This is page 362 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Bosworth/Toller. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 17 Jun 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.

GÁRA - GÁST

gára, an; m. A spear-man. v. frum-gára in frum-gár.

gára, an; m. [gár a dart, point] An angular point of land, a promontory, corner of land; &o-long;ra pr&o-long;m&i-short;nens, ang&u-short;lus :-- Ispania land is þrýscýte . . . án ðæra gárena líþ súþ-west, ongeán ðæt ígland, ðe Gades hátte the country of Spain is three-cornered . . . one of the corners lies south-west, opposite the island which is called Cadiz, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 24, 5.

gár-beám, es; m. The wood or handle of a javelin, a spear-shaft; cusp&i-short;dis hasta :-- Gárbeámes feng a spear-shaft's grasp, Cd. 155; Th. 193, 14; Exod. 246.

gár-berend, es; m. A javelin-bearer, soldier; hast&i-short;fer, t&e-long;l&i-short;fer :-- Grame gárberend the incensed javelin-bearers, Byrht. Th. 139, 30; By. 262. Gárberendra x hund ten hundred javelin-bearers, Cd. 154; Th. 192, 13; Exod. 231.

gár-céne; adj. Spear-bold, bold in arms; hastâ audax :-- Offa wæs gárcéne man Offa was a man bold in arms, Beo. Th. 3921; B. 1958.

gár-clife, an; f. Agrimony; agr&i-short;m&o-long;nia eup&a-short;t&o-short;ria :-- Genim ðas wyrte, ðe man agrimoniam, and óðrum naman gárclife nemneþ take this herb, which is named agrimony, and by another name garclive, Herb. 32, 1; Lchdm. i. 130, 3. Genim gárclifan take garclive, L. M. 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 266, 8. Gárclifan etan æ-acute;rende fúllíc getácnaþ to eat agrimony betokens a disagreeable message, Somn. 20; Lchdm. iii. 198, 24. v. agrimonia.

gár-cwealm, es; m. Spear-slaughter; nex t&e-long;lo patr&a-long;ta, cl&a-long;des :-- Se ðe eall geman gárcwealm gumena who all remembers the slaughter of men, Beo. Th. 4092; B. 2043.

Gár-Dene; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m. The spear-Danes, Danes who fought with spears, armed or warlike Danes; hast&a-long;ti D&a-long;ni :-- We Gár-Dena, in geárdagum, þeódcyninga þrym gefrunon we have heard of the renown of the Gar-Danes' great kings in days of yore, Beo. Th. 1; B. 1. He sæcce ne wéneþ to Gár-Denum he expects not warfare from the Gar-Danes, 1206; B. 601: 3717; B. 1856 : 4982; B. 2494.

gare yare, ready, finished; paratus, effectus :-- Wæs ðæt mynstre gare the monastery was finished, Chr. 656; Erl. 30, 19. v. gearo.

gár-faru, e; f. A martial expedition, v. faru III; turma hastifera :-- Þúfas wundon ofer gárfare the standards fluttered over the martial band, Cd. 160; Th. 199, 23; Exod. 342. Ne þearf him ondræ-acute;dan deófla stræ-acute;las, gromra gárfare he need not dread the shafts of devils, the armed band of the hostile, Exon. 98 a; Th. 49, 5; Cri. 781. [Or gárfaru flight of spears, cf. hægelfaru.]

gár-getrum, es; n. A troop armed with spears, javelins :-- Gárgetrum ofer scild-hreádan sceótend sendaþ flacor flángeweorc the spear-troop, the archers, send over the shields the quivering arrows, Exon. 17 b; Th. 42,

18; Cri. 674.

gár-gewinn, es; n. Spear-war; hast&a-long;t&o-long;rum pugna :-- Wæ-acute;ron þearle gelyste gárgewinnes they were very desirous of the spear-war, Judth. 12; Thw. 26, 3; Jud. 308. Ne læ-acute;t ðé ahweorfan grim gárgewinn let not the fierce javelin-strife turn thee away, Andr. Kmbl. 1915; An. 960.

gár-heáp, es; m. A spear-band, armed band; hast&i-short;f&e-short;ra turma :-- Hæfdon him beácen aræ-acute;red in ðam gárheápe they had a signal reared in the armed band, Cd. 160; Th. 198, 11; Exod. 321.

gár-holt, es; n. [holt lignum] A javelin-shaft, javelin; hastæ lignum, hasta :-- Ðæt ic ðé to geóce gárholt bere that I may bear the javelin-shaft for thy succour, Beo. Th. 3673; B. 1834.

gár-leác, es; n. [gár a spear, leác a leek : from its tapering acute leaves] GARLIC; allium :-- Gárleác allium, Ælfc. Gl. 41; Som. 63, 111; Wrt. Voc. 30, 59 : 286, 6. Genim gárleáces þreó heáfdu take three heads of garlic, L. M. 2, 32; Lchdm. ii. 234, 19. Gárleáces iii clufe three cloves of garlic, 3, 62; Lchdm. ii. 350, 8. Nim gárleáces gódne dæ-acute;l take a good deal of garlic, Lchdm. iii. 12, 15. Nim gárleác take garlic, L. M. 1, 47; Lchdm. ii. 118, 12 : 1, 58; Lchdm. ii. 128, 10 : 1, 63; Lchdm. ii. 138, 3 : 2, 56; Lchdm. ii. 276, 15. Wið gárleác gemenged mingled with garlic, L. M. 1, 31; Lchdm. ii. 72, 4. [Icel. geirlaukr.]

gár-mitting, -mittung, e; f. A meeting of spears or javelins, a battle :-- Ðæt hí beadoweorca beteran wurdon, on campstede, cumbolgehnástes, gármittinge [gármittunge, Th. 207, 3, col. 2] that they were the better [the victors] in works of war, on the battle-field, at the conflict of banners, at the meeting of javelins, Chr. 937; Th. 207, 3, col. 1; Æðelst. 50.

gár-níþ, es; m. A spear-battle, spear-war; hast&a-long;t&o-long;rum pugna :-- Geríseþ gárníþ werum spear-war is fitting for men, Exon. 91 a; Th. 341, 19; Gn. Ex. 128.

gár-ræ-acute;s, es; m. A rush of spears, battle, war, warfare; hast&a-long;rum imp&e-short;tus, prœlium :-- Ðæt gé ðisne gárræ-acute;s mid gafole forgyldon that ye buy off this warfare with tribute, Byrht. Th. 132, 46; By. 32.

gár-secg, -sæcg, es; m. [gár a spear, secg man]. I. a spear-man, the ocean; h&o-short;mo j&a-short;c&u-short;lo arm&a-long;tus, oce&a-short;nus. The myth of an armed man, - a spear-man is employed by the Anglo-Saxons as a term to denote the Ocean, and has some analogy to the personification of Neptune holding

his trident. Spears were placed in the hands of the images of heathen gods, as mentioned by Justin. - Per ea adhuc temp&o-short;ra r&e-long;ges hastas pro diad&e-long;m&a-short;te hab&e-long;bant, quas Græci sceptra dix&e-long;re. Nam et ab or&i-long;g&i-short;ne r&e-long;rum, pro diis immort&a-long;l&i-short;bus v&e-short;t&e-short;res hastas colu&e-long;re; ob cujus religi&o-long;nis mem&o-short;riam adhuc de&o-long;rum simulacris hastæ adduntur, l. xliii : c. iii :-- Úre yldran ealne ðysne ymbhwyrft ðyses middangeardes, cwæþ Orosius, swá swá Oceanus ymbligeþ útan, ðone man gársecg háteþ, on þreó todæ-acute;ldon our forefathers, said Orosius, divided into three parts, all the globe of this mid-earth, which the ocean that we call Garsecg, surrounds, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 15, 2-4. Asia is befangen mid Oceanus - dæm gársecge - súþan, and norþan, and eástan Asia is encompassed by the ocean - the garsecg - on the south, and north, and east, 1, 1; Bos. 15, 8. Be norþan ðæm beorgum, andlang ðæs gársecges, óþ ðone norþ-eást ende ðyses middangeardes, ðæ-acute;r Bore seó eá scýt út on ðone gársecg to the north of the mountains, along the ocean to the north-east end of this mid-earth, there the river Bore shoots out into the ocean, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 18, 5-7. Gársecges deóp the ocean's deep, Cd. 157; Th. 195, 24; Exod. 281. Gársecges begang the circuit of ocean, Andr. Kmbl. 1059; An. 530. II. a sea; m&a-short;re :-- And norþ óþ ðone gársecg, ðe man Cwén-Sæ-acute; hæ-acute;t and north to the sea, which is called the White Sea, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 18, 27. Fuglas cómon of gársecge &a-short;ves ex m&a-short;ri v&e-long;n&e-long;runt, Ps. Th. 104, 35. Út on gársæcge out in the sea, 96, 1.

gár-þræc, e; f. Attack of javelins, battle; hast&o-long;rum imp&e-short;tus, pugna :-- Æt gárþræce in the attack of javelins, Elen. Kmbl. 2369; El. 1186.

gár-þríst; adj. Spear-bold, daring with a spear; hastâ audax :-- Gúþ-heard, gárþríst warlike, spear-bold, Elen. Kmbl. 407; El. 204.

gár-torn, es; m. [torn anger] Spear-anger, rage of darts; &i-long;ra t&e-long;lis manifest&a-long;ta :-- Hí gártorn geótaþ gífrum deófle they shall pour the rage of darts upon the greedy devil, Salm. Kmbl. 291; Sal. 145.

garuwe, an; f. Yarrow; millef&o-short;lium, Herb. 90; Lchdm. i. 194, 4, MS. B. v. gearwe.

garwan ready, prepared, Chr. 1006; Erl. 140, 17, = geawwan; dat. def. of gearo, q. v.

gár-wíga, an; m. A spear-fighter, warrior; hast&a-long;tus bell&a-long;tor :-- Byrne ne meahte geongum gárwígan geóce gefremman the corslet could not afford aid to the young warrior, Beo. Th. 5341; B. 2674 : 5614;

B. 2811.

gár-wígend, es; m. A spear-fighter, warrior; hast&a-long;tus bellator :-- He úsic gárwígend góde tealde he accounted us warriors good, Beo. Th. 5275; B. 2641.

gár-wudu; gen. -wuda; m. Spear-wood, a javelin; hastæ lignum, hasta :-- Hie to gúþe gárwudu ræ-acute;rdon they raised the spear-wood to battle, Cd. 160; Th. 198, 20; Exod. 325.

gast a guest; hospes, Cot. 102. DER. gast-hof, -hús, -líc. v. gæst.

GÁST, gæ-acute;st, es; m. I. the breath; h&a-long;l&i-short;tus, sp&i-long;r&a-long;men :-- Ne ne is gást on múþe heora there is not breath in their mouth, Ps. Spl. 134, 17. Ðæt ic ofsleá eall flæ-acute;sc, on ðam ðe ys lífes gást that I may slay all flesh, in which is the breath of life, Gen. 6, 17. Mid gáste múþes his with the breath of his mouth, Ps. Lamb. 32, 6. Blæ-acute;de oððe gáste sp&i-long;r&a-long;m&i-short;ne, Hymn Surt. 43, 36. II. the spirit, soul, GHOST; sp&i-long;r&i-short;tus, an&i-short;mus, &a-short;n&i-short;ma :-- Gást sp&i-long;r&i-short;tus, Wrt. Voc. 76, 31. Se gást is hræd sp&i-long;r&i-short;tus promptus est. Mt. Bos. 26, 41 : Gen. 45, 27 : Num. 11, 25, 26 : Soul Kmbl. 17; Seel. 9. Nó man scyle his gástes lufan wið Gode dæ-acute;lan a man ought not to divide his spirit's love with God, Cd. 173; Th. 217, 11; Dan. 21 : Andr. Kmbl. 310; An. 155 : Salm. Kmbl. 131; Sal. 65. Hwyder ic gange fram gáste ðínum quo &i-long;bo a sp&i-long;r&i-short;tu tuo? Ps. Spl. 138, 6 : Num. 11, 17, 25 : Elen. Kmbl. 939; El. 471 : Exon. 35 a; Th. 113, 18; Gú. 159. Bidde ic weoroda God, ðæt ic gást mínne agifan móte I pray [thee] God of hosts, that I may give up my spirit, Andr. Kmbl. 2831; An. 1418; Salm. Kmbl. 110; Sal. 54 : Menol. Fox 340; Men. 171 : Elen. Kmbl. 958; El. 480. Gástas hwurfon, sóhton engla éðel souls departed, sought the home of angels, Andr. Kmbl. 1280; An. 640 : Exon. 100 a; Th. 375, 6; Seel. 134. Gásta weardas the guardians of spirits, Cd. 2; Th. 3, 25; Gen. 41. Gásta helm the protector of spirits, God, Cd. 86; Th. 107, 22; Gen. 1793. Arás Metodes þeów gástum togeánes the Lord's servant [Lot] arose towards the spirits [angels], 111; Th. 140, 30; Gen. 2430. Folc wæs afæ-acute;red, flódegsa becwom gástas geómre the folk was affrighted, the flood-dread seized on the sad souls, 166; Th. 206, 5; Exod. 447. Se hálga Gást the holy Ghost; Sp&i-long;r&i-short;tus sanctus, Mk. Bos. 13, 11 : Lk. Bos. 1, 15, 35 : 2, 25, 26 : Jn. Bos. 20, 22 : Elen. Kmbl. 2287; El. 1145. Se unclæ-acute;na gást the unclean spirit, Mt. Bos. 12, 43 : Mk. Bos. 1, 23 : 5, 13 : Lk. Bos. 4, 36 : Elen. Kmbl. 603; El. 302. Se werega gást the accursed spirit, the devil, Cd. 216; Th. 272, 27; Sat. 126. Werige gástas accursed spirits, devils, demons, Cd. 227; Th. 304, 15; Sat. 630. [Piers P. goost : Chauc. gost, goste : R. Brun. gaste : Laym. gæst, gast, gost : Orm. gast : Scot. gest a ghost, spirit : Plat. geest, m : O. Sax. gést, gást, geist, m : Frs. gæst : O. Frs. gast, iest, m : Dut. geest, m : Ger. M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. geist, m : Goth. gaisyan to be frightened : Dan. geist, m. f : Swed. gast, m. an evil spirit, ghost.] DER. æ-acute;rend-gást, cear-, ellen-, ellor-, geósceaft-, heáh-, helle-, wuldor-.