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ÞURH-GÁN - ÞURH-TEÓN

þurh-gán. I. to go over or through :-- Fixas þurhgáð (perambulant) paðas sæ-acute;s, Ps. Spl. 8, 8. Ic wille ðurhgán orsorh ðone here, Homl. Th. ii. 502, 11. II. of a weapon, to pass through, pierce :-- Hé sette his swurdes ord tógeánes his innoðe, and feól him on uppon, ðæt him ðurheode (or him ðurh eode, under þurh, B. I (1) ), Homl. Th. ii. 480, 15. His swurd sceal ðurhgán ðíne sáwle, i. 146, 8. III. to penetrate, permeate, pervade :-- Seó eorðe byð mid ðam winterlícan cyle þurhgán, Lchdm. iii. 252, 7. [Heo þurheoden Francene þeode, Laym. 5217. Læten heom þurhgon al þa du&yogh;eðe, 19645. Þe&yogh;&yogh; sholldenn all þurrhgan þiss middellærd, Orm. 12860. Goth. þairh-iddja; p.: O. H. Ger. durh-gán pertransire, penetrare.] v. next word.

þurh-gangan. I. to go over or through, perambulate :-- Þurh-gangende perambulante, Ps. Spl. 90, 6. II. to pierce :-- Ne forhtast ðú ðé on dæge flán on lyfte, ðæt ðé þuruhgangan gáras on ðeóstrum, Ps. Th. 90, 6. [Goth. þairh-gaggan: O. H. Ger. durh-gangan.]

þurh-gefeoht, es; n. War :-- Þorhgefeht, þorgifect perduellium, Txts. 85, 738.

þurh-geótan. I. to pour over, cover by pouring (lit. and fig.) :-- Ðú þurhgute hine gedréfednysse perfudisti eum confusione, Ps. Spl. 88, 44. Ic mid ða líffæstan ýþe ðurhgoten wæs vitali unda perfusus sum, Bd. 5, 6; S. 620, 18. II. to fill, saturate :-- Ðonne se sacerd gehálgodne tapor in ðæt wæter déð, ðone wyrð ðæt wæter mid ðam hálgan gáste ðurhgoten, Wulfst. 36, 6. II a. to fill, imbue, inspire :-- Gleáwnysse þurhgoten, Elen. Kmbl. 1920; El. 962. [O. H. Ger. durh-giozan perfundere.]

þurh-gléded; adj. (ptcpl.) Thoroughly furnished with burning coals :-- Wæs se ofen onhæ-acute;ted, ísen eall ðurhgléded, Cd. Th. 231, 8; Dan. 244.

þurh-hæ-acute;lan to heal thoroughly; persanare :-- Ealle ða þincg, ðe on ðæs mannes líchoman tó láðe ácennede beóþ, heó ðurhhæ-acute;leþ (þur-, MS. O.), Lchdm. i. 124, 22.

þurh-hæ-acute;lig; adj. Very holy :-- Þurhháligere gerde sacrosancti viminis (Moses' rod), Hpt. Gl. 409, 70. Þuthháliges blódes sacrosancti cruoris, 503, 46. Tó ðam þurhháligum háligdóme Drihtnes líchaman and blódes ad sacrosanctum sacramentum corporis et sanguinis Domini, Wanl. Cat. 79, 4.

þurh-hefig; adj. Very heavy; praegravis, Dial. 2, 3 (Lye).

þurh-hwít; adj. Very white :-- Þurhhwít candidus, Wülck. Gl. 163, 6 (omitted in Wrt. Voc. i. 46, 30).

þurh-irnan to run through :-- Þurharn cucurrit, Wrt. Voc. ii. 137, 60. Ðæt swurd ðe ðæra cildra lima þurharn, Homl. Th. i. 84, 18.

þurh-læ-acute;ran to persuade :-- Nele God wrecan yfelnysse se andettan gyltas þurhlæ-acute;rþ non uult Deus ulcisci malitiam, qui confiteri delicta persuadet, Scint. 38, 12.

þurh-læ-acute;red; adj Very learned :-- Þurhlæ-acute;red vel gleáw expertus, i. multum peritus, Wrt. Voc. i. 22, 35.

þurh-láð; adj. Very hateful, odious :-- Þurhláð odiosus, Wrt. Voc. i. 28, 66.

þurh-leóran to pass through :-- Ðorhleórdun pertransierunt, Ps. Surt. 76, 18.

þurh-lócung, e; f. A looking through or over, a preliminary examination(?) of a book; but the word glosses prohemium :-- Ðurhlócung prohemium, forespæ-acute;c praefatio, Wrt. Voc. i. 51, 38. [Cf. Illc an ferrs to þurrhlokenu offte, Orm. dedic. 68.]

þurh-ræ-acute;san to rush through :-- Hwílum ic þurhræ-acute;se, Exon. Th. 384, 31; Rä. 4, 36.

þurh-sceótan to shoot through, transfix, pierce :-- Þurhscét transfigat, Hpt. Gl. 526, 3. Hé his byrnsweord getýhþ, and ða líchoman þurh-sceóteþ, Blickl. Homl. 109, 35. Ðæ-acute;r wearð Alexander þurhscoten mid ánre flán ... hé þurh ðæt folc geþrang ðæt hé ðone ilcan ofslóg ðe hiene æ-acute;r þurhsceát in eo praelio sagitta trajectus eatenus pugnavit, donec eum, a quo vulneratus esset, occideret, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 134, 22-27. Besyrian ðone earman and þurhsceótan ða unscæðfullan heortan, Ps. Th. 36, 13. Ðá wurdon hí mid deófles flán þurhscotene, Homl. Th. i. 62, 28. [O. Frs. thruch-skiata: O. H. Ger. durh-sciozan.]

þurh-scíne; adj. Transparent :-- Þurhscýne stán specularis, Wrt. Voc. i. 38, 30. [Cf. O. Frs. thruch-skínich.]

þurh-scínendlíc; adj. Splendid; praeclarus, Ps. Lamb. 15, 6. v. þurh-beorht.

þurh-scríþan. I. of physical movement, to pass through, glide through :-- Synd twelf tácna on ðam foresprecenan circule ðe seó sunne þurhscríð, Anglia viii. 298, 18. II. to go through a subject, examine, consider; perlustrare :-- Æ-acute;lc ðæra ðe wyle ða eásterlícan blisse mæ-acute;rsian, ne sceal hé náðer ne ðæs lambes flæ-acute;sc hreáw etan, ne gesoden, ac gebræ-acute;d; ðæt ys, ðæt hé ne sceal þurh menniscnysse wísdóm þurhscríðan ða hálgan flæ-acute;scennysse úres Drihtnes (he shall not by the aid of human wisdom examine(?) our Lord's nature according to the flesh), ne on him gelýfan swylce hé sý ánfeald man búton his godcundnysse, ac wé sceolon gelýfan ðæt hé ys sóð man and sóðlíce God, Anglia viii. 324, 1. [Al þa londes ic scal þurhscriðen (þorhride, 2nd MS.), Laym. 10887.]

þurh-scyldig; adj. Very guilty :-- Hí (the Jews who plotted against Christ) synd þurhscyldige for heora syrwunge, Homl. Skt. i. 11, 321.

þurh-sécan. I. to make search for, seek out :-- Þurhsécende conquirens, Scint. 209, 3. [II. to search through, examine(?), as in later English :-- He þurhsecheð al þe soule, O. E. Homl. ii. 191, 28. Twa Goddspelless uss birrþ þurrhsekenn, Orm. 242. He hefde al þ-bar; lond ouergan and þurhsoht peragratis provincie finibus, Kath. 519. Þe poyson þe veynes so þorwsou&yogh;te, R. Glouc. 151, 11. O. H. Ger. durh-suohhan to search through.]

þurh-seón to see through, see into, penetrate with the sight (lit. or fig.) :-- God geseóþ and þurhseóþ ealle his gesceafta, Bt. 41, 1; Fox 244, 11. Þurhsyhþ. Met. 30, 16. Gif hwá biþ swá scearpséne, ðæt hé mæge hine (Alcibiades) ðurhseón, swá swá Aristoteles sæ-acute;de ðæt deór wæ-acute;re, ðæt mihte æ-acute;lc wuht þurhseón ... gif ðonne hwá wæ-acute;re swá scearpséne, ðæt hé mihte ðone cniht ðurhseón, ðonne ne þúhte hé him nó innon swá fæger, swá hé útan þúhte si, ut Aristoteles ait, lynceis oculis homines uterentur, ut eorum visus obstantia penetraret, nonne introspectis visceribus, illud Alcibiadis superficie pulcerrimum corpus, turpissimum videretur, Bt. 32, 2; Fox 116, 19-25. Wé sceolon gleáwlíce þurhseón ússe hreþercofan heortan eágum, Exon. Th. 81, 24; Cri. 1328. [He þurhsihð elches mannes þanc, O. E. Homl. ii. 222, 90: i. 165, 90. Þe blake cloð is wurse to þurhseon, A. R. 50, 16. O. H. Ger. durh-sehan visu penetrare.]

þurh-seón to strain through, penetrate :-- Ealle ða fúllnessa ðæs fúllan ofnes and ðæs þeóstran ðe mec æ-acute;r ðurhseáh omnem foetorem tenebrosae fornacis, qui me pervaserat, Bd. 5, 12; M. 430, 6.

þurh-sleán. I. to smite through, strike through (lit. and fig.) :-- Hé his byrnsweord getýhþ and ðás world ealle þurhslyhþ, Blickl. Homl. 109, 34. Hire swiora næs þurhslagen, Homl. Skt. i. 12, 235. Ðá wearð heó mid micelre sárnysse ðurhslegen, Homl. Th. ii. 30, 21. II. to smite :-- Ic ðerhslæ-acute; &l-bar; hríno ðone hiorde percutiam pastorem, Mk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 14, 27. [O. Frs. thruch-slá: O. H. Ger. durh-slahan percutere, pulsare.]

þurh-smeágan, -smeán to search through, inquire into, examine into, investigate :-- Ða ðe mid carfulre gýmene gástlíce bebodu þurhsmeágeaþ qui solerti cura spiritalia precepta perscrutantur. Ðá hé ða seofon cræftas ealle hæfde þurhsmeáde, Shrn. 152, 18. Hé ríxade ofer Englæland, and hit mid his geápscipe swá þurhsmeáde (made such a thorough inquisition), ðæt næs án híd landes innan Englælande, ðæt hé nyste hwá heó hæfðe, oððe hwæs heó wurð wæs, Chr. 1086; Erl. 222, l0. Þurhsmeágean perscrutari, Scint. 32, 11.

þurh-smúgan. I. of movement (lit. or fig.), to creep through, move slowly through :-- Se wyrm ða tungan tótýhþ, and ða téd þurhsmýhþ, Soul Kmbl. 235; Seel. 121. Ðæt gér, ðe man hæ-acute;t solaris, þurhsmíhþ Zodiacum ðone circul on þrim hund dagum and fíf and syxtigum, Anglia viii. 303, 22. II. to go carefully through a subject, go over the details :-- Hé sceal snotorlíce smeágean and georne þurhsmúgan ealle ða ðing ðe hláforde magan tó ræ-acute;de he must prudently consider and diligently go over in his mind all those matters which may be to his lord's advantage, Anglia ix. 259, 18. Nú wille wé úre spræ-acute;ce áwendan tó ðam iungum munecum ðe heora cildhád habbaþ ábisgod on cræftigum bócum ... Hig habbaþ áscrutnod Serium and Priscianum, and þurhsmogun Catus cwydas they have gone carefully through Cato's Disticha, Anglia viii. 321, 28.

þurh-spédig; adj. Very wealthy :-- Ðæ-acute;r eardode sum þurhspédig mann (cf. of the same person sum ríce man and for worlde æ-acute;htspédig, Blickl. Homl. 197, 27), Homl. Th. i. 502, 8.

þurh-stician to stick through, pierce, transfix :-- Ðorhsticadun transfixerunt, Jn. Skt. Lind. 19, 37. [Cf. Heo þuruhstihten Isboset adun into þe schere (percusserunt eum in inguine, 2 Sam. 4, 6), A. R. 272, 12. O. Frs. thruch-steka: O. H. Ger. durh-stehhan confodere, transfigere.]

þurh-stingan to stab through, pierce, thrust through :-- Gif man þeóh þurhstingð if the thigh is thrust through, L. Ethb. 67; Th. i. 18, 16. Þurhstinð, 32; Th. i. 12, 1. Hé ðurhstong ðone cyninges ðeng and ðone cyning gewundade tanta vi hostis ferrum infixit, ut per corpus militis occisi etiam regem vulneraret, Bd. 2, 9; S. 511, 24. Þurhsting his eáre perforabis aurem ejus, Deut. 15, 17. Ðæt hé hine selfne ne ðurhstinge mid ðý sweorde unryhthæ-acute;medes ne luxuriae se mucrone transfigant, Past. 43; Swt. 313, 8. Hé hét hine mid sweorde þurstingan, Shru. 131, 33. Þurhstungen confosa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 24, 42. [Weren his fet mid irnene neiles þurhstungen, O. E. Homl. i. 147, 32.]

þurh-swimman to swim through or over, pass by swimming :-- Ðorhsuimmaþ tranant, Wrt. Voc. ii. 122, 74.

þurh-swíðan to prove very strong :-- Hé þurhswíðde on ídelnesse praeualuit in vanitate, Ps. Lamb. 51, 9.

þurh-swógan to press through, penetrate, pervade :-- Ealle ða fúllnessa ðæs ðýstran ofnes ðe mé æ-acute;r ðurhsweógh(-swég, Bd. M. 430, 6 note) omnem foetorem tenebrosae fornacis, qui me pervaserat, Bd. 5, 12; S. 629, 21.

þurh-teón. I. to carry through, get a proposal accepted, a request granted :-- Ðá hé ðæt (his proposal) uneáþe ðurhteáh quod dum aegre impetraret ab ea, Bd. 4, 11; S. 579, 17. Lucius bæd ðæt hé cristen gedón wæ-acute;re, and hé þurhteáh ðæt hé bæd (by a later hand this is turned into him wærð tíþod ðæt hé bæd), Chr. 167; Erl. 8, 15. II. to carry out a plan, orders, etc., give effect to an intention :-- Bið oft synleás yfel geðóht ðæ-acute;m gódum, ðonne hí hit mid weorcum ne ðorhtióð, Past. 54; Swt. 423, 4. Hé nóhwæþer ðyssa (neither of these plans) gefremede ne ðurhteáh ne aliquid horum perficeret, Bd. 5, 9; S. 622, 23. Mennisclíc is ðæt mon on his móde costunga ðrowige on ðæm luste yfles weorces, ac ðæt is deófullíc ðæt hé ðone willan ður[h]teó, Past. 11; Swt. 71, 15. Gif hé ðæt þurhtió, ðæt hé getihhod hæfþ, Bt. 34, 7; Fox 144, 4. Cweþan ðæt sió godcunde foretiohhung getiohhod hæfde ðæs ðe hió ne þurhtuge, 41, 3; Fox 248, 21. Hí nóhwæþere heora willnunge habban ne ðurhteón magan in neutro cupitum passunt obtinere propositum, Bd. 5, 23; S. 647, 3: Ors. 1, 2; Swt. 30, 22. Ðæt ne ðæt mihte mid ðý máran ealdorlícnesse ðurhteón and gefremman, Bd. 5, 21; S. 642, 30. III. where continuous action is implied, to carry through, carry on to a (successful) end, to accomplish, perform; of evil actions, to perpetrate :-- Se cwyrnstán ðe tyrnð singallíce and næ-acute;nne færeld ne ðurhtíhþ, Homl. Th. i. 514, 20. Micel tósceád is betwuh ðære synne, ðe mon longe ymbsireð, and ðære ðe mon fæ-acute;rlíce ðurhtiéhð, Past. 56; Swt. 435, 6. Hí ðæt yfel þurhtióþ (þurgtióð, Cott. MS.) scelus perficiunt, Bt. 38, 2; Fox 196, 34. Ðurhteáh patraverat, Wrt. Voc. ii. 67, 51. Ða scylde ðe se him self æ-acute;r nyste se hié þurhteáh culpam, quam nescit ipse etiam, qui perpetravit, Past. 15; Swt. 91, 14. Silla wið Marius heardlíce gefeaht þurhteáh (fought and won) and hiene gefliémde Sulla Marium gravissimo praelio tandem vicit, Ors. 5, 11; Swt. 236, 21. Ðonne gé ymb ðæt án gefeoht alneg ceoriað ðe eów Gotan gedydon, hwý nyllaþ gé geþencan ða monegan æ-acute;rran ðe eów Gallie oftrædlíce bismerlíce þurhtugon the many former fights that the Gauls often fought and won against you to your disgrace, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 142, 9. Hí læ-acute;rdan hine ðæt hé ða fore ðurhtuge they persuaded him to perform (perficere) the journey, Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 27. Ðæt ðæt mód ðurhtuge swelce synne, Past. 56; Swt. 435, 4. Ne mæg se ælmihtiga Wealdend þurhteón ðæt hé dó his ðeówan ríce cannot the almighty Ruler accomplish the enriching of his servants? Homl. Th. i. 64, 17. Wé ne magan for úre tyddernysse þyllíc fæsten þurhteón we cannot on account of our weakness accomplish such a fast, Wulfst. 285, 27. Þurhtión (þurg-, Cott. MS.) ðæt yfel ðæt hí lyst cupita perficere, Bt. 38, 2; Fox 196, 28, 32. Þurhtión náwuht goodes (cf. nán gód dón, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 27), Met. 25, 59. Ðæt hié náne mildheortnesse þurhteón ne mehtan, Ors. 2, 1; Swt. 64, 17. Ðá wearð eft Ianes duru andón, þéh ðæ-acute;r nán gefeoht þurhtogen ne wurde though no battle had actually been fought; nulla bella sonuerunt, 6, 1; Swt. 254, 19. Ne biþ ðæ-acute;r sin ðurhtogen peccatum perpetratum non est, Bd. 1, 27; S. 497, 21: Exon. Th. 128, 1; Gú. 397: 270, 1; Jul. 458. Þurhtogen conlatum (v. þurhtogenness), Wrt. Voc. ii. 134, 41. Mid ðý ðurhtogenan weorce, Past. 48; Swt. 367, 12. Ða ðe ða ðurhtogenan (cf. geworhtan, 53; Swt. 413, 3) synna wépaþ qui peccata deplorant operum, 23; Swt. 176, 22. III a. of continuous but uncompleted action, to carry on, continue :-- Hé swá six and twéntig daga ðæt færeld þurhteáh swilce hé tó sumum menn mid gewisse fóre so for six and twenty days he continued the journey, as if he were with certainty travelling to some one, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 159. IV. where a result is marked, to bring to a successful issue, to achieve, bring about, bring to pass :-- Gif hé torngemót þurhteán mihte if he could bring about a meeting, Beo. Th. 2284; B. 1140. His sige tó tácne ðe hé ðurhteón þóhte as a monument of the victory that he thought to achieve, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 84, 5. On Criste ánum is ealles siges fylnes þurhtogen in Christ alone does the fullness of all victory come to pass, Blickl. Homl. 179, 7. V. to afford :-- Hit wæs geset on ðære ealdan æ-acute;, ðæt ða ðe mihton ðurhteón sceoldon bringan ánes geáres lamb, and áne culfran ... Gif hwylc wíf tó ðam unspédig wæ-acute;re, ðæt heó ðás ðing begytan ne mihte..., Homl. Th. i. 138, 35. Áne feorme swá góde swá hí bezte þurhteón magon a refection as good as ever they can afford, Chart. Th. 531, 15. Gif hwá ne mage ðurhteón ða spéda ðæt hé gesewenlíc lác Gode offrige if any man cannot afford such means, that he may offer a visible gift to God, Homl. Th. i. 584, 2. Sý him gefultumad and frófor þurhtogen solacia accomodentur eis, R. Ben. 85, 18. VI. to go through, undergo :-- Swá swá wíf ácenþ beam and þrowaþ micel earfoþu æfter ðam ðe heó æ-acute;r micelne lust þurhteáh, Bt. 31, 1; Fox 112, 3. Hefige geswincu wé þurhteón, ðæt wé tó heofenan ástígan magan, Scint. 101, 11. Gif hé ða beþinge þurhteón ne mæge, Lchdm. ii. 340, 10. VII. to draw, drag :-- On wítu helle mann gálnys þurhtýhð in poenas tartari hominem libido pertrahat, Scint. 89, 5. Ða ðe óþre tó unrihtwísnysse læ-acute;rende þurhteóð (pertrahunt), 192, 4.