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ÞEARF - ÞEARLE

þearf. v. þurfan.

þearfa; adj. I. destitute of, needing (with gen.) :-- Hrægles þearfa ic wreó mé wæ-acute;da leásne, Cd. Th. 53, 25; Gen. 866. [Goth. þarba (with gen.).] II. the word is generally used substantively, a needy, poor person :-- Ðearfa pauper, wædla egenus, Wrt. Voc. i. 74, 21. Ðá sæt ðæ-acute;r sum þearfa æt ðæm burggeate, Blickl. Homl. 213, 32. Ðá sæt ðæ-acute;r sum blind þearfa, 15, 16. Ná ðæt án ðæt hé wolde mann beón, ac eác swylce hé wolde beón þearfa for ús, Homl. Th. i. 140, 10. Fela sind ðearfan þurh hafenleáste ... Sind óðre ðearfan on gáste ... on ðás wísan wæs Abraham ðearfa, and Dauid, se ðe hine sylfne geswutelode þearfan on gáste, þus cweðende: 'Ic eom wædla and þearfa.' Ða módigan rícan ne beóþ þearfan ne þurh hafenleáste ne on gáste, 550, 2-11. Nafa ðú nánes þearfan wedd mid ðé nihtlangne fyrst, Deut. 24, 12. Gefyllan ðæs þearfan wambe, Blickl. Homl. 39, 29. Mec mon biþeahte mid þearfan wæ-acute;dum (with the garments of a pauper), Exon. Th. 87, 10; Cri. 1423. Se biscop næ-acute;re miltsiende nánum Godes þearfan, Blickl. Homl. 45, 2. Ða gástlícan þearfan (ðaerfe, Lind.) pauperes spiritu, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 3. Eádige sind gé þearfan on gáste, Lk. Skt. 6, 20. Gener ðearfena refugium pauperi, Ps. Spl. 9, 9. Ðearfena and earmra manna inopum, Bd. 3, 6; S. 528, 17. Ic sylle ðearfum (pauperibus) healfe míne æ-acute;hta, Lk. Skt. 19, 8. Syllan þearfon (egenis), Jn. Skt. 12, 5. Him gebyrode tó ðám þearfon (ðorfum, Lind.: ðarfum, Rush.), 12, 6. Ðæt hé dæ-acute;lde þearfum and wædlum, Homl. Skt. ii. 26, 59. Þearfum matriculariis (matricularius a poor person supported by a church), Wrt. Voc. ii. 86, 50: 57, 1. Þearfum pauperculis, miseris, Hpt. Gl. 458, 13. Hé démeþ fyrhte þearfan swylce hé þearfena bearn hæ-acute;leþ judicabit pauperes, et salvos faciet filios pauperum, Ps. Th. 71, 4. Þearfan ic læ-acute;rde, ðæt hié heora wædle gefeán hæfdon, Blickl. Homl. 185, 17. Ic læ-acute;re ge ða welegan ge þa þearfan, 107, 12. ¶ Besides enjoining almsgiving the church directly assisted the poor by assigning a certain proportion of the tithes to those whom it called Godes þearfan. Thus in general terms it is said :-- Wé willaþ myngian freónda gehwylcne, ðæt hí Godes þearfan fréfrian and fédan, L. Eth. vi. 46; Th. i. 326, 24; and in reference to tithe :-- Þridda dæ-acute;l ðare teóðunge, ðe tó circan gebyrige, gá Godes þearfum and earmum þeówetlingum, ix. 6; Th. i. 342, 9: in return the poor were exhorted to intercede for the people whose alms they received :-- Wé læ-acute;raþ, ðæt preóstas, þonne hí ða ælmessan ðæ-acute;lan, ða þearfan georne biddan, ðæt hig for ðæt folc þingian, L. Edg. C. 56; Th. ii. 256, 11. From other sources the poor derived benefit; certain fines were devoted to their use :-- Gebéte hé .xxx. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., and sié ðæt feoh gedæ-acute;led ðæ-acute;m þearfum, ðe on ða[m] tún[e] synd, L. Ath. prm.; Th. i. 198, 12. Gif feohbót áríseþ, ðæt gebyreþ rihtlíce ... tó þearfena hyððe, L. Eth. vi. 51 ; Th. i. 328, 6. [Ego egenus et pauper sum, þet is: Ic em þarna and wrecche, O. E. Homl. i. 115, 8. Goth. þarba a poor person.] v. ofer-, weoruld-þearfa; þorfa.

þearfan; p. de; pp. ed To need, suffer need :-- Nú ðú ðæt swá openlíce ongiten hæfst, ne þearfe ic nú náuht swíþe ymbe ðæt swincan, Bt. 35, 3; Fox 158, 8. Úre ceaster is þearfende ... wé þoliaþ ðone heardestan hungor, Ap. Th. 9, 7. Ðú, þíne þearfende thou, needing food (? v. þigen, II), Cd. Th. 149, 25; Gen. 2480. Ðæt ðú miltsige mé þearfendum, Exon. Th. 269, 13; Jul. 449. Ic ðé biddan wille miltse ðínre mé þearfendre, Judth. Thw. 22, 29; Jud. 85. Wé ðearfende þearle syndon pauperes facti sumus nimis, Ps. Th. 78, 8. Ða ðe hira hláf sellaþ ðæ-acute;m synfullum ðe ðearfende beóþ, nalles for ðæm ðe hié synfulle beóþ ac for ðæm ðe hié menn beóþ and ðearfende beóþ qui indigenti etiam peccatori panem suum, non quia peccator, sed quia homo est, tribuit, Past. 44; Swt. 327, 8. ¶ The present participle, as adjective or as substantive, often occurs, (1) as adjective, indigent, needy, poor :-- Hé sæ-acute;de ðæt hé folclíc man wæ-acute;re and ðearfende rusticum se et pauperem fuisse respondit, Bd. 4, 22; S. 591, 6. Widua ðiós ðærfen[de] (ðorfende, Rush.) uidua haec pauper, Mk. Skt. Lind. 12, 43. On ðearfendum lífe and on earmlícum in humili et paupere vita, Bd. 4, 13; S. 582, 23: 1, 15; S. 484, 7. Of ðearfendum folce de paupere vulgo, 4, 22; S. 591, 34. Ða ðearfendan láfe Brytta pauperculae Brittonum reliquiae, 1, 13; S. 481, 41. Æ-acute;nig gemynd þearfendra manna, Blickl. Howl. 69, 10. Brec ðínne hláf þearfendum mannum, 37, 20: 75, 23: 109, 14. Ðæt hé sealde sum þping þearfendum mannum (egenis), Jn. Skt. 13, 29. (2) as substantive, (a) a poor person; mostly in plural, the poor :-- Ðone þearfendan áreccan erigens pauperem, Ps. Th. 112, 6. Eádge biðon ða ðærfendo (ðorfendo, Lk. Skt. Lind. 6, 20) beati pauperes, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 5, 3. Þearf endra béne orationes pauperum, Ps. Th. l01, 15: 108, 30. Hleó ðarfendra refugium pauperum, Rtl. 40, 25. Hé þearfendra éhte persecutus est hominem pauperem, Ps. Th. 108, 16. Se ðe his æ-acute;hta þearfendum (pauperibus) gedæ-acute;leþ, 111, 8. Ðearfendum, Past. 44; Swt. 327, 20. Ðarfendum egenis, Lk. Skt. Rush. 12, 5. Þearfendum and ælþeódigum peregrinis et egentibus, Cod. Dip. B. i. 155, 5. Hé fédde þearfende, Homl. Skt. ii. 31, 53. Ða þearfendan Drihten gehýreþ, Ps. Th. 68, 34.(b) a miserable person :-- Biþ ðæt þridde þearfendum (the wicked) sorg, Exon. Th. 79, 4; Cri. 1285. [Goth. ga-þarban maté &alpha-tonos;π&epsilon-tonos;χεσθαι βρωμ&alpha-tonos;των, 1 Tim. 4, 3: O. H. Ger. darbén carere.] v. be-, mete-, weoruld-, wine-þearfende; þearfedness, þearfend-líc; þearfian.

þearfedness, e; f. Poverty :-- On wilsumlícre ðearfednesse voluntaria paupertate, Bd. 4, 3; S. 569, 3: Anglia x. 145, 163. Mid ðearfednesse ge mid heora ungelæ-acute;rednesse paupertate ac rusticitate sua, Bd. 4, 27; S. 604, 28. In ðearfednisse in paupertate, Ps. Surt. 30, 11.

þearfende. v. þearfan.

þearfend-líc; adj. Poor, (a) of persons, indigent, destitute :-- Monnes bearn (Guthlac in his hermitage) swá þearfendlíc, Exon. Th. 128, 11; Gú. 402. (b) of things, scanty, insufficient :-- Ðæt ðú ne forgite míne þearfendlícan gegirlan (cf. se fiscere tóslát his wæ-acute;fels on twá and sealde Apollonige ðone healfan dæ-acute;l, 11, 27), Ap. Th. 12, 8.

þearfian; p. ode To be in need :-- Hé þearfigendra sáwla gehæ-acute;leþ animas pauperum salvos faciet, Ps. Th. 71, 13. [Icel. þarfa; p. parfaði.] v. be-þearfaþ, ge-þearfian; þearfan.

þearf-leás; adj. Without having need or reason to do something. v. þearf, II, þurfan, II. 4 :-- Þearflæ-acute;s hé syrwde ymbe Crist he plotted against Christ, but he had no need to do it, Homl. Th. i. 82, 20. Ic ðearfleás (þearfleáse, Job. Thw. 166, 22) hine geswencte without having cause I afflicted him, ii. 452, 16. [Icel. þarf-lauss needless.]

þearfleáse; adv. Needlessly, without cause. v. preceding word.

þearf-líc; adj. I. necessary :-- Lá hú þearflíc hit is quanto magis, Hpt. Gl. 454, 6. Néd &l-bar; ðarflíc is necesse esse, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 18, 7. Ðarflíc &l-bar; néd is necessarium est, p. 13, 1. II. useful, profitable, v. þearf, V :-- Behóflíc &l-bar; ðarflíc utile, Mt. Kmbl. p. 13, 6. Hér is hálwendlíc lár and ðearflíc læ-acute;wedum mannum, Wulfst. 134, 9. Ðæt is þearflíc gewuna, 104; 17: 108, 19: L. Ath. v. 8, 9; Th. i. 238, 18. On gódum læ-acute;ce biþ gelang þearflíc broces bót, L. Pen. 9; Th. ii. 280, 13. Ðæt him ðearflíc næ-acute;re, ðæt hé ðæ-acute;s hálgan hæ-acute;se forhule his hláforde that it would not be well for him to conceal the saint's bidding from his lord, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 80. On gódan þeáwan and on þearflícan dæ-acute;dan, Wulfst. 121, 2. Sélre ús is and ðearflícre, ðæt wé úre gyltas andetton, 136, 1. Ðarflícro (ðaroflícra, Rush.) is utilius est, Lk. Skt. Lind. 17, 2. Swá swá him þincæ ðæt mæ-acute; þearfliicustþ sí, Chart. Th. 554, 36. [Icel. þarf-ligr useful.] v. beþearf-líc, nídþearf-líc.

þearflíce; adv. Usefully, profitably, with profit, to good purpose :-- Wé mihton ðás hálgan ræ-acute;dinge menigfealdlícor trahtnian, ac ús twýnaþ hwæðer gé magon máran deópnysse ðæ-acute;ron þearflíce tócnáwan whether you can with profit know the profounder parts of the subject, Homl. Th. i. 556, 15. Angan listum ymbe þencean þearflíce hú hé þider meahte Crécas oncerran, Met. 1, 60. [Icel. þarfliga usefully.]

þearflícness, e; f. Poverty, neediness :-- Þærflícnys paupertas, Hpt. Gl. 438, 60. Þerflícnes mendicitas, Kent. Gl. 950. On þearflícnysse in paupertate, Ps. Spl. 30, 13: Scint. 127, 18: 148, 2. Þearflícnysse hé ondrét paupertatem ueretur, 179, 8. Þearflícnysse lufian paupertatem diligere, Cod. Dip. B. i. 155, 7.

þearl; adj. (1) of persons, severe, strict :-- Se ðearla and se ryhtwísa Déma districtus judex, Past. 21; Swt. 167, 22. (2) of things, (a) pain, punishment, effort, and the like, severe :-- Hé ðý wyrs meahte þolian ða þráge, ðá hió swá þearl becom, Met. 1, 77. Þreánýd þearl, Elen. Kmbl. 1404; El. 704. Wæs seó ádl þearl, Exon. Th. 160, 30; Gú. 951. And suá ðý ðearlan dóme hé forleás his mennisce ut districto justoque judicio homo esse perderet, Past. 4; Swt. 39, 23. Heó þrowedon þearl æfterleán, Cd. Th. 5, 24; Gen. 76. Þreá wæ-acute;ron þearfe, Exon. Th. 135, 4; Gú. 519: Ps. Th. 104, 12: 149, 7. Wéndon hié wera cwealmes, þearlra geþinga, Andr. Kmbl. 3194; An. 1600. Ðirst and hungor and ðearle gewin, Salm. Kmbl. 946; Sal. 472. (b) utter, excessive :-- þýstru ðú gesettest on þearle niht (night utterly dark) posuisti tenebras, et facta est nox, Ps. Th. 103, 19.

þearle; adv. Severely, sorely, strictly, hard. This word, as does swíþe (q. v.), tends to become an adverb of degree rather than one of manner or quality; where it qualifies words denoting pain, effort, or the like, it may be considered as keeping much of its old force, but even there it is used to translate Latin words marking degree; while in the case of words which do not convey such an idea, it becomes equivalent to very, very much, exceedingly, and the like. I. where there is the idea of pain, trouble, etc. (α) where the idea of manner is more prominent :-- Þearle ys mé nú ðá, heorte ys onhæ-acute;ted matters go hardly with me now, my heart burns within me, Judth. Thw. 22, 30; Jud. 86. Se ðe his þeóden æ-acute;r þearfe geræ-acute;hte (severely wounded), Byrht. Th. 136, 29; By. 158. Hí fuhton ðearle they fought hard, Judth. Thw. 25, 16; Jud. 262: Chr. 937; Erl. 112, 23. Hí hungre wæ-acute;ron þearle geþreátod, Andr. Kmbl. 2231; An. 1117: Beo. Th. 1124; B. 560: Rood Kmbl. 103; Kr. 52. Ðis is ðeóstræ hám ðearle gebunden fæstum fýrclommum, Cd. Th. 267, 15; Sat. 38. Þearle hé démde tantopere taxaverat, Hpt. Gl. 454, 2. Ús stalu and cwalu ... derede swýðe þearle injured us very severely, Wulfst. 159, 11. Ðæt hé him ðonne ðearlur (districtius) déman scyle, Past. 53; Swt. 419, 5. (β) where the idea of degree is more prominent, very, very much, exceedingly, excessively :-- Sáwl mín gedréfed is ðearle anima mea turbata est valde, Ps. Spl. 6, 3. Geeádmét ic eom ðearle (nimis), 37, 8: Ps. Th. 78, 8. Þearle ic deorfe nimium laboro, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 13. Forþóht þearle (cf. swíþe unrót, Bt. 1; Fox 4, 4), Met. 1, 82. Ðæt folc wearð þearle geswenct mid ðam síðfate taedere coepit populum itineris ac laboris, Num. 21, 4: Ps. Th. 103, 8: Homl. i. 80, 14. II. where there is no idea of pain, trouble, etc., very, to a great degree, very much, to a great extent, exceedingly :-- Geðancas þearle deópe nimis profundae cogitationes, Ps. Th. 91, 4. Þearle mildheort multum misericors, 144, 8: Judth. Thw. 22, 23; Jud. 74. Swíðe gelýfed mann and ðearle eáwfæst, Homl. Th. ii. 306, 4. Ðú eall geworhtest þing þearle gód (cf. swíþe góde, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 128, 22), Met. 20, 45. Behéfe þearle utilis valde, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 27: 29, 31. Þearle deóplíce valde profunde, 32, 9. Þearle swíþe tó herienne, Lchdm. iii. 436, 18: 438, 27. Hé geíhte folc his ðearle (vehementer), Ps. Spl. 104, 22. Þearle fremaþ cræft mín eów multum prodest ars mea vobis, Coll. Monast. Th. 28, 7: Judth. Thw. 26, 3; Jud. 307. Ic ðé gemenigfilde swíþe þearle (vehementer nimis), Gen. 17, 2. Dríg swýþe þearle dry very thoroughly, Lchdm. i. 70, 10. Ðis godspel belimpþ swíðe þearle tó ðære mæ-acute;ran freólstíde this gospel belongs very specially to the great festival, Homl. Th. ii. 360, 10. Hig þearle etaþ nimium comedunt, Coll. Monast. Th. 26, 11. Gehwylc mé drincan sealde þearle each gave me abundance to drink, Exon. Th. 485, 1; Rä. 71, 7. Drinc swýþe þearle drink very largely, Lchdm. i. 78, 10. Hit on wolcnum oft þearle þunraþ, Met. 28, 25. v. for-þearle.