absol. = absolute, abso-

ace. = accusative.

act. = active.

A. D. = Anno Domini.

adj. = adjective.

adv. = adverb.

adverb. = adverbially.

aliit. = alliteration, al-

anatom. = anatomi-

a7T.Xt7. =&va^ \e-y6-


A. S. = Anglo-Saxon.

astron. = astronomy,

begin. = beginning.

Bodl. = Bodleian.

Bohem. = Bohemian.

botan. — botanically.

Brit. Mus. = British

ch. = chapter.

class. = classical.

Cod. or Cd. = Codex.

cognom. = cognomen.

collect. = collective.


corapd,compds = com-
pound, compounds.

conj. = conjunction.

contr. = contracted.

corrcsp. — correspond-

cp. = compare.

Dan, — Danish.

dat. = dative,
decl. = declined,
def. = definite,
defect. = defective,
dep. = deponent.
DeProfesser = DeHerr
Professer by August
Corrodi, in the Zu-
rich idiom.
deriv. = derived,
diet. = dictionary,
dimin. = diminutive,
dissvl. = dissyllabic.
D. R. A. = Deutsche
by Grimm,
dub. = dubious,
eccl. = ecclesiastical.
Ed., Edd. = edition,

editions, edited.
E. Engl. Spec. — Early

English Specimens.
! e. g. = exempli gratia.
I cllipt. = elliptical, ellip-
j tically.
; Engl. = English.
j esp. = especially.
| etc. = et cetera.
j etym.— etymology.
I f. or fern.--feminine.
Fin. = Finnish,
for. = foreign.
; Fr. ----- French in ety-
! mologies.
| Frank. — Prankish,
freq. = frequent, fre-

Fris. = Frisian.

Gael. = Gaelic.

gen. = genitive.

gener. = generally.

Germ. = German.

gl. or gloss. = glossary.


Gr. = Greek.

gramm. = grammar.

Havn. — Havniensis.

Hel. = Heliand.

Icel. == Iceland, Ice-
lander, Icelanders,

id. = idem, referring to
the passage quoted.

id. = idem, referring to
the translation.

i. e. = id est.

imperat. = imperative.

impers. = impersonal.

indecl. -— indeclinable.

indef. = indefinite.

indie. = indicative.

infin. = infinitive.

inflex. = inrlexive.

intens. = intensive.

intrans. —- intransitive.

irreg. -- irregular.

Ital. = Italian.

1. = line.

L. = Linnus.

Lat. = Latin.

1. c. = loco citato.

lit. = literally.

Lith. = Lithuanian.

Litt. — Littonian.

loc. = local, locally.

m. or masc. = mascu-

medic. = medicine, me-

metaph. = metaphori-
cal, metaphorically.

metath. = metathesis.

melon. = metonomy,

metric. = metrically.

mid. H. G. = middle
High German.

mid. Lat. = middle

milit. = military.

M. Lat. — Medival

mod. = modern.

monosvl. = monosylla-
bic. '

MS., MSS. = manu-
script, manuscripts.

mythol. = mythology,

n. or neut. = neuter.

naut. — nautical.

navig. = navigation.

nes;.— negative.

NJH.G. = New High

no. = number.

nom. = nominative.

North. E. = Northern

Norweg. — Norwegian.

obsol. = obsolete.

O. H. G. = Old High

opp. = opposed.

Ormul. or Orm. = 0r-

part. = participle.

partic. = particularly.

pass. = passive.

perh. = perhaps.

pers. = person.

pi. or plur. == plural.

poet. = poetically.

Pol. = Polish.

posit. = positive.

pr. or prop. = proper,

pref. = preface.

prep., prcpp. --preposi-
tion, prepositions.

pres. = present.

pret. = preterite.

priv. — privative.

pr. n. --proper name.

prob. = probably.

pron. = pronoun.

proncd. --- pronounced.

pro verb.=proverbially.

provinc. = provincial.

qs. --quasi.

q. v. — quod vide.

R. = Rimur.

rccipr. = reciprocally.

redupl. —reduplicative.

reflex. — retlexive.

relat. -= relative.

S. = Saga.

s. a.=sub anno.

Sansk. = Sanskrit.

Scandin. = Scandina-
via, Scandinavian.

Scot. Scottish.

signif. = signification.

sing. = singular.

Slav. = Slavonic.

Span. = Spanish.

spec. = specially.

sq., sqq. = following.

subj. = subjunctive.

subst. = substantive.

sufF. = suffix.

sup. = supine.

superl. — superlative.

s. v. =sub voce.

Swed. — Swedish.

temp.— temporal.

tcrniin. = termination.

Teut. = Teutonic.

thcol. = theological,

trans. — transitive.

trans!. = translation.

trisyl. = trisvllabic.

Ulf. = Ulfilas.

uncert. = uncertain.

unclass. — unclassical.

Ups. De la Gard. = De
la Garde's collection
of Icel. MSS. in Up-

v. = vide.

viz. namely.

v. 1. = varia lectio.

Wolf. = Wolfenb*uttel



— , equal or equivalent to, the same as.

[ J, between these brackets stand etymological remarks and comparisons with cognate languages.

Words in capital letters are root words or important words.

The word Norse is generally used in a peculiar sense, namely, to mark the old Norwegian idiom (or MS.) as opposed to Icelandic proper.

Historical references referring to religion, customs, life, etc. are given in chapters, and under the special name of the Saga or work cited, vide
e. g. sub voce draumr and dnipa ; the condition of the editions has, however, made it impossible to follow this rule throughout.
Philological references arc given in pages.

In nouns the genitive termination is placed between the noun and gender, e. g. alda, u, = alda, gen. ldu ; bra, u, — bara, gen. barn, etc.; bati,
a, —bati, gen. bata ; bogi. a,-----bogi, gen. boga, etc. So also s, ar, jar. c. g. bekkr, s, = bekkr, gen. bekks ; bekkr, jar, = bekkr, gen.
bekkjar; belgr, jar, --= belgr, gen. bclgjar; borg, ar, —-borg, gen. borgar, etc.

Compounds of nouns formed from the genitive of the noun are regarded as double words, and printed at the end of the head noun in the
same paragraph, vide e. g. bekkr, bk, etc.

As to the marking of verbs the following is to be noticed:—a, or d, , t, tt, following immediately after a verb, are the preterite
inflexions which characterise the verb; a indicates a trisyllabic preterite with a as its characteristic, e. g. baka, a, that is to say,
infin. baka, pret. bakai, sup. baka, pres. baka : whereas d, , t. dd, tt, indicate a dissyllabic preterite, having the dental as charac-
teristic, c. g. brcnna, d, that is to say, infin. brenna, pret. brenndi, sup. brennt, pres. brenni; fa, dd, that is to say, iniin. fa, pret.
fddi, etc.; bta, tt, — btta, pret. bxtti, etc.; bsegja, , --b^ja, pret. bgi, etc. Where the verb is somewhat irregular, the form is
given in full, e. g. bcrjn, pret. bari. All verbs in this Dictionary not marked as above stated are strong, and the tenses are given in
cxtcnso. The notation as above stated is adopted from Unger's Glossaries to his editions of Sagas, and has been lately used in Fritzner's

The simple and accented vowels are separated; thus a a;id 11, i and i, o and o, u and li, y and stand each by themselves; an exception,
however, is made with o, because it is rare and peculiar in pronunciation. Ang, ing, ung, yng are given with the simple unaccented
vowels, though they are frequently in the editions spelt with an acute (').