This is page 768 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Bosworth/Toller. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 09 Dec 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.

768 OR-WÉNE--ÓÞ.

Cd. Th. 134, 10; Gen. 2222. Wæ-acute;ron orwénan éðelrihtes, 191, 7; Exod. 211. Sindon gé firenum bifongne, feores orwénan, Exon. Th. 139, 27; Gú. 599. v. next word.

or-wéne; adj. with gen. I. not having ground for hope, without hope, despairing:--Biþ orwéne ðæt hé ne mæ-acute;ge ða bóte áberan desperet posse se emendationem perferre, L. Ecg. P. i. 4; Th. ii. 172, 23. Hé wearþ his lífes orwéne. Homl. Th. i. 86, 28. Hé læg his lífes orwéne, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 301: Glostr. Frag. 6, 18: Chart. Th. 339, 22. Hié ðæs écan lífes orwéne wæ-acute;ron, Blickl. Homl. 85, 27. Huí wæ-acute;ron orwéne hwæðer. . . , Ors. 4, 9; Swt. 192, 4. II. not giving ground for hope, desperate, despaired of:--Wenstú ðæt ic sceole sprecan to ðissum treówleásan men and tó ðissum orwénan drý (this desperate sorcerer), Blickl. Homl. 183, 32. Æt orwénum lífe when life is despaired of; in extremitate vitae, L. Ecg. P. i. tit. x; Th. ii. 170, 18. Wé ðá bútan orenum (orwénum ?) þingum mete þigdon ab securis nobis epule capiuntur, Nar. 24, 2. See preceding word.

or-wénness, e; f. Despair, hopelessness:--Ðonne biþ him seó orwénnys (desperatio illa) tó máran synne geteald, L. Ecg. P. i. 4; Th. ii. 172, 24. Hwí sprecst ðú mid swá micelre orwénnysse? Homl. Th. i. 534, 22. On orwénnysse his ágenre hæ-acute;le in despair of his own salvation, Ælfc. T. Grn. 17, 24. Woldon hý geteón in orwénnysse Meotudes cempan, Exon. Th. 136, 27; Gú. 547.

or-weorð, -wurð, es; n. Ignominy, shame:--Gefyl ansýne heora of orwurðe (ignominia), Ps. Spl. C. 82, 15. v. or-wirðu.

or-wíge; adj. I. defenceless, without power of fighting:--Orwíge inbellem, Wrt. Voc. ii. 45, 69: 111, 81. Ofsleán mé míne fýnd orwígne decidam merito ab inimicis meis inanis, Ps. Th. 7, 4. Saga hú ðú wurde ðus wígþríst ðæt ðú mec ðus fæste gebunde æ-acute;ghwæs orwígne (without any power of resisting), Exon. Th. 268, 18; Jul. 434. II. not liable to a charge of homicide, said of one who, under the circumstances mentioned in the following passages, caused a person's death, but was not exposed on that account to the consequences which usually followed homicide (cf. Icel. víg homicide):--Wé cweþaþ ðæt mon móte mid his hláforde feohtan orwíge (onwíge, MS. H.), gif mon on ðone hláford fiohte; swá mót se hláford mid ðý men feohtan (cf. Unicuique licet domino suo sine wita subvenire, L. H. I. 82, 3; Th. i. 590, 2). Æfter ðære ilcan wísan mon mót feohtan mid his geborene mæ-acute;ge, gif him mon on wóh on feohteþ. And mon mót feohtan orwíge, gif hé geméteþ óðerne æt his æ-acute;wum wífe, betýnedum durum oððe under ánre reón, oððe æt his dehter æ-acute;wum-borenre, oððe æt his swister, oððe æt his médder ðe wæ-acute;re tó æ-acute;wum wífe forgifen his fæder, L. Alf. pol. 42; Th. i. 90, 20-30. (Cf. L. H. I. 82, 4-8; Th. i. 590, 5-22.)

or-wircðed disgraced, cf, ge-oruuierdid traductus, Txts. 100, 990. Georuuyrde, 103, 2042. Georwyrðed traducta, Wrt. Voc. ii. 85, 14.

or-wirðlíc; adj. Ignominious, shameful:--God hine forlét in ðisse nyþerlícan worulde swá orwyrþlícne déþ þrowian, ðæt hé hine wolde in ðære heán worulde gelæ-acute;dan, Shrn. 123, 10.

or-wirðu, indecl.; -wirð, e; f. Ignominy, shame, dishonour:--Gefyl onsiéne heara mid orwyrðe imple facies eorum ignominia, Ps. Surt. 82, 17. Mé ðín dohtor hafaþ geýwed orwyrðu thy daughter hath shewn me dishonour, Exon. Th. 246, 29; Jul. 69.

or-yldu. v. or-ildu.

ós a divinity, god, the Anglo-Saxon form of a word whose existence in Gothic is inferred from a passage in Jornandes, 'Gothi proceres suos quasi qui fortuna vincebant non pares homines sed semideos, id est, Anses vocavere.' The Icelandic, which throws out n before s, as the Anglo-Saxon does (cf. Icel. gás: A. S. gós), has áss; pl. æsir, a term which has an application in the opening chapters of the Yngling Saga very similar to that attributed to anses among the Goths: Odin, Thor, and other personages of the Scandinavian mythology are the Æsir. Particularly apparently did the term refer to Thor, so that the proper name Ás-björn is used as the equivalent of Þor-björn. As the first part of Scandinavian proper names it occurs frequently, and it is in the same dependent character that it mostly, if not exclusively, is found in Anglo-Saxon and O. H. German. Thus Ós-beorn, Ós-lác, Ós-wine, Ós-weald preserve the word which is found in Ás-björn, Ás-lákr, Ás-mundr, and this is certainly the independent áss. The O. H. Ger. Ans-gár shews the same word. Whether ós in the sense of god occurs as an independent word is doubtful. It is the name of the Rune RUNE, which in the Runic poem is accompanied by the following verse:--

'Ós byþ ordfruma æ-acute;lcre spræ-acute;ce Wísdómes wraðu and witena frófur

And eorla gehwam eádnís and tóhyht.'

Runic pm. Kmbl. 340, 5-10; Rún. 4.

Kemble translates ós by mouth (as if the Latin word had been taken?), but if the verse is old, the reference might be to Woden. Cf. the account of Óðinn in the Yngfinga Saga: þar þóttust Ódins menn eiga ale traust, er hann var, c. 2. Óðinn var göfgastr af öllum, ok af honum námu þeir allir íþróttirnar: því at hann kunni fyrst allar ok þó fiestar. . . . Hann ok hofgoðar hans heita ljóðasmiðir, því at sfi íþrótt hófst af þeim í norðrlöndum, c. 6. See also c. 7, and Salm. Kmbl. p. 192: Saga mé hwá æ-acute;rost bócstafas sette? Ic ðe secge Mercurius ( = Woden) se gygand. Further in Lchdm. iii. 54, in a charm, occurs a genitive pl. ésa:--Gif hit wæ-acute;re ésa gescot, oððe hit wæ-acute;re ylfa gescot, oððe hit wæ-acute;re hægtessan gescot, nú ic wille ðín helpan. Ðis Ðis ðé tó bóte ésa gescotes, &c. . . . But though on the comparison of other forms, a nom. pl. és might be inferred for Ís, the change of vowel would not occur in the genitive, which should be ósa. Ésa would point to a singular és (cf. ést; Goth. ansts). The meaning however of the word is that given to ós. See Grmm. D. M. p. 22.

ósle, an; f. An ousel, blackbird:--Óslae merula, Txts. 78, 665: Wrt. Voc. ii. 114, 1. Ósle, i. 281, 17. [O. H. Ger. amsala, amisala: Ger. amsel.]

osogen=á-sogen (?):--Osogen wæ-acute;re sugillaretur [cf. wæ-acute;re forsocen (in margin forgnegen), sugillaretur, Hpt. Gl. 484, 68], Wrt. Voc. ii. 82, 23.

óst, es; m. (?) A knot, knob:--Óst nodus, Txts. 80, 688: Wrt. Voc. ii. 60, 66. Copses, óstes cippi, Hpt. Gl. 482, 61. Yfele treówes on óste yfel nægel oððe wecg on tó fæstnigenne ys male arboris nodo malus clavus aut cuneus infingendus est, Scint. 27. Of ðæ-acute;m óstum ðæs treówes flóweþ út swétes stences wæ-acute;te, Shrn. 67, 29.

oster-hláf, es; m. An oyster-patty:--Osterhláfas sint tó forbeódanne, Lchdm. ii. 210, 28. See Lchdm. iii. Glossary.

oster-scill, e; f. An oyster-shell:--Mid ostorscyllum gecnucud and gemenged, Lchdm. i. 338, 16.

Óst-Gotan; pl. The Ostrogoths:--Þeódoríc Óstgotona cyning, Shrn. 85, 26.

ðstig; adj. Knotty, rough, scaly:--Óstig gyrd scorpio, Wrt. Voc. i. 21, 17. Óstig nodosus, óstigre nodosa, óstigum nodosis, Hpt. Gl. 483, 66, 65, 57. Ósties, rúches nodosi, 482, 60. Óstie squamigeros, scabrosos, 464, 45. Þý óstihan nodosa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 93, 37.

óstiht; adj. Knotty, rough:--Óstihtum nodosi, Wrt. Voc. ii. 82, 2: 60, 65.

ostre, an; f. An oyster:--Ostre ostrea, Wrt. Voc. ii. 63, 71: i. 65, 67: ostrea vel ostreum, 77, 70. Ðonne cumaþ ða oftost of mettum and of cealdum drincan swá swá sindon cealde ostran and æpla, Lchdm. ii. 244, 2: Coll. Monast. Th. 24, 9. [From Latin.]

Óst-sæ-acute; the Baltic with the Cattegat, the water east of Denmark and of the Scandinavian peninsula as that on the western coast is called Westsæ-acute;, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 17, 3:-- Be norþan Súþdenum is ðæs gársecges earm ðe mon hæ-acute;t Ostsæ-acute;. . . Norþdene habbaþ be norþan him ðone ilcan sæ-acute;s earm ðe mon hæ-acute;t Óstsæ-acute;, Ors. l, 1; Swt. 16, 23-28. [Ger. Ost-see the Baltic: cf. Icel. fara á Austrveg, a phrase used of trading or piratical expeditions in the Baltic.]

ót-. v. óþ.

oter, otr, es; m. An otter:--Otr lutrus, Txts. 74, 585. Otor, Wrt. Voc. ii. 51, 18: lutria, i. 22, 49. Ottor sullus. 121, 51. Oter lutrius, i. 78, 15. Of oteres hole, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 418, 17. [Icel. otr: O. H. Ger. ottar, oter.]

oter-hola, an; m. An otter's hole:--Of ðam oterholan, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iii. 23, 30.

óþ; prep, I. with dat. (l) local, marking a point reached, to, unto, as far as:--Fram eástdæ-acute;le óþ westdæ-acute;le, and fram súþdæ-acute;le óþ norþdæ-acute;le, Gen. 28, 14. (2) referring to time, until:--Fram Davide óþ Daniele ðam wítegan, Ælfc. T. Grn. 7, 13. (3) marking extent, degree, so much as:--Nis se ðe dó gód, nis óþ ánum (usque ad unum), Ps. Spl. 13, 2: 52, 4. II. with acc. (l) local, marking a point reached, to, up to, as far as:--Óþ eorþan endas, Deut. 28, 64: Ps. Th. 71, 8. Ðú nyðer færst óþ helle, Mt. ll, 23. Hé him æfter rád óþ ðæt geweorc, Chr. 878; Erl. 80, 15. Hé him æfterfylgende wæs óþ v míla tó ðære byrig Cartanense ad quintum lapidem a Carthagine statuit, Ors. 4, 5: Swt. 168, 32: 3, 4; Swt. 104, 2: 4, 10; Swt. 194, 7. Óþ Eufraten, Cd. Th. 133, 6; Gen. 2206. (l a) in phrases marking extent, degree or measure:--Óþ ðæt eatenus vel eotenus, Wrt. Voc. i. 61, 30. Óþ hielt capulo tenus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 19, 7. Óþ ða hylta, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 48, 7. Hí druncan óþ ða drosna usque ad feces biberunt, Som. 47, 45. Oþ mannes breóst heáh as high as a man's breast, Blickl. Homl. 127, 6: 245, 33. Hié ðæt gild gefyldan eal óþ grund, 221, 33. Ðæt hí óþ forwyrd fordiligade ne wæ-acute;ron, Bd. l, 16; S. 484, 17. Se Ægipta slóh frumbearn æ-acute;ghwylc ealra óþ ða nýtenu (down to the very beasts), Ps. Th. 134, 8. Seóð ðonne óþ huniges þicnesse, Lchdm. ii. 30, 7. (2) temporal, until, to, unto:--Oacute;þ ðisne dæg usque in praesentem diem, Gen. 32, 4. Óþ ðás dagas, Ex. 9, 18. Nú óþðis hactenus, Bd. 4, 22; S. 591, 15: Blickl. Homl. 175, 12. On ðære hwíle óþ ðæt up to the present time, Homl. Skt. i. 4, 265. Óþ æ-acute;fen usque ad vesperum, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 47. 46. Óþ ende his lífes, Blickl. Homl. 21, 36. Óþ ðone deáþ, 59, 30. Óþ ðæt until:--Óþ ðæt (donec) hé forgite ða þing ðe ðú him dydest, Gen. 27, 45: Beo. Th. 4084; B. 2039: Andr. Kmbl. 535; An. 268. Óþ ðæt hiene án swán ofstang, Chr. 755; Erl. 48, 22. Ót ðet donec, Ps. Surt. 70, 18. Óþ ðe until:--Fóron forþ óþ ðe hié cómon tó Lundenbyrig, Chr. 894; Erl. 91, 13. Óþ ðe hé eall forweorðeþ, Ps. Th. 139, ll: Beo. Th. 1302; B. 649. (2 a) with other prepositions:--Óþ in ældu usque in senecta, Ps. Surt. 70, 18. Ðá gestód hé æt ánum éhþyrle óþ forþ nihtes, Homl. Th. ii. 184, 27. Óþ tó dæge usque hodie, Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 27. Óþ gyt tó