This is page 1076 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

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ÞUNOR - [ÞURFAN;]

þunor (-ar, -er, -ur), es; m. I. thunder (implying not only sound but also striking); tonitrus, fulmen :-- Þunor tonitruum vel tonitrus, Wrt. Voc, i. 52, 45: 76, 34: Blickl. Homl. 91, 34. Ðuner (ðunor, Rush.), Jn. Skt. Lind. 12, 29. Ðunar byð hlúdast, Menol. Fox 467; Gn. C. 4. Ðunor cymð of hæ-acute;tan and of wæ-acute;tan ... seó hæ-acute;te and se wæ-acute;ta winnaþ him betweónan mid egeslícum swége, and ðæt fýr ábyrst ús ðurh lígett ... Swá háttra sumor, swá mára ðunor and líget on geáre. Ða þuneras (þunras, MS. R.) ... on Apocalipsin ... ne belimpaþ tó ðam ðunere (þunre, MS. R.) ðe on ðyssere lyfte oft egeslíce brastlaþ. Se byp hlúd for ðære lyfte brádnysse, and frecenfull for ðæs fýres sceótungum, Lchdm. iii. 290, 2-15. Þunor tóslóg heora godes hús aedes Salutis ictu fulminis dissoluta est, Ors. 4, 2; Swt. 160, 18. Án þonor tóslóg hiora Capitoliam fulmine Capitolium ictum, 6, 14; Swt. 268, 29. Hiene ofslóg in þunor fulmine ictus interiit, 6, 29; Swt. 278, 17. Ðunres bearn filii tonitrui, Mk. Skt. 3, 17. Þunres slege a clap of thunder. Nicod. 23; Thw. 13, 3. Þunres slege fulgura, Ps. Spl. T. 96, 4. Stefne ðunures micles, Rtl. 47, 22. God ásende rén mid ðunore, and manega mean mid ðam ðunore swulton, Homl. Skt. i. 15, 93. Beóþ myccle þuneras on heofnum, Blickl. Homl. 93, 15. Ðá sceolde hé sendan ðunras and lýgetu, Bt. 35, 4; Fox 162, 13. II. one of the Teutonic gods, to whom, among the Roman, Jupiter seems to have been considered most nearly to correspond; hence Jupiter is translated by Þunor :-- Þunor oððe Ðúr Joppiter, Wrt. Voc. ii. 47, 33. Þunor, 93, 59. Þuner Jovem, 112, 5. II a. it is mostly in connection with the fifth day of the week that the word occurs :-- On ðam fíftan dæge ðe gé Ðunres hátaþ, Hontl. Th. ii. 242, 23. Ðunres-dæges nama is of Iove, Anglia viii. 321, 16. On ðone Hálgan Ðunres-dæg, L. Alf. 5; Th. i. 64, 24. Tó ðam hálgan Þurres-dæge, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 621. Gang on Þunres-æ-acute;fen (Wednesday evening), Lchdm. ii. 346, 10. It is found also in local names, e.g. Ðunres-feld. Ðunres-leáh, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. vi. 342. [Þa Þunre heo &yogh;iuen þunres dæi (þoris dai, and MS.), Laym. 13929.] III. a thane of king Egbert of Kent :-- Ermenréd gestrýnde twégen sunu ða syððan wurðan gemartirode of Ðunore, Chr. 640; Erl. 26, 4. See for more details of the event thus recorded, Lchdm. iii. 422 sqq., and the Latin charter, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 236. [O. L. Ger. Thuner :-- Ec forsacho Thuner ende Uuóden: O. Frs. thuner, tonger; Thunres-dei: O. H. Ger. donar; Toniris tac: Icel. Þórr. See Grmm. D. M. c. 8.] v. þór, þúr.

þunor-bodu a gilthead (a kind of fish) :-- Ðunorbodu sparus, Wrt. Voc. i. 55, 71 (in a list 'nomina piscium').

þunor-cláfre, -clæ-acute;fre, an; f. Bugle; ajuga reptans (cf. Þundre clovere consolida media, Wrt. Voc. i. 140, 68, and consound in E. D. S. Pub. Plant Names) :-- Þis is seó æðeleste eáhsealf ... Genim ... ðunor-clæ-acute;fran blósman, Lchdm. iii. 4, 7. Ðunorcláfran, i. 374. 4.

þunor-líc; adj. Thunderous, of thunder :-- Þune[r]lícum cirme tonitruali fragore, Hpt. Gl. 451, 47.

þunor-rád, e; f. Thunder, a peal of thunder :-- Ne bip þæ-acute;r líget ... ne þunerrád (þunor, Wulfst. 139, 31) non fulmina, ... tonitru, Dóm. L. 16, 263. Ðá com þunerrád and légetsleht and ofslóh ðone mæ-acute;stan dæ-acute;l, Shrn. 57, 35. Ðá wæs geworden mycel þunorrád, Blickl. Hornl. 145, 29. Ðonne þunorrád biþ, ne sceþeð ðam men ðe ðone stán (agate) mid him hæfð, Lchdtn. ii. 296, 30: iii. 374, col. 2. From stefne ðunurráde (þunuráde, Spl.) a voce tonitrui, Ps. Surt. 103, 7: 76, 19. Þunur-ráda ðínre tonitrris tui, Ps. Spl. 76, 17. Hió áhóf ðæt heáfod of ðære mýsan somod mid ðære þunoráde, Lchdm. iii. 374, col. 2. Biddaþ Drihten, ðæt his þunorráda (tonitrua) geswícon, Ex. 9, 28, 33, 34. Gif lígette and ðunorráde (tonitrua) eorþan and lyfte brégdon, Bd. 4, 3; S. 569, 12. Þuneráda, Hpt. Gl. 509, 22. Ðunorráda hlynn, Wulfst. 186, 3. Mycel mægen liégetslyhta and þuneráda, Lchdm. iii. 374, col. 2. Gód wið lígetta and wið þunorráda, ii. 290, 16. Hé worhte þunorráda on heofonum intonuit de caelum Dominus, Ps. Th. 17, 13: Ex. 9, 23. [Cf. Icel. reið a clap of thunder, from the notion of Thor driving through the air. See Grmm. D. M. c. 8.]

þunorrád-líc; adj. Thunderous, of thunder :-- Of þunerádlícan cerme tonitruali fragore, Hpt. Gl. 451, 46.

þunorrád-stefn, e; f. A voice of thunder :-- Wæs þunurrádstefn strang on hweóle vox tonitrui tui in rota, Ps. Th. 76, 14.

þunor-wyrt, e; f. Thunder-plant (v. E. D. S. Pub. Plant Names), house-leek; sempervivum tectorum :-- Nime þunorwyrt, Lchdm. ii. 118, 2. [On plants that were a protection against thunder, see Grmm. D. M. pp. 167, 1147.]

þunres dæg. v. þunor, II a.

þunrian; p. ode To thunder :-- Hé is mægenþrymmes God and hé þunraþ ofer manegum wætertnn Deus majestatis intonuit, Dominus super multas aquas, Ps. Th. 28, 3. Hit ðunraþ tonat, Ælfc. Gr. 22; Zup. 128, 17. Hit hwílum þunraþ, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 44, 34: Met. 28, 55. Seó menio sæ-acute;don ðæt hyt þunrode (tonitruum factum esse), Jn. Skt. 12, 29. Þunerode of heofonum Drihten intonuit de coelo Dominus, Ps. Spl. T. 17, 15. [O. H. Ger. donarón.]

þunring, e; f. Thundering, thunder :-- Swá stór þunring and læ-acute;gt wes, swá ðæt hit ácwealde manige men, Chr. 1085; Erl. 219, 22.

þunring, e; f. A creaking, a rattle :-- Þununge crepitum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 21, 25. Þununga crepundiorum, 23, 64.

þun-wang, e: -wange, -wenge, an; f. (and n.? Wange, wenge are both found neuter, though also the plurals wangas, wangan occur) A temple :-- Þunwang timpus, Wrt. Voc. i. 42, 50. Þunwange tempus, 64, 32. Þunwencge (-wenge, -wange) timþus, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 32; Zup. 59, 5: 298, 2. Gif ic on þunwange gereste si dedero requiem temporibus meis, Ps. Th. 131, 4. Bufan his þunwengan supra tempus capitis ejus, Jud. 4, 21. Þunwonge tympora, Wrt. Voc. i. 282, 44. Þunwonga sár dolor timporum, ii. 143, 34: Lchdm. i. 156, 22. Þunwongena timporum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 87, 61. Þunwangena, Anglia xiii. 37, 291. Þunwængum (-wengum, Spl. C.) timporibus, Ps. Lamb. 131, 5. Ðunwoengum, Rtl. 181, 13. Þunwange malas, Wrt. Voc. ii. 57, 30. Smire ðone man mid on þa þunwonge, Lchdm. ii. 334, 15. Smyre ða ðunwonga, i. 216, 8. Gníd on ða þunwunge, 380, 15. Smire ða þunwangan mid, ii. 20, 8. Þunwongan, 306, 2. [Þungana, Lchdm. iii. 292, 22. Lay on the forheyd and on the thunwanges, Rel. Ant. i. 54, 26, 43 (quoted in Halliwell's Dict.). Thunwonge of mannys heede tempus, Prompt. Parv. 493. Thunwange tempus, Cath. Angl. 387, and see note. Thonwangnes, Wrt. Voc, i. 185, col. 2 (15th cent.). O. H. Ger. dun-wengi: Icel. þunn-wangi; m.; þunn-wengi; n.] v. (?) þynne and wange.

þúr, es; m. Thor, the god who most nearly corresponded to Jupiter; hence Jupiter is translated by Þúr :-- Þunor oððe Ðúr Joppiter, Wrt. Voc. ii. 47, 33. Þúres módur Latona, 53, 4. On Galienus dagum ðæs káseres hét Necetius Róme burge geréfa hí læ-acute;dan tó Þúres deófulgeldum, Shrn. 128, 9. Ðys godspel sceal on Þúres-dæg, Rubc. Jn. 7, 40. On Þúrs-dæg, Rubc. Jn. 5, 30. The word is found also in local names, e.g. Ðúres-leáh, Ðúrgártún, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. vi. 342. [A. R. þurs-dei.] v. Þunor, Þór.

þuren. v. ge-þuren.

[þurfan;] prs. ic, he þearf, ðú þearft, pl. wé þurfon; p. þorfte; subj. prs. is þurfe, þyrfe, pl. þurfen, þyrfen; prs. ptcpl. þurfende, þyrfende To need. I. to be in need, have need of something, (1) absolute :-- Gif ðú cláþa þe má on hæfst, þonne ðú þurfe, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 42, 15. Ðú gæderast máre, þonne ðú þurfe (þyrfe, Cott. MS.), 14, 2; Fox 44, 8. Nis hit gód, ðæt hié sién on ðam láðe leng, þonne ðú þurfe, Cd. Th. 243, 3; Dan. 430. Sam hí þyrfon, sam hí ne þurfon, hí willaþ þeáh, Bt. 26, 2; Fox 92, 30. Ða þurfende pauperes, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 5, 3. Þyrfendra egentum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 142, 69. (2) with gen. of thing needed :-- Beó ðé be ðínum, and læ-acute;t mé be mínum; ne gyrne ic ðínes, ne ðú mínes ne þearft (dærft, Lchdm. iii. 288, 9), L. O. 13; Th. i. 184, 16. Ne ðearf hé nánes þinges búton ðæs, ðe hé on him selfum hæfþ, Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 8: Cd. Th. 204, 27; Exod. 425. Hwæt ðurfe (ðurfu, Lind.) wé leng gewitnisse quid adhuc egemus testibus, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 26, 65. Ða þurfon swíþe lytles, ðe máran ne willniaþ þonne genóges, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 13. Ne ðorfte hé ná máran fultumes, 26, 2; Fox 92, 22. Hí his sume ðorfton, Past. pref.; Swt. 9, 16. Ðæ-acute;m ðe micles ðorfton ... ðæm ðe lytles ðyrfe, 44; Swt. 325, 5-7. Swá welig ðæt hé nánes þinges máran ne þurfe, Bt. 24, 2; Fox 82, 4. (3) with acc. :-- Múþa gehwylc mete þearf, Exon. Th. 341, 12; Gn. Ex. 125. Mete bygeþ, gif hé máran (or gen.?) þearf, 340, 14; Gn. Ex. 111. II. to need to do something. (1) where a want has to be satisfied, a purpose to be accomplished, or the like :-- Ðú meaht ðé self geseón, swá ic hit ðé secgan ne þearf, Cd. Th. 38, 24; Gen. 611. Gif hit sié sumor, dó wermódes sæ-acute;des dust tó; gif hit sié winter, ne heath ðú ðone wermód tó dón, Lchdm. ii. 180, 29. Hé ne ðearf ná faran fram stówe tó stówe, Homl. Th. i. 158, 4. Hwæt ðurfon (þurfe, Bod. MS.) wé nú má sprecan? Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 22. Hí witan, hwæ-acute;r hí eáfiscas sécan þurfan (where they must seek them, if they are to find them), Met. 19, 25. Syle mé ðæt wæter, ðæt mé ne þyrste, ne ic ne ðurfe hér feccan, Jn. Skt. 4, 15. Ðý læs wé leng sprecen ymbe ðonne wé þyrfon (wé ne þyrfen, Cott. MS.), Bt. 34, 2; Fox 136, 14. (2) where the need is based on grounds of right, fitness, law, morality, etc., to be bound to do something because it is right, etc. :-- Nó ðú mínne þearft hafelan hýdan the duty of burying me will not fall upon you, Beo. Th. 895; B. 445. Gif hé gewitnesse hæbbe, ne þearf hé ðæt geldan (he is not bound by law to pay), L. Alf. 28; Th. i. 52, 3. Ne þearf hé him onfón, L. In. 67; Th. i. 146, 4. Mé ðæt riht ne þinceþ, ðæt ic óleccan þurfe Gode, Cd. Th. 19, 13; Gen. 290. Ðæt ðú ne wéne, ðæt ðú Iudéa leásungum gelýfan þurfe that you may not think, that you are bound to believe the Jews' false tales, Blickl. Homl. 177, 35. Hé suiðor his mód gebint tó ðæ-acute;m unnyttran weorcum, ðonne hé ðyrfe (more than is fitting for him), Past, 4; Swt. 37, 21. Ðonne mon má fæst, ðonne hé ðyrfe (more than religion requires), 43; Swt. 313, 2. Gif ða gyltas tó ðam hefelíce beón, ðæt hé tó bisceopes dóme tæ-acute;can þurfe (he must do it because the church has prescribed such a course), L. Ecg. P. i. 11; Th. ii. 176, 30. Gedón hí ðæt hira synna ne ðyrfen (need not, because of the divine ordinance) bión gesewene æt ðæm nearwan dóme, Past. 53; Swt. 413, 16. (3) with the idea of compulsion, or where the inevitability of a consequence is expressed; in some cases the word might be taken almost as an auxiliary, of much the same force as shall; to be obliged, be compelled by destiny :-- Gé ne þurfon hér leng wunian you shall not be obliged to stop here longer, Ex. 9, 28. Nis ðæt þonne næ-acute;nig man, ðæt þurfe ðone deópan grund ðæs hátan léges gesécean, Blickl. Homl. 103, 14. Næs him æ-acute;nig þearf, ðæt hé sécean þurfe there was no need to force him to seek, Beo. Th. 4984; B. 2495. Feallaþ ofor ús, ðæt wé ne þurfon ðysne ege leng þrowian, Blickl. Homl. 93, 34. Þý læs gyt láð Gode weorðan þyrfen lest the inevitable consequence, your becoming hateful to God, follow, Cd. Th. 36, 26; Gen. 577. Þý læs ða týdran mód ða gewitnesse wendan þurfe, Exon. Th. 147, 21; Gú. 730. Náuht ðæs ðe hé ondréde, ðæt hé forleósan þorfte (should be obliged to lose), Bt. 26, 2; Fox 92, 22. Hwý him on hige þorfte (should necessarily follow) á þý sæ-acute;l wesan, Met. 15, 9. Hú hé ðisse worulde wynna þorfte læsast brúcan how he should be least under the necessity of enjoying the delights of this world, Exon.Th. 122, 20; Gú. 308. Ðæt ðæt micle morð menn ne þorfton þolian that men would not necessarily have to suffer that great perdition, Cd. Th. 40, 17; Gen. 640. (4) to have good cause or reason for doing something :-- Ðú sorge ne þearft beran on ðínum breóstum, Cd. Th. 45, 28; Gen. 733. Ic ðé scylde, ne þearft ðú forht wesan, 131, 5; Gen. 2171: Blickl. Homl. 191, 18: Beo. Th. 3353: B. 1674. Ðú ðec sylfne ne þearft swíþor swencan, gif ðú God lufast, Exon. Th. 245, 18; Jul. 46. Ðæt is genóg sweotol, ðætte nánne mon ðæs tweógean ne þearf, Bt. 11, 2; Fox 34, 34: Blickl. Homl. 41, 36: 83, 9. Ne þearf ðæs nán mon wénan, 101, 13: 109, 30. Ne ðarf mon ná ðone medwísan læ-acute;ran, ðæt hé ða lotwrencas forlæ-acute;te, forðonðe hé hié næfþ, Past. 30; Swt. 203, 15. Ne þearf hé gefeón he will have no cause to rejoice, Cd. Th. 92, 4; Gen. 1523: Exon. Th. 449, 9; Dóm. 68: Beo. Th. 4016; B. 2006. Mé wítan ne ðearf Waldend, 5475; B. 2741: Cd. Th. 165, 7; Gen. 2728. Ne ðurfe wé ceorian, Homl. Th. ii. 438, 27. Ne þurfan gé nóht besorgian, hwæt gé sprecan, Blickl. Homl. 171, 18. Ne þurfe gé beón unróte, 135, 24. Ne þurfon gé wénan, Exon. Th. 142, 16; Gú. 645. Ne þurfon mé hæleð ætwítan, Byrht. Th. 139, 4; By. 249. Ic eów secgan mæg, ðæt gé ne ðyrfen leng murnan, Judth. Thw. 23, 33; Jud. 153. Sume him ondræ-acute;daþ earfoþu swíþor þonne hý þyrfen, Bt. 39, 11; Fox 228, 24. Gif hé náne æ-acute;hta næfde, ne þorfte hé nánne feónd ondræ-acute;dan ... Gif ðú swelces nánuuht næfdest ne þorftest ðú ðé nánwuht ondræ-acute;dan, 14, 3; Fox 46, 23-28. Nö hé ðære feohgyfte scamigan þorfte, Beo. Th. 2057; B. 1026: 2147; B. 1071. Hwæ-acute;r hé ðara nægla swíðast wénan þorfte where he had most reason to expect that he should find the nails, Elen. Kmbl. 2206; El. 1104. Nó wé þus swíðe swencan þorftan, þæ-acute;r ðú freónda lárum hýran wolde, Exon. Th. 129, 19; Gú. 423. Ne þorfton hí hlúde hlihhan, Cd. Th. 5, 17; Gen. 73. Hí gearowe wæ-acute;ron deáðe sweltan, gif hí ðorfton (if the occasion demanded it), Homl. Th. ii. 130, 5. (5) where the need arises from an advantage to be gained, or purpose to be served, to be use, to be good for a person to do something :-- Ne þearf ic yrfestól bytlian it is no good or use for me to build an hereditary seat, Cd. Th. 131, 14; Gen. 2176. Ne þearft ðú sæce ræ-acute;ran, Elen. Kmbl. 1876; El. 940. III. to owe, cf. sculan, I :-- Ne þearf ic N. sceatt ne scilling, ne pænig ne pæniges weorð; ac eal ic him gelæ-acute;ste ðæt ðæt ic him scolde, L. O. 11; Th. i. 182, 9. [Goth. þarf, pl. þaurbum; prs.; þaurfta; p.; þaurbands; prs. ptcpl.: O. Sax. tharf, pl. thur&b-bar;un; prs.; thorfta; p.: O. Frs. thurf, thorf, pl. thurvon; prs.: O. H. Ger. darf tharf, pl. durfun, thurfun; prs.; dorfta; p.: Icel. þurfa; þarf, pl. þurfum; prs. þurfti; p.; þurfandi; prs. ptcpl.] v. be-þurfan; þearfan, þearfian, þorfan.