ian. Thus, from lufian to love, bletsian to bless, etc. are formed ic lufige I love, ic bletsige I bless, lufigende loving, bletsigende blessing. 3. In later English the place of the earlier g is often taken by y, sometimes by w; as, - Geár a year, dæg a day, dagas days. etc; morg(en) morrow, sorg = sorrow, etc. 4. The Anglo-Saxon Rune RUNE not only stands for the letter g, but for gifu a gift, because gifu is the Anglo-Saxon name of this Rune, v. gifu II. and RÚN.