CLASSIFICATION OF WORKS AND AUTHORS
CITED IN THIS DICTIONARY.
N. B,—The authors of most of the Icelandic Sagas are unknown; the works are therefore
died, not the authors, even where they are known.
A. POETRY.—Kviđa generally denotes a narrative poem; mál a poem in dialogue or didactic; Ijóđ, söngr a lay, song; tal a genealogical,
drápa a laudatory heroic poem; rima a rhyme or rhapsody.
I, MYTHICAL POEMS :—Völu-spá, Háva-mál (mythical-didactic), Grímnis-mál, Vafţrúđnis-mál, Skírnis-mál, Alvís-mál,
Loka-senna, Harbarđs-ljóđ, Vegtams-kviđa, |jryms-kviđa, Hýmis-kviđa, Hyndlu-ljóđ, Forspjalls-ljóđ
(mod.) 2. Poems in the form of a ' drápa,' but upon mythical subjects:—Haustlöng, Hús-drapa, Jiórs-drápa,
II. HEROICAL :—Fáfnis-mál, Sigrdrífu-mál, Hamđis-mál, Sigurđar-kviđa (in three poems), Guđrúnar-kviđa (in three poems),
Brynhildar-kviđa, Atla-kviđa, Atla-mál, Völundar-kviđa, Rígs-mál, Helga-kviđa Hjörvarđs-sonar, Helga-
kviđa Hvmdings-bana (in two poems), Helreiđ Brynliildar, Oddrúnar-grátr, Guđrúnar-h.efna, Grotta-söngr,
Gró-galdr, Fjölsvinns-mál, Ynglinga-tal, Háleygja-tal, Bjarka-mál, Getspeki Heiđreks, and other poems in
Hervarar Saga, Darrađar-ljóđ. Most of these poems (in 1. II) are contained in the old collection commonly called Ssemundar
Edda: the various editions differ in the distribution of the verses; in this Dictionary references are made to the edition of
Möbius, Leipzig 1860; that of Sophus Bugge, Christiania 1867, has now superseded all former editions, and is cited in
III. HISTORICAL :—Höfuđ-lausn, Sona-torrek, Arinbjarnar-drápa (all published in the Egils Saga), Hákonar-mál (published in
Hkr. i), Vell-ekla, Darrađar-ljóđ, Rekstefja. 2. Poems later than the middle of the 12th century:—Kráku-mál (published
in Fas. i), Hugsvinns-mál (paraphrase of Gate's Disticha), Sólar-Ijóđ (published along with Sćmundar Edda), Hátta-tal
(published along with the Edda), Jómsvíkinga-drápa, íslendinga-drápa, Merlinus-spá (an Icelandic metrical paraphrase
of Geoffrey of Monmouth), Málshátta-kvćđi (collection of proverbs in a MS. Cod. Reg. of Edda), Konunga-tal (published
in Flateyjar-bók ii. 520 sqq.), Placidus-drápa, Harm-sól, Leiđar-vísan, Líknar-braut (religious poems, edited by
Dr. Egilsson, published 1833 and 1844), Geisli (published in P'b. i. beginning), Guđmuodar-drápa (published in Bs. ii. 187 sqq.),
Lilja or the Lily (published in H.E. ii. 398 sqq.), both poems of the I4th century. 3. Ôlafa-ríma (published in Fb. i. 8
sqq.), Skáld-Helga-rímur (published in Grönl. Hist. Mind, ii), ^prymlur, Völsungs-rímur (edited by Möbius), Skíđa-
ríma (a satirical poem of the I4th or 15th century), etc.
IV. POETS CITED :—Bragi (pth century) ; Hornklofi, Jyóđólfr Hvinverski (gth or loth century); Egill, Kormakr, Eyvindr
Skálda-spillir (all of the loth century); Hallfređr (born 968, died 1008); Sighvatr, Arnórr (both of the nth century) ;
Einarr Skúlason (i2th century), etc.
B. LAWS.—The Icelanders and Norsemen first began to write their laws at the end of the nth and the beginning of the I2th century;
before that time all laws were oral.
I. LAWS OF THE ICELANDIC COMMONWEALTH :—Grágás (vide that word), a collection of the laws of the Commonwealth, published
in two volumes by the Arna-Magnaean Legate, Copenhagen 1829. Parts or sections of the law are, Kristinna-laga-báttr,
frnigskapa-ţáttr, Víg-slóđi, Bauga-tal, Tíundar-lög, Landbrigđa-báttr, Arfa-ţáttr, Ómaga-bálkr, Festa-ţáttr,
Lögréttu-báttr, Lögsögumanns-báttr, etc. These laws are chiefly contained in two private collections or MSS. of the izth
century, called Konungs-bók (marked Grág. Kb.) and Stađarhóls-bók (marked Grág. Sb.) ; the new edition (Copenhagen
1853) is a copy of the Konungs-bók ; but the Arna-Magn. edition, which is cited in this Dictionary, is a compilation from both
MSS., having however Stađarhóls-bók as its groundwork. The Kristin-réttr jborlaks ok Ketils (K. p. K.) is cited from a
separate edition (Copenhagen 1775).
II. LAWS OF NORWAY contained in a collection in three volumes, called Norges Gamle Love (published by Munch and Keyser,
Christiania 1846, 1847). The 1st vol. is most frequently cited, and contains the laws of Norway previous to A. D. 1263; the
3rd vol. contains .Réttar-bćtr or Royal Writs, cited by the number. The Gulabings-lög or Lands-log, = the Code of
King Magnus (died 1281), is contained in the 2nd vol. of this collection, but is cited from a separate edition (Copenhagen 1817).
III. ICELANDIC LAWS, given after the union with Norway:—Kristin-réttr Arna biskups (published at Copenhagen in 1777);
Járn-síđa (Copenhagen 1847), the Law of Iceland from A.D. 1272-1280; Jóns-bók (Hólum 1709) is the Icelandic Code of
Laws of A.D. 1280 (still in use in Iceland).
C. HISTORIES OR TALES OF A MYTHICAL CHARACTER.
I. EDDA OR SNORRA EDDA:—In this Dictionary only the prose work of Snorri Sturluson (born 1178, died 1241) is cited under this
name; the poems of the so-called Sxmimdar Edda are all cited separately by their names (vide A). The Edda consists of three
parts, the Gylfa-ginning or Mythical Tales (pp. 1-44), Skáldskapar-mál or the Poetical Arts and Diction (pp. 45-110),
Hátta-tal (marked Edda Ht.) = a poem on the metres, and lastly, ;ţulur or Rhymed Glossary of Synonymes (marked Edda Gl.)
The edition cited is that of Dr. Egilsson, Reykjavik (1848) in one vol.; the Arna-Magn. (1848 sqq.) in two vols. (the third is
still in the press) is now and then referred to. The Edda is chiefly preserved in three vellum MSS., the Konungs-bók (Kb.), the
Orms-bók (Ob.), and the Uppsala-bók (Ub.), which is published in the Arna-Magn. Ed. ii. 250-396. 2. The prose parts
of the Sćmundar Edda (here marked Sćm.)
II. MYTHICAL SAGAS OR HISTORIES :—Fornaldar Sogtir, a collection published in three volumes by Rafn, Copenhagen 1829,1830 : the
1st vol. contains Hrólfs Saga Kraka (pp. 1-109), Völsunga Saga (pp. 115-234, again published by Bugge, Christiania 1865),
Bagnars Saga (pp. 235-299 and 345-360), Sögu-brot or Skjoldunga Saga (a fragment, pp. 363-368), Hervarar Saga
(pp. 411-533), JKTorna-Gests Saga (pp. 319-342): the 2nd vol. contains Halfs Saga (pp. 25-60), Friđţjófs Saga
(PP- 63-100 and 488-503), Örvar-Odds Saga (almost wholly fabulous) : the 3rd vol., Gautreks Saga (pp. 1-53) : the rest
are mere fables, and belong to G below. Hemings-battr, from the Flateyjar-bók, 3rd vol., partly cited from MSS.; this tale
contains a myth parallel to that of William Tell. 2. Ynglinga Saga by Snorri Sturluson, containing lives of the mythical
kings of Sweden from Odin down to tire historical time, cited from Heimskringla, 1st vol.
D. ÍSLENDINGA SÖGUR OR HISTORIES referring to the ICELANDIC COMMONWEALTH and the time following the union with
I. SAGAS OR HISTORIES OF THE GENERAL HISTORY OF ICELAND :—Landnáma or Landnáma-bók, a History of the Discovery and
Settlement of Iceland, originally written by Ari Fróđi (born 1067, died 1148), but worked out into its present form by Sturla
J*órđarjon (born 1214, died 1284); this important work is cited from the Copenhagen Ed. of 1843, where the figures are