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ÞEÓSTRIAN - ÞEÓW

þeóstrian, þéstrian, þiéstrian, þístrian, þystrian; p. ode. I. to make dark or dim, to make the eye less capable of seeing, dim the sight :-- Se dæg bletit and ðióstraþ hiora eágan, Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 5. II. to grow dark or dim :-- His eágan þýstrodon caligaverunt oculi ejus, Gen. 27, 1: 48, 10. Ðýstrodan, Bd. 4, 10; S. 578, 19. Geseah ic onginnan ðýstrian ða stówe vidi obscurari incipere loca, 5, 12; S. 628, 10. Þa þestrede þe dai, Chr. 1135; Erl. 260, 32. Steorren sculen þeostren, O. E. Homl. i. 143, 20. Heó þeostreð (make dark) ham suluen, A. R. 94, 20. Aras a ladlich weder, þeostrede (þustrede, 2nd MS.) þa wolcne, Laym. 4575.] v. á-, for-, fore-, ge-, of-þeóstran (-þióstflan, -þéstrian, þiéstrian, -þístrian, -þýstrian).

þeóstrig; adj. Dark :-- All líchoma ðín ðióstrig (tenebrosum) biþ, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 23: Lk. Skt. Lind. 11, 34. Ðióstrig &l-bar; blind hearta caecatum cor, Mk. Skt. Lind. 8, 17. Ðurh ðrióstrie wegas per vias tenebrosas, Kent. Gl. 21.

þeóstru (sometimes written þr- instead of þ-) and þiéstru, þístru, þýstru; f.: and þeóstre, þýstre; n. [cf. O. Sax. thiustri; n.] Darkness (lit. and metaph.); dimness of sight (lit. or metaph.); like the Latin tenebrae, which it translates, it is often used in the plural :-- Ðæ-acute;r wæs deorc þeóstru, Ps. Th. 87, 6. Leóht and þeóstro, Cd. Th. 239, 27; Dan. 376. Þióstro, Met. 21, 41. Gif ðæt léht, ðætte in ðé is, þeóstru sint, ðæt þeóstre hú micel biþ, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 6, 23. On ðæt gemæ-acute;re leóhtes and þeóstro, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 170, 13. Mid þýstro genipum, Blickl. Homl. 203, 8: 209, 33. On ðýstres onlícnisse ... on leóhtes onlícnisse, Salm. Kmbl. p. 144, 30. For ðære egeslícan þióstro ðære nihte, Bt. 23; Fox 78, 29. Ne gæ-acute;þ hé on þeóstro, Blickl. Homl.103, 31. In þýstro, Exon. Th. 432, 10; Rä. 48, 4. Mid þýstro, Cd. Th. 148, 1; Gen. 2450. Wið eágena þýstru and genipe, Lchdm. i. 366, 13. On þeóstre, Exon. Th. 87, 11; Cri. 1423: 94, 27; Cri. 1546. Þeóf ðe on þýstre færeþ, on sweartre niht, 54, 22; Cri. 872. Mid þýstre, 462, 20; Hö. 55: 470, 12; Hy. 11, 14. Þeóstru tenebre, Wrt. Voc. i. 76, 48. Þeóstru wæ-acute;ron, Gen. 1, 2. Becómon ðicce ðeóstru, Homl. Th. ii. 194, 4. Swá dóþ ða þeóstro ðíne gedréfednesse, Bt. 6; Fox 14, 30. Beóþ þeóstra gewordene, Blickl. Homl. 93, 18. Ðære nihte þióstro hí onlíhtaþ, Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 5. Ðióstro, Jn. Skt. Lind. Rush. 6, 17. Gif ðæt leóht, ðe on ðé is, synt þýstru (ðióstræ, Lind.: þeóstru, Rush.), hú mycle beóþ ða þýstru (ðióstro, Lind.), Mt. Kmbl. 6, 23: Lk. Skt. 11, 35. Ðæt þýstro eów ne befón ut non tenebrae nos compraehendant, Jn. Skt. 12, 35: 1, 5. Æfter ðæ-acute;m clammum helle þeóstra, Blickl. Homl. 83, 22: Exon. Th. 143, 28; Gú. 668. Se beorhta dæg tódræ-acute;fþ ða dimlícan þeóstru ðære sweartan nihte ... Crist ús fram deófles ðeóstrum álýsde ... 'Uton áwurpan þeóstra weorc...,' Homl. Th. i. 604, 1-5. Ðara þióstra ðisse worulde, Bt. 36, 2; Fox 174, 26. Þýstra (ðióstrana, Lind. Rush.) anweald, Lk. Skt. 22, 53: 11, 36. Ðiéstra dæg and mistes, Past. 35; Swt. 245, 5. On þýstra bealo, Exon. Th. 76, 32; Cri. 1248. Þrýstra wræce, 37, 15; Cri. 593. Hé gedæ-acute;lde ðæt leóht fram ðám þeóstrum, Gen. 1, 4: Cd. Th. 8, 21; Gen. 127: Blickl. Homl. 65, 17. Þióstrum, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 30. Ðyóstrum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 8, 12. Mid ðæ-acute;m ðiéstrum (ðiétrum, Hatt. MS.) ðisses andweardan lífes ... on ðæ-acute;m ðístrum (ðiéstrum, Hatt. MS.), Past. 65; Swt. 64, 8, 12. Ðýstrum, Ps. Th. 106, 9. ¶ The acc. sing. and pl. are given together, as often the two cannot be distinguished :-- God hét ða þeóstra niht, Gen. 1, 5: Blickl. Homl. 17, 36. Ðeós India hæfþ on ánre sídan þeóstru, Homl. Th. i. 454, 14. On ða úttran þýstru (in þeóstra ðæt ýtterre, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 25, 30. Ðara deófla þeóstro hé oforgeát mid his leóhte, Blickl. Homl. 85, 8, 21. Áweorpan ða ðióstro his módes, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 166, 26: Met. 24, 56: Rtl. 37, 9. On ða úttran þýstro (in ðióstre ðæt ýtemæst &l-bar; ýterræ, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 22, 13: 8, 12. Þýstro (ðióstro, Lind.: ðióstru, Rush.) tenebras, Jn. Skt. 3, 19. Þístro, Bt. 3, 2; Fox 6, 10. Ðístro, Past. 56; Swt. 433, 13. Þýstru, Ps. Th. 103, 19. Þrióstre senna, Hy. 8, 28. [Of þeóstran de tenebris, O. E. Homl. i. 131, 12. Hit luveþ þuster and hateþ liht, O. and N. 230. O. Sax. thiustria; f.: thiustri; n.] v. carcern-, hinder-þeóstru.

þeóstrung, þýstrung, e; f. Darkness, gloom, obscurity :-- Hí on ðære þýstrunge hine swencton, Guthl. 5; Gdwin. 36, 14. Næhtes [ðió]strung noctis caliginem, Rtl. 182, 35.

þeótan and þútan; p. þeát, pl. þuton. I. to howl like a wolf :-- Wulf ðýtt lupus ululat, Ælfc. Gr. 22; Zup. 129, 1. Hwílum hí ðuton eall swá wulfas, Shrn. 52, 29: Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 36. Sume hí tó wulfum wurdon ... hió þióton ongunnon, Met. 26, 80. Ðeótende swá swá wolf, Homl. Th. i. 374, 9. Hwílum swá swá þeótende wulf, hwílum swá beorcende fox, Shrn. 141, 12. II. of other sounds :-- Þeótende murmurans, Germ. 399. 417. Hlówende, þútende bombosa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 126, 51. Ðære þútendan bombose, 11, 71. Him on gafol forlét ferðfriþende feówer wellan scíre sceótan on gesceap þeótan (or gesceapþeótan. ? v. gesceap, III, and þeóte. The passage describes a calf sucking from its mother; if þeótan is an infinitive, it must refer to the sound made by the milk coming from the teat, but perhaps gesceap-þeóte may be a compound noun meaning the teat), Exon. Th. 420, 2; Rä. 39, 4. [Bigunnen to þeoten and to &yogh;ellen alle þe untrume weren, Marh. 22, 29. Wummone wroð is wuluene ... ne deð heo bute þeoteð, A. R. 120, 12. &yogh;einde &yogh;urinde & þeotinde wið reowfule reames queruloso gemitu deplorantes, Kath. 161. Giff mann wollde tælenn þatt, and hutenn hire & þutenn, Orm. 2034. O. H. Ger. diozan stridere, fremere, strepere, mussare: Icel. þjóta to whistle (of the wind, etc.), to howl (of a wolf), to rush: Dan. tude to howl. Cf. Goth. þut-haurn, -haurnjan.] v. á-þeótan; ge-þeót, -þot, and next word.

þeóte, an; f. A pipe or channel through which water rushes :-- Þeóte canalis, Wrt. Voc. i. 38, 17: fistula, 39, 56. Of þeótan (þeóte, Wrt. Voc. ii. 76, 4, the passage glossed is the same) tubo, Hpt. G1. 418, 61. Þeótan organa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 64, 51: 97, 24. Þeótan, wæterþrúh cataractae, 13, 15. Ealle heofones þeótan wæ-acute;ron mid wætere gefylde, Wulfst. 206, 17. In stefne ðeótena (cataractarum) ðínra, Ps. Surt. 41, 8. Þeótum fistulis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 108, 67: 35, 59. Hé wundorlíce mid þeótum wæter út áteáh, Homl. Skt. ii. 27, 32. Hé ús ontýneþ heofenes þeótan, Blickl. Homl. 39, 31: 51, 11. [O. H. Ger. watar-dioza cataractae. Cf. Icel. þjótandi the name of an artery.] v. líc-, wæter-þeóte, and previous word.

þeów, es; þeówa, an; m. A servant; often with the stronger sense of slave; servus, famulus, mancipium :-- Ic Béda Cristes ðeów and mæsse-preóst Baeda famulus Christi et presbyter, Bd. pref.; S. 471, 7. Se ðe wyle betweox eów beón fyrmest, sý hé eówer þeów (ðeá &l-bar; ðegn servus, Lind.), Mt. Kmbl. 20, 27: 18, 16: 10, 24. Se Godes þeów the priest, Blickl. Homl. 49, 3. Metodes þeów (Abraham), Cd. Th. 146, 29; Gen. 2429. Dryhtnes þeów (Guthlac), Exon. Th. 121, 8; Gú. 285. Þegn and þeów þeódne mæ-acute;rum, 209, 3; Ph. 165. Þeów mancipium, Wrt. Voc. ii. 80, 31. Ðeówa servus, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Zup. 12, 18. Þeówa, Wrt. Voc. i. 50, 15. Cham biþ þeówena þeówa (servus servorum) his ge-bróðrum ... beó Chanaan Semes þeówa (servus), Gen. 9, 25-26. Wé synd ealle ðíne þeówas ... Sig se mín þeówa, ðe ðone læfyl forstæl, and fare gé frige, 44, 17-18. Ðú góda þeówa, Lk. Skt. 19, 17: Mt. Kmbl. 25, 23. Se yfela þeówa, 24, 48. Se hláford and se þeówa gelíce clypiaþ tó ðam heofonlícan Fæder, Homl. Th. ii. 326, 28. Gif óðer wyle Godes þeówa beón if one wishes to enter a monastery, L. Ecg. C. 25; Th. ii. 150, 28. Biþ hé deófles ðeówa, Homl. Th. i. 172, 20. Hé biþ ðæra æ-acute;hta ðeówa, 66, 7. Fram Gode hé is send, and hé is Godes þeówa, Blickl. Homl. 247, 19. Ðæs Godes þeówes synna, 49, 6. Moises gelíca mínes þeówes, Num. 12, 7. Ðæs þeówan hláford, Lk. Skt. 12, 46. Ic cweðe tó mínum þeówe (ðeua, Lind.), Mt. Kmbl. 8, 9. Geseoh hú ðás men ðínum ðeówe dóþ, Blickl. Homl. 229, 23: Ps. Th. 118, 49. Gecum tó mínum ðeówan Saulum, Homl. Th. i. 386, 19: Exon. Th. 157, 19; Gú. 894. Ðissum ðeá (famulo) ðínum, Rtl. 103, 13. Ðiosne ðeá hunc famulum, 97, 4. Sec ðínne þeów, Drihten, Blickl. Homl. 87, 31. Ðone unnyttan þeówan, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 30: Homl. Th. i. 64, 17: ii. 578, 26. Wit syndon Cristes þeówas, Blickl. Homl. 187, 32: Wulfst. 157, 19. Eálá gé míne ðeówan beóþ getreówe o mea mancipia, estote fideles, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Zup. 102, 3. Ðeás servi, Mt. Kmbl. p. 18, 7. Ða þeówan drincaþ medo, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 20, 17. Micel menigu Godes ðeówa (ðiówa, Hatt. MS.), Past. pref.; Swt. 4, 11. Wítniendra þiówa lictorum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 52, 77. Seó myccle menigo heora þeówa, Blickl. Homl. 99, 34. Ðæra þeówa (ðeána, Lind.) hláfurd, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 19. Án ðæs bisceopes þeówena, Jn. Skt. 18, 26: Wulfst. 199, 22. Ðæ-acute;m earmestan Godes þeówum, ðe ða cyrican mid godcundum dreámum weorþiaþ, Blickl. Homl. 41, 26. Ðá clypode hé his týn þeówas, Lk. Skt. 19, 13. Ðeá ðíno famulos tuos, Rtl. 100, 22: 170, 31. Ðiúwas (ða ðiówe, Rush.) ancillas, Lk. Skt. Lind. 12, 45. ¶ Slavery, which is mentioned by Tacitus (Germania, cc. 24, 25) as existing among the Germans, is recognized by the earliest English laws, and early traces of it are to be found in the English slaves whom Gregory saw at Rome. It was a condition that was due to many causes. The fortune of war might put life and liberty at the disposal of another, as in the case of the Northumbrian, Imma, who, falling into the hands of a hostile Mercian, was by him sold to a Frisian, Bd. 4, 22. Kidnapping, to judge by Theodore's Penitential, was not unknown: Si quis Christianus alterum Christianum vagantem reppererit, eumque furatus fuerit, ac vendiderit, Th. ii. 50, § 5; and cf. Earme men beswicene and hreówlíce besyrwde, and út of ðisan earde gesealde swýðe unforworhte fremdum tó gewealde, Wulfst. 158, 13. Freedom might be forfeited as the punishment of crime; e. g. Gif hwá stalie on gewitnesse ealles his hírédes, gongen hié ealle on þeówot .x.-wintre cniht mæg bión þiéfðe gewita, L. In. 7; Th. i. 107, 16; and cf. Wulfst. 158, 14. Gif se frigea on Sunnandæg wyrce, þolie his freótes, L. In. 3; Th. i. 104, 6. See also L. Eth. vii. 16; Th. i. 332, 18. v. wíte-þeów. Again, the power which one relative had over another was at times exercised to enslave the latter. A child of less than seven years might, in case of need, be sold by its father: Se fæder his sunu, gif him mycel neód byþ, hé hine mót on þeówet gesyllan óð ðæt hé biþ .vii. winter; ofer ðæt, bútan ðæs suns willan, hé hine ne mót syllan, L. Ecg. C. 27; Th. ii. 152, 17: L. Th. P. 19, 28; Th. ii. 19, § 28. Cf. L. Alf. 12; Th. i. 46, 12. The sale of kindred is elsewhere, and not without occasion, denounced: Gif hwylc cristen man his ágen bearn, oððe his néhstan mæ-acute;g wið æ-acute;nigum wurðe sylle, næbbe hé nánne gemánan mid cristenum mannum, æ-acute;r hé hine álýsed hæbbe of ðam þeówdóme, L. Ecg. P. 26; Th. ii. 212, 8; cf. Wé witan ful georne, hwæ-acute;r seó yrmþ gewearð, ðæt fæder gesealde bearn wið weorðe, and bearn his módor, and bróðor óþerne fremdum tó gewealde, Wulfst. 161, 6. Further, slavery was at times entered into voluntarily; such cases seem contemplated in Theodore's Penitential: Homo .xiii. annorum sese potest servum facere, Th. ii. 19, § 29; and that such cases did occur may be seen from the following passage: Geatfleda geaf freóls ... ealle ða men ðe heó nam heora heáfod for hyra mete (cf. On .xii. mónðum ðú scealt sillan ðínum þeówan men .vii. hund hláfa and .xx. hláfa, búton morge[n]metum and nónmetum, Salm. Kmbl. p. 192, 18) on ðám yflum dagum, Chart. Th. 621, 9. And besides the causes enumerated there was that which must have been the most efficient-birth; the child of slaves was itself a slave: cf. the phrase in the document last cited, in which freedom is given to certain persons and to 'eall heora ofsprinc, boren and unboren.' See also þeów-boren. The terms used in connection with the slave shew him to be the property of his master: Gif þeúw stele and hine man ácwelle, ðam ágende hine man healfne ágelde, L. Wih. 27; Th. i. 42, 20. Gif hwylc man his æ-acute;ht (servum) ofslyhþ, L. Ecg. P. ii. 3; Th. ii. 182, 29: L. M. I. P. 11; Th. ii. 268, 9. Wéron ðæ-acute;r ðreó wíteþeówe men búrbærde and ðreó ðeówberde; ða mé salde bisceop tó ryhtre æ-acute;hta, and hire teám, Chart. Th. 152, 22. Bought and sold like an animal, his treatment in other respects was that of an animal. Tacitus (Germania, c. 25) had remarked that the Germans often killed their slaves on the impulse of passion, and that it was done with impunity. The sane might be said of the English: Gif hwylc malt his æ-acute;ht (servum suum) ofslyhþ, and hé náne gewitnysse næbbe ðæt hé forworht sig, bútan hé hine for his hátheortnesse and for gýmeleáste ofslihþ, L. Ecg. P. ii. 3; Th. ii. 182, 29: L. M. I. P. 11; Th. ii. 268, 9: L. Th. P. 21, 12; Th. ii. 23, § 12. Gif hwylc wíf for hwylcum lyþrum andan hire wífman swingþ, and heó þurh ða swingle wyrð deád, and heó unscyldig biþ, L. Ecg. P. ii. 4; Th. ii. 182, 32: L. M. I. P. 12; Th. ii. 268, 11: L. Th. P. 21, 13; Th. ii. 24, 1. The inferiority of the slave is marked in many ways by the law. The price of redemption in the case of the þeów who stole was seventy shillings, L. Wih. 27; Th. i. 42, 20; in the case of the free man it was 120 shillings, L. Ath. i. 1; Th. i. 198, 23. Ðeówæs wegreáf sé .iii. scillingas, L. Ethb. 89; Th. i. 24, 16; in the case of the ceorl it is six shillings, 19; Th. i. 8, 1. Gif þeów steleþ, .ii. gelde gebéte, 90; Th. i. 24, 17. Gif frigman fréum stelð, iii. gebéte, 9; Th. i. 6, 2. So, too, in the matter of punishments; where the freeman can pay a fine, the slave pays with his hide, i.e. is scourged; see L. In. 3; Th. i. 104, 2: L. E. G. 7; Th. i. 172, 1: 8; Th. i. 172, 6: L. C. S. 45; Th. i. 402, 15: L. In. 13: 15; Th. i. 40, 7, 11. Gif þeów man fúl wurðe ... swinge hine man þriwa, L. Ath. i. 19; Th. i. 208, 22. Or mutilation was inflicted, where a freeman was fined, L. Alf. pol. 25; Th. i. 78, 14. The manner in which the punishment of death was executed was an ignominious one-stoning by slaves, L. Ath. iii. 6; Th. i. 219, 13: v. 6, 3; Th. i. 234, 8. The slave could not be vouched to warranty, L. In. 47; Th. i. 132, 5; and he was not allowed the holidays given to freemen, L. Alf. pol. 43; Th. i. 92, 3. Three days, however, in the year were granted, the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday before Michaelmas: Sit omnis servus liber ab opere illis tribus diebus, quo melius jejunare possit, et operetur sibimet quod vult, L. Eth. viii. 2; cf. Wulfst. 181, 18; and one of Alfred's laws speaks of fragments of time in which it was possible for the slave to earn something: Æ-acute;ghwæt ðæs ðe ðeówum monnum æ-acute;nig mon for Godes noman geselle, oþþe hié on æ-acute;negum hiora hwílsticcum geearnian mægen, L. Alf. pol. 43; Th. i. 92, 12. It was thus possible for a slave to acquire property, and the church endeavoured to render his possession secure: Ne biþ álýfed æt ðam þeówan his feoh tó nimanne, ðæt hé mid his swynce begiteþ, L. Ecg. P. Addit. 35; Th. ii. 238, 6: L. Th. P. 19, 30; Th. ii. 19, § 30. Throughout the influence of the church seems to have been exerted in favour of the slave. The sale of slaves into heathen lands was denounced: Gif hwá cristene man on hæ-acute;ðendóm sylle, se ne biþ wurðe æ-acute;nigre reste mid cristenum folce, bútan he gebycge eft hám ongeán, ðæt hé út sealde, L. M. I. P. 43; Th. ii. 276, 20; see, too, L. Th. P. 42, 3, 4; Th. ii. 50, §§ 3, 4: L. Ecg. E. 150; Th. ii. 124, 2: and probably freedom was not unfrequently granted at the suggestion of the church. Cf. such expressions as: Geatfleda geaf freóls for Godes lufa and for heora sáwla þearfe, Chart. Th. 621, 3. Ðá freóde Folcerd Agelwine his man and his ofspring Criste tó lofe and Sca Maria, and his sáwle áliésednisse, 634, 20. Cf. too, L. Wih. 8; Th. i. 38, 15, and L. In. 3; Th. i. 104, 2. Gif þeów mon wyrce on Sunnandæg be his hláfordes hæ-acute;se, sié hé frioh. To the same effect is L. C. S. 45; Th. i. 402, 18: Gif hláford his þeówan freólsdæge nýde tó weorce, þolige ðæs þeówan, and beó hé syþþan folcfrig. See on the question of slavery Kemble's Saxons in England,' i. c. 8, Andrews' Old English Manor, c. 3, Grimm's R. A., pp. 300 sqq. [Goth. þius; pl. þiwós; m.: O. H. Ger. deo: Icel. þý; n.] v. efen-, níd-, under-, weorc-, wíte-þeów; lád-teów, and following words.