cited from MSS. in the Arna-Magn. collection marked Dipl., the Roman numerals denoting fasciculi: there are also cited collections
of Libri Datici of the I4th century, viz. Pétrs-máldagi, Auđunnar-máldagi, Jóns-máldagi, and Vilkins-máldagi, all
bearing the name of the bishops of the I4th century who made the collection, and cited from MSS. in the Arna-Magn.
II. NORSE:—Diplomatarium Tiorvagicum, in many volumes, by Unger and Lange, Christiania 1849 sqq.; but as the language of
Norway was no longer in a pure state in the I4th and I5th centuries, this large collection is sparingly cited: Björgynjar
Kalfakinn, Boldts Jordebog, and Munkalif are all registers of properties of the Norse cloister, rarely cited.


I. GOTHIC RUNES, called by some Old Scandinavian Bunes; they are identical with the Anglo-Saxon Runes, but older, and are
found only on the very oldest monuments:—The Golden Horn, dug up in Schleswig A.D. 1734, contains an inscription
probably of the 3rd or 4th century, explained by Munch and finally by Bugge; The Runic Stone at Tune in Norway, edited
and explained by Munch, Christiania 1857, specially cited now and then in the introductions to the letters.

II. COMMON SCANDINAVIAN RUNIC INSCRIPTIONS :—The SWEDISH Stones, collected in Bautil, vide s. v. bautasteinn; the figures mark
the number: Brocman's treatise upon the Runes at the end of Ingvars Saga, Stockholm 1762. 2. The DANISH Runic
Stones, edited by Thorsen, De Danske Kune-Mindes-mćrker, Copenhagen 1864; Rafn's collection, Copenhagen 1856.
The MANX Stones are edited by Munch along with his edition of the Chronicon Manniae.

^ff* As to the authorship of these works, we can only briefly note that most of them are Icelandic, but parts Norwegian or Norse. Parts
of A, the whole of B. II, and part of B. Ill are Norse; F and G are partly Norse and partly Icelandic; H. II and J. II are Norse; K Scandi-
navian ; the rest Icelandic. Some few MSS. under the other letters are Norse, e. g. Fagrskinna ; but the works are undoubtedly of Icelandic
origin. Again, many of the Norse laws are preserved in Icelandic MSS., and only one of the many MSS. of the Skugg-sjá is Norse.

BY MODERN WORKS are understood the works from the Reformation to the present time, as opposed to the old literature, which may
be said to end about A.D. 1400; the following 100 or 150 years are almost blank, at least as far as prose is concerned. The first
specimen of modern Icelandic literature is the translation of the New Testament, A.D. 1540, then the rendering of hymns and
psalms into Icelandic, and the version of the whole Bible: the middle and latter part of the loth century was entirely taken up
with these subjects. A fresh historical literature, annals and the like, first dawns at the end of that century. The 17th century is
especially rich in religious poetry; the Sermons of Jón Vídalín belong to the beginning of the i8th; essays of an economical or
political character begin at the middle or end of that century, and periodicals from A. D. 1780. As for this Dictionary, it may be
briefly stated that, as to the old literature, every passage is as far as possible given with references; while words and phrases from
the living Icelandic tongue, popular sayings, etc. are freely given, but generally without references. No Icelandic Dictionary can be
said to be complete that does not pay attention to the present language: the old literature, however rich, does not give the whole
language, but must be supplemented and illustrated by the living tongue. The differences in grammar are slight, and the transition
of forms regular and gradual, so the change is mostly visible in the vocabulary. But it should be noted that when a word or
phrase is given without reference, this means that no ancient reference was at hand: but it does not follow that it is modern; this
can only be seen from the bearing of the word, e. g. whether it conveys a notion known to the ancients or not. Of modern works
cited the following may be noted:

I. IN POETRY, first, the flower of Icelandic poetry, old as well as modern, the Passíu-Sálmar or Fifty Passion Hymns by Hallgrim
Petrsson (born 1614, died 1674), finished 1660, published 1666, and since that time reprinted in thirty editions; the former figure
marks the hymn, the latter the verse. The Hymns and Psalms of the Reformation are now and then cited from the Hymn-book
of 1619 (called Hóla-bók, cited by its leaves), or the collection of 1742. 2. Of secular poems, Búnađar-bálkr (marked
Bb.), composed 1764, by Eggert olafsson (born 1726, died 1768) ; this poem has always been a great favourite with the people in
Iceland: the first figure marks the divisions of the poem. A small collection, A.D. 1852, called Snot, containing small but
choice poems of different poets. p. Of rimur or modern rhapsodies, the Ulfars-rimur are cited as the choicest specimen,
composed by ţorlak Gudbrandsson, who died in 1707; Tíma-ríma, a satirical poem of the beginning of the i8th century;
Wúma-rímur by Sigurd Breidfjörd. Y- Njóla, a philosophical poem by Björn Gunnlaugsson, published 1844; Hústafla, a
pedagogical poem by Jón Magnusson (born 1601), cited from the Ed. of 1774- 8. The Ballads or Fornkvćđi, 1854 sq.,
vide s. v. danz. *. Ditties and Songs, never published, but all the better recollected,—the choicest among them are those
attributed to Pál Vídalín (born 1666, died 1727), etc. etc. 3. The chief Poets are:—Hallgrímr Pútrsson; Stefán olafsson
(died 1688); Eggert olafsson; Jón jţorláksson (born 1744, died 1819), his poems are collected in two volumes, 1842 ; Benedikt
Grondal (born 1762, died 1825), his poems in a small collection, 1833; Sigurdr Petrsson (died 1827), his poems collected in
1844; Bjarni Thorarinsson (born 1787, died 1841), his poems published 1847 ; Jónas Hallgrimsson (born 1807, died 1846), his
poems published 1847; Sigurđr Breiđfjörđ (died 1846).

II. IN PROSE we must first mention, 1. Nýja Testamenti, the New Testament, cited from the text of 1644, in Edd. of 1807*
and 1813 (in no case is the new version, London 1866, cited, it being merely a paraphrase, and inaccurate) ; the text of 1644 here
cited is mainly founded on the original version of 1540, which has been duly reckoned among the noblest specimens of Icelandic
prose, especially in the Gospels; it is therefore frequently cited. Gamla Testamenti, the Old Testament, is cited more
sparingly. The earliest edition of the Bible (Holuni 1584) is called Guđbrands-Biblia, i. e. the Bible of bishop Gudbrand; the
next edition (Hólum 1644) is called fsorlaks-Biblia, i.e. the Bible of bishop Thorlak, and is a slightly emended text of that
of bishop Gudbrand. The fjorlaks-Biblia may be called the Icelandic textus receptus; the edition of 1746, called Waisenhús-
Biblia, is a reprint of it; as is also the edition of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 1813. Whenever the Old Testament
is cited (and when Stjórn is not meant), the reference is to one of these three editions of the same version. p. Next
we have to notice the Sermons of bishop Jem Vidalin (born 1666, died 1720), called Jóns-bók (not the Jóns-bók above
mentioned, B. Ill) or Vídalíns Postilla, a highly esteemed work; the first edition is of 1718, and ten or eleven editions have
since been published : perhaps no Icelandic book is so stocked with popular sayings and phrases of every kind. 2. Of secular
literature we have first to mention íslenzkar Jxjóđsögur or Icelandic Stories and Legends by Jón Aniason, Leipzig 1862, 1864,
in two volumes; some of them rendered into English by Messrs. Powell and Magnusson; the Icelandic text, however, is always
cited. P. Kvöldvökur, a popular book for children, in two vols. 1794 and 1796, by Hannes Finnsson. -y. The publications
of the Icelandic Literary Society, Bókmenta-félag, founded A.D. 1816: Árbćkr or Annals of Iceland by Jón Espolin (died
1836), published 1821 sqq.: Safn or Contributions towards the History of Iceland, etc. etc. 8. Piltr og Stúlka, a novel,
1850. t. The beautiful translation of the Odyssey by Sveinbjorn Egilsson, published under the name of Odysseifs-kvœđi, in
small parts, to serve as school books during the years 1829-1844. f. Periodicals :—Félags-rit, a periodical in fifteen volumes,
1780-1795, contains much that is valuable in Icelandic philology; cp. also Ný Félags-rit, a periodical of 1841 sqq. Ápmann
á Albingi, a periodical of 1829-1832. Jsjóđólfr, a newspaper, Reykjavik 1848-1869.

Ample thanks are due to the excellent reader at the Clarendon Press, Mr. Pembrey, for his watchful attention to consistency in spelling
and accuracy hi punctuation, especially in the Icelandic part of this Dictionary.

G. V.