This is page 1206 of An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (1898)

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WER - WER-, WERE-GILD

wer (were?), es; m. n. (?) A guard (? cf. werian, warn), a troop, band :-- Were manipulo (coelestis militiae manipulo, Ald. 50), Wrt. Voc. ii. 83, 2 : 56, 75. In ic wæs cempena láreów, and mid mycclum were ymbseald, nú ic eom ána forlæ-acute;ten, Homl. Skt. ii. 30, 195.

wer, es; m. I. a weir, a dam :-- Salomon sæ-acute;de ðætte suíðe deóp pól wæ-acute;re gewered on ðæs wísan monnes móde, and suíðe lytel unnyttes út fleówe. Ac se se ðe ðone wer bricð, and ðæt wæter út forlæ-acute;t, se bið fruma ðæs geflites dicitur : 'Aqua profunda verba ex ore viri;' Prov. 18, 4. Qui ergo dimittit aquam, caput est jurgiorum, Past. 38; Swt. 279, 16. II. often the wer is connected with fishing, and the word seems sometimes to be used of the water that is kept in by the dam :-- Captura (captura locus piscosus, ubi capiuntur pisces, Migne), detentio, captio hæft vel wer, Wrt. Voc. ii. 128, 31. Ðis is ðæs hagan bóc on Winceastre and ðes healfan weres æt Brægentforda and ðæs æcersplottes ðe ðæ-acute;rtó líð (cf. dimidium cuiusdam piscarii uadum ad capturam piscium æt Bræge decurrentem, ad Uetus monasteriam pertinentem, cum unius iugeris sibi adjacentis portione, 134, 31-34), Cod. Dip. Kmbl. vi. 136, 11. Hé wundrude and ealle ða ðe mid him wæ-acute;ron on ðam were (in captura) ðara fixa, Lk. Skt. 5, 9. Terram cum omnibus ad se pertinentibus rebus necessariis hoc est, in siluis, in campis, in captura etiam piscium quae terrae illi adjacet, ubi sunt scilicet duo quod nostratim dicitur waeres, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. i. 64, 10. Æt æ-acute;lcum were, ðe binnan ðám .xxx. hídan is, gebyreþ æ-acute;fre se óðer fisc ðam landhláforde, iii. 450, 25. Andlang Úse tó Kekan were; of Kekan were andlang Úse tó Caluwan were, 170, 31. Mid were and mid mylene, 243, 10. Be eá tó Brihtwoldes were; of ðam were tó ðære díc, 424, 19. On Eádmundes wer; of Eádmundes were, vi. 31, 14, 34. [Ic gife þas landes and þas wateres and meres and fennes and weres, Chr. 656; Erl. 31, 5. Ic gife þa twa dæl of Witlesmere mid watres and mid wæres and feonnes, 963; Erl. 122, 15. He set in weres (dam, v. l.) of watres wildernes posuit desertum in stagnum aquae, Ps. 106, 35. M. H. Ger. wer : Ger. wehr a weir, dam. Cf. Icel. vörr; f. a fenced-in landingplace; ver; n. a fishing-place.] v. cyt-, fisc-, ford- (Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 437, 11), hæc-, mylen-wer.

wer-bæ-acute;re, es; n. A weir where fish are caught :-- Se mylenstede and ðæt land ðæt ðe ðæ-acute;rtó hýrð . . . and ða werbæ-acute;ra and seó mæ-acute;d be norðan eá, and ða hammas, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 383, 17. Tó Cranemere, and ðæ-acute;re gebyraþ tó six wæebæ-acute;re, iii. 344, 2.

wer-beám, es; m. A strong man, warrior :-- Ðá slóh mid hálige hand heofonríces weard werbeámas (the Egyptians in the Red Sea), wlance ðeóde, Cod. Th. 208, 20; Exod. 486. Cf. the epithets derived from words denoting trees which are applied to men in Icelandic poetry. v. Corpus Poeticum Boreale, ii. 476.

wer-bold, es; n. Weir-building :-- Se gebúr sceal his riht dón . . . tó werbolde .xl. mæ-acute;ra oððe án fóðer gyrda, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 450, 37.

wer-borh; gen. -borges; m. A security for the payment of wer. v. first two passages under wer, I.

werc glosses nanus, Wet. Voc. ii. 60, 45 : 71, 36. [Elsewhere nanus is rendered by dweorh, for which werc is perhaps wrongly written. Or (?) werc might be for wearh. v. wearg.]

werc, wercan, wer-cweþan. v. weorc, wyrcan, wearg-cweþan.

wer-cyn[n], es; n. Mankind :-- World wendeþ . . . wercyn (wen-, MS.) gewíteþ, Exon. Th. 354, 45; Reim. 61. Cf. wer-þeód.

werdan. v. wirdan.

werde glosses opes, Kent. Gl. 864. (For préde? cf. opes superbe ofermóde préde, 249.)

were, wered a troop, wered sweet, were-mód. v. wer, weorod a troop, weorod sweet, wer-mód.

were-wulf, es; m. A wer-wolf, a fiend :-- Ðæt se wódfreca werewolf tó swýðe ne slíte, ne tó fela ábíte of godcundre heorde, L. C. E. 26; Th. i. 374, 30 : L. I. P. 6; Th. ii. 310, 30 : Wulfst. 191, 16.

wer-fæ-acute;hþ, e; f. Slaying, in pursuing the feud, under circumstances that call for the payment of wer [cf. L. Alf. pol. 42 : Be fæ-acute;hðum . . . Gif hé (a man's foe) wille on hond gán and his wæ-acute;penu sellan, and hwá ofer ðæt on him feohte, gielde swá wer swá wunde, swá hé gewyrce, Th. i. 90, 19] :-- Be werfæ-acute;hðe tyhtlan. Se ðe bið werfæ-acute;hðe betogen, and hé onsacan wille ðæs sleges mid áðe, L. In. 54; Th. i. 136, 9-11. Æ-acute;lc mon mót onsacan werfæ-acute;hðe gif hé mæg oþþe dear, 46; Th. i. 132, 1.

werg, wergan to defend, wergan to curse, wergend a protector, wergend malignans. v. wearg, werian, wirgan, weriend, wirgend.

wer-genga, an; m. A stranger who seeks protection in the land to which he has come :-- Deóra gesíð, wildra wærgenga, Nabochodonossor the beasts' comrade, the stranger that sought shelter among wild beasts, Nebuchadnezzar, Cd. Th. 257, 25; Dan. 663. Gif eów Dryhten Crist lýfan wylle, ðæt gé his wergengan (Guthlac, who had Christ's protection in the wilderness. Cf. Ic mé frið wille æt Gode gegyrnan . . . mec Dryhtnes hond mundaþ . . . hér sceal mín wesan eorðlíc éþel, 117, 23-30; Gú. 228-232. Nú ic ðis lond gestág . . . mé friðe healdeþ . . . se ðe mægna gehwæs wealdeþ, 120, 28-121, 3; Gú. 278-283) in ðone láðan lég læ-acute;dan móste, Exon. Th. 137, 29; Gú. 536 : 144, 28; Gú. 685. [The Latinized wargangus occurs in the Lombard laws : Omnes wargangi, qui de exteris finibus in regni nostri finibus advenerint. And wargengus among the Franks : Si quis wargengum occiderit. v. Grff iv. 103 : Grmm. R. A. 396. Cf. also Icel. verð-gangr (ver-) going about asking for food (verðr).] v. waru, werian.

wergian to curse, wérgian to grow weary. v. wirgan, wérigian.

wer-, were-gild, es; n. [The word seems interchangeable with wer (q. v.), which in the later laws is the more frequent form.] The price set upon a man according to his degree :-- Twelfhyndes mannes wergyld bið six ceorla wergyld, L. O. 13; Th. i. 182, 21. Ceorles wergild (weregild, 1. 20) is .cc. and .lxvi. þrimsa, ðæt bið .ii. hund sci&l-bar;&l-bar;. be Myrcna lage, L. Wg. 6; Th. i. 186, 11. Norðleóda cynges gild .xxx. þúsend þrymsa, fífténe þúsend þrymsa bið ðæs wergildes (wæres, 1. 16), 1; Th. i. 186, 2. (The wergilds for other ranks are given in the sections of this article.) Ceorles wergild is on Myrcna lage .cc. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;. Ðegnes wergild is syx swá mycel, ðæt bið .xii. hund sci&l-bar;&l-bar;. Ðonne bið cynges ánfeald wergild .vi. þegna wer be Myrcna lage, ðæt is .xxx. þúsend sceatta, and ðæt bið ealles .cxx. punda. Swá mycel is ðæs wergildes on folces folcrihte be Myrcna lage, L. M. L. ; Th. i : 190, 2-7. Cyninges horswealh, se ðe him mæge geæ-acute;rendian, ðæs wergield bið .cc. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., L. In. 33; Th. i. 122, 14. I. when a person was wrongfully slain the wergild of the slain man could be claimed from the slayer. Cf. wer, I :-- Gif man leúd ofsleá an þeófðe, licge bútan wyrgelde, L. Wih. 25; Th. i. 42, 13. Se .vii. nihta móna is gód on tó fixianne, and æðeles monnes wergild an tó manianne, Lchdm. iii. 178, 14. I a. for those who were concerned in the receiving of the wergild see wer, I a, and the following :-- Gif man his mæn freólse gefe, . . . freólsgefa áge his erfe ænde wergeld, L. Wih. 8; Th. i. 38, 16. (See also the cases quoted under IV.) I b. as to the form which the payment might take see wer, I c, and the following :-- Mót hé gesellan monnan and byrnan and sweord on ðæt wergild, L. In. 54; Th. i. 138, 1. (Cf. for similar payment : Mid .lx. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;. gebéte . . . and ðæt sié on cwicæ-acute;htum, and mon næ-acute;nigne mon on ðæt ne selle, L. Alf. pol. 18; Th. i. 72, 12.) Tó ðam ðæt hió hyre bróðra wergild gecure on swylcum þingum swylce hyre and hire nýhstan freóndum sélost lícode. And hió ðá swá dyde ðæt hió ðæt wergeld geceás on ðam íglande ðe Teneð is nemned, ðæt is hundeahtatig hída landes ðe hió ðær æt ðæm cyninge onfeóng, Lchdm. iii. 426, 16-21. II. in case of certain crimes the criminal's wergild was exacted as a penalty, v. wer, III :-- Gif frí man wið fríes mannes wíf geligeþ, his wergelde ábicge, L. Ethb. 31; Th. i. 10, 6. Forgielde hé hine selfa be his wergilde, L. Alf. pol. 7; Th. i. 66, 12. II a. the payment of the wergild is in some cases an alternative, v. wer, III b :-- Sí þreóra án for his feore . . . wergild, éce þeówet, hengenwítnung, L. Eth. vii. 16; Th. i. 332, 18. Þolige hé lífes oþþe wæregildes (were-, v. 1.), L. C. S. 62; Th. i. 408, 23. Wealde se cyniug þreóra æ-acute;nes; oþþe hine man cwelle, oþþe ofer sæ-acute; selle, oþþe hine his wergelde áliése, L. Wih. 26; Th. i. 42, 17. Hé hine be his wergilde áliése, oþþe be his were geswicne, L. In. 15; Th. i. 112, 2. Hé bið feorhscyldig, nimþe him se cyning álýfan wille ðæt man wergylde álýsan móte, L. Eth. vii. 15; Th. i. 332, 15. II b. of the uses to which wergild paid as a fine in religious matters (cf. L. E. G. 2; Th. i. 168, 1-3) could be applied see the following :-- Gif for godbótan feohbót áríseþ, ðæt gebyreþ rihtlíce . . . tó godcundan neódan (these are enumerated in the section); hwílum be wíte, hwílum be wergilde (at times the feohbót is in the form of wergild), L. Eth. vi. 51; Th. i. 328, 4-10. III. the wergild served as a standard by which other matters might be regulated, v. wer, IV :-- Se ðe on ðære fóre wæ-acute;re ðæ-acute;r mon monnan ofslóge, getriéwe hine ðæs sleges, and ða fóre gebéte be ðæs ofslegenan wergielde. Gif his wergield sié .cc. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., gebéte mid .l. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., and ða ilcan riht dó man be ðám deórborenum, L. In. 34; Th. i. 124, 1. Twelfhyndes mannes áð forstent .vi. ceorla áð, for ðam . . . his wergyld bið six ceorla wergyld, L. O. 13; Th. i. 182, 21. Gif hé hine selfne triówan wille, dó ðæt be cyninges wergelde, L. Alf. pol. 4; Th. i. 64, 2. Gif hé ládian wille, dó ðæt be ðæs cynges wergilde, oþþe mid þryfealdan ordále, L. Eth. v. 30; Th. i. 312, 7. Gylde ðam cyninge be his weregilde (wer-, v. l.), L. C. S. 67; Th. i. 410, 17. In the following case the wergild seems to have suggested the amount of a bequest to the church :-- Hió (the testator's wife) gebrenge æt Sancte Petre mín twá wergild, gif ðet Godes wille seó ðæt heó ðæt færeld áge, Chart. Th. 481, 10. IV. instances of the payment of wergild are the following. The two young princes Æþelred and Æþelbriht were slain by Thunor, and to their sister eighty hides of land was given as wergild, Lchdm. iii. 424-6. In the war between Ecgfriþ and Æþelred the former's brother was slain. Theodore brought about peace between them 'ðæt næ-acute;niges mannes feorh tó lore wearþ, ne máre blódgyte wæs for ðam ofslægenan cyninges bréðer, ac hé mid feó wiþ hine geþingode, ðæt heora sib wæs,' Bd. 4, 21; S. 590, 24. In 687 Mul, Ceadwalla's brother, was burnt in Kent : in 694 'Cantware geþingodon wiþ Íne, and him gesaldon xxx m., for ðon ðe híe æ-acute;r Mul forbærndon, Chr. 694; Erl. 42, 15. [O. Frs. wer-geld, -ield : O. H. Ger. wer-, weri-gelt fiscus, pretium. Cf. Icel. mann-gjöld; pl.] Cf. leód, leód-gild; and see Kemble's Saxons in England, vol. i. c. x, Grmm. R. A. 650.