Sokka-Bonar, cited from Flateyjar-bók iii. 445-454. Játvarđar Saga, the Life of Edward the Confessor, Ed. 1852, also
contained in Flateyjar-bók iii. 463-472. Ósvalds Saga, the Life of King Oswald, Ed. 1854. Thomas Saga Erkibiskups,
the Life of Thomas â Becket, cited from a MS. 5311 in the British Museum, a transcript of an Icelandic vellum MS. called
Thomas-skinna; another recension of this Saga is in an Icelandic MS. at Stockholm: it is now in the press under the care of
linger, Christiania, whose edition is now and then cited (Thorn. Ed.), vide e. g. gjafmildi. Bómverja Sögur, edited in
Prover, pp. 108-386, is a paraphrase of Sallust's Bellum Jugurt. and Lucan's Pharsalia. Veraldar Saga, a short Universal
History,' Sex Aetates Mundi,' cited from Prover, pp. 64-103. We may also here record the forfinns Saga (vide above, D. II. 2)
and Vínlands-J)áttr, from Flateyjar-bók vol. i, wrongly inserted in the editions of the Heimskringla vol. i, published by Raft)
in Antiquitates Americanae, Copenhagen, pp. 7-78 : these two Sagas refer to the discovery of America at the end of the
loth and the beginning of the nth centuries.


I. STJÓRN OR A BIBLICAL PARAPHRASE of the Historical Books of the Old Testament by bishop Brand (died 1264), edited by Unger,
Christiania 1862 ; also sometimes called Gyđinga Sögur. The first part, pp. 1-319, is a scholastic compilation from Genesis,
Exodus, Petrus Comestor, and the Speculum Historiale, and was composed about A. D. 1300, but the whole work is now called
by the name of Stjórn.

II. HOMILIES, etc.—The Homilies and Sermons of St. Gregory* marked Greg. Homiliu-bók or Book of Homilies, by Unger,
Christiania 1864, marked Horn.; the figures refer to the pages of the MS. Arna-Magn. 619, which are marked in the edition:
another old vellum MS. of Homilies at Stockholm (marked Horn. St.) is not published. Elucidarius, Ed. in Ann. for Nord.
Oldk. 1858 ; the figures mark the pages of the MS. noted in the edition.

III. HELGRA-MANNA SÖGUR OR LIVES OF SAINTS, etc.:—Barlaams Saga (by Joh. Damasc.), Unger's Ed., Christiania 1851: Clemens1
Saga (Clement Alexandr.): Martinus Saga (St. Martin of Tours), from vellum MS. Arna-Magn. 645 : Blasius Saga
(St. Blaise), from vellum MS. Arna-Magn. 623: Mariu Saga (Virgin Mary), from MS. Arna-Magn. 656 A. and other MSS., is
now edited by C. R. Unger, Christiania, and often cited both in the Grammar and Dictionary: Niđrstigningar Saga or
History of the Descent to Hell, a rendering of the later part of the Apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, from MSS. Arna-Magn.
645, pp. 102-110, and 623, pp. i-io : Andreas Saga, MS. Arna-Magn. 625 : Johannes Saga baptistae, MS. Arna-Magn.
623 : Postula Sögur, from various MSS., Arna-Magn. 645, 656 C, etc.; a printed copy (Viđey 1836) is now and then used:
Theophilus, edited by Mr. Dasent, 1842, now again published as part of the Mar. Saga. Antonius Saga, Augustinus
Saga, Pals Saga Postula, cited from Arna-Magn. 234 fol. Many other small legendary stories are besides cited (without
name) from the Arna-Magn. MSS. nos. 656, 655 (the Roman numerals denote parts or fasciculi), 623, 645, 677. Many ol
these tales and homilies are preserved in very old MSS., and belong to the earliest stage of Icelandic literature.

G. ROMANCES OR FABLES, rendered mostly from French and Latin.

I. HISTORICAL ROMANCES :—Alexanders Saga (from the Alexandreis of Philip Gautier), by Unger, Christiania 1848 : Karla-Magnus
Saga (Charlemagne), by Unger, Christiania 1860: jbiđreks Saga af Bern (Dieterich), by Unger, Christiania 1853: Breta-
Sögur, the first part also called Trojumanna Sögur, chiefly founded upon Geoffrey of Monmouth's Hist. Brit, and Dares
Phrygius, edited in Ann. for Nord. Oldk., Copenhagen 1848, 1849.

II. MYTHICAL:—Artus-kappa Sogur, containing Parcevals Saga, Ivents Saga, Valvents Saga, Mottuls Saga, Erreks
Saga, cited from MS. 4859 in the British Museum : Elis Saga, Bćrings Saga, Flovent Saga, Magus Saga, all four cited
from vellum MS. Arna-Magn. 580; the last is also at times quoted from an edition: Tristams Saga, in MS. Arna-Magn.
443, but only cited from Fritzner's Dictionary: Mirmants Saga, cited from MS. 4859 in the British Museum : Bevus
Saga; Claras Saga. p. Strengleikar or Lays of the Britons, edited by Unger, Christiania 1850.

III. LYGA-SÖGUR OR STORIES fabricated in Iceland :—The greater part of Fornaldar Sögur, 2nd and 3rd vols., vide above; f*jalar-
Jóns Saga, Konráđs Saga Keisara Sonar, and many others.


I. PHILOLOGICAL:—Skálda, a collection of three or four Icelandic philological treatises of the I2th to the I4th century, preserved in
one of the MSS. of the Edda (Orms-bók), and therefore usually published as an appendix to that book, and in many modern
works quoted under the name of Edda ; it is here cited under the name of Skálda. Skálda is a traditionary name in Iceland,
although it is sometimes applied to the Skáldskapar-niál, vide C ; the earliest and by far the most interesting—perhaps the earliest
philological treatise in any Teutonic language—is that by Thorodd; it is contained in p. 160, 1. 27 to p. 169, 1. 18 in the edition
of Dr. Égilsson, Reykjavik 1849 (where these treatises are published under the name of Ritgjörđir Tilheyrandi Snorra Edda), but
in the Ed. Arna-Magn. (Copenhagen 1852) ii. 10-43; the second treatise, probably from the later part of the 12th century,
pp. 169-173, Ed. Arna-Magn. ii. 44-60; the third treatise, an imitation of Donatus and Priscian, pp. 173-200, is written by
Ólafr Hvíta-skáld (died 1259), cp. Ed. Arna-Magn. ii. 62-189; the fourth treatise, pp. 200-212, is simply a continuation of the
third. 2. The Skaldskapar-miU of Snorri, the rhymed glossaries, and the metrical poem Hatta-tal with the commentary in
prose (vide C), may be reckoned in this class.

II. Skugg-sjá or Konungs Skugg-sjá, i. e. Speculum Regale, a didactic scholastic work ; the Copenhagen Kd. of 1768 is cited here ;
a new edition appeared at Christiania in 1848. Anecdoton, a polemical treatise on ecclesiastical matters, published by
Werlauff, Copenhagen 1815, and again in 1848, along with the Skugg-sjá.

III. ARITHMETICAL :—Rim-begla, a large collection of arithmetical treatises, etc., published at Copenhagen in I 780 ; the name Rimbegla,
however, refers properly only to the first part, vi/. pp. 1-114 in this edition: this treatise is preserved in an Icelandic MS. ot the
I 2th century (no. 1812 Royal Libr. Copenhagen), and is so called by the author, whose name is unknown. Algorismus, a
treatise on Arithmetic by Hauk Erlendsson (died 1334), contained in the vellum MS. Hauks-bók, and edited by Munch in Ann.
for Nord. Oldk., Copenhagen 1848, pp. 353-375.

IV. GEOGRAPHICAL:—A small collection is published under the title of Symbolae ad Geographiam Medii aevi, edited by Werlauff
in 1821, especially containing a geographical sketch by the Icelandic abbot Nicholas (died 1161), called Lciđarvísir og Borga-.skipan :
some things are also published in Antiquités Russes and Orientals, 1852 ; various fragments of this kitid are contained in the
Hauks-bók. Some parts of the rhymed glossary in the Edda (C. I), e.g. names of rivers, islands, etc., belong to this class.

V. MEDICAL:—Lœkninga-bók, a MS. in the Arna-Magn. collection 434, 121110; a small part published in Prover, pp. 471-474. The
chief source for medical citations, however, is a list of Icelandic names of diseases contained in the 9th and loth volumes of Felags-rit,
1789 and 1790, written by Svein Pálsson (died 1840), and drawn from various old treatises on medical matters.


I. ICELANDIC :—Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiae by bishop Finn Jonsson. Finnus Johannacus, published in lour volumes, Copenhagen
I772~I77^' contains a great number of writs and dx-eds referring to Icelandic church-history, which are cited in this Dictionary a,s
far as down to A. D. 1400: Diplomatarium Islandicum by Jón Sigurdsson, Copenhagen 1857 sqq., contains deeds and Libri
Datici of the churches down to the union with Norway (about A. D. 1263), but is not finished : deeds of the 141)1 century arc therefore