XVI

OUTLINES OF GRAMMAR,

SUBSTANTIVES.

A. STRONG NOUNS, i.e. the more complex kind of Declension in which the gen. sing, ends in a Consonant.

Masculine.
2nd Declension, gen. sing, -ar, nom. pi. -/r. | 3rd Declension, nom. pi. -r.


ISt

Declension, gen.

sing, -s, nom.

pi. -ar.

SING.

NOM.

heim-r

himin-n

lkn-ir


GEN.

heim-s

himin-s

lkn-is


DAT.

heim-i

himn-i

lkn-i


Ace.

heim

himin

lkn-i

PLUR.

NOM.

heim-ar

himn-ar

lkn-ar


GEN.

heim-a

himn-a

lkn-a


DAT.

heim-um

himn-um

lkn-um


Ace.

heim-a

himn-a

lkn-a

fund-r
fund-ar
fund-i
fund

fund-i r
fund-a
fund-urn
fund-i

bekk-r
bekk-jar
bekk
bekk

bekk-ir
bekk-ja
bekk-jum
bekk-i

kott-r

katt-ar

kett-i

kOtt

kett-ir
katt-a
ktt-um
kott-u

vetr
vetr-ar
vetr-i
vetr

vetr
vetr-a
vetr-um
vetr

eigend-r
eigand-a
eigund-um
eigend-r

SING.

PLUR.

SING.

PLUR.




Feminine.




ISt

Declension, gen.

sing, -or, nom.

pl. -ir.

2nd Declension,

gen. sing.

and nom. pl. -ar.

3rd Declension,

nom. pl. -r.

NOM

ti

hOfn

sl

nl

fit

hei-r

eik

bk

GEN. t-ar

hafn-ar

sl-ar

nl-ar

fit-jar

hei-ar

eik-ar

bk-ar

DAT. t

hOfn

sl-u

nl

fit

hei-i

eik

bk

Acc. t

hofn

sl

nl

fit

hei-i

eik

bk

NOM

ti-ir

hafn-ir

sl-ir

nl-ar

fit-jar

hei-ar

eik-r

bœk-r

GEN. t-a

hafn-a

sl-a

nl-a

fit-ja

hei-a

eik-a

bk-a

DAT

t-um

hfn-mn

sl-um

nl-um

fit-jum

hei-um

eik-um

bk-um

Acc,

t-ir

hafn-ir

sl-ir

nl-ar

fit-jar

hei-ar

eik-r

bœk-r

Neuter.

1st Declension, gen. sing. -s.

NOM.

skip

barn

nes

hgg

GEN.

skip-s

barn-s

nes-s

hOee-s

o

DAT.

skip-i

barn-i

nes-i

hOgg-vi

Acc.

skip

barn

nes

hgg

NOM.

skip

brn

nes

hi)gg

GEN.

skip-a

barn-a

nes-ja

hOgg-va

DAT.

skip-um

brn-um

nes-jum

hogg-uin

Acc.

skip

brn

nes

h^'gg

and Declension.

kli
kli-s
kli
kli

klaei
kl-a
kl-um
kli

rki
rki-s
rki
rki

rki
rk-ja
rk-jum
rki

B. WEAK NOUNS, i.e. the simpler kind of Declension in which the gen. sing, ends in a Vowel.

SING.

PLUR.


Masculine.


Feminine.

1

NOM.

tm-i

ste-i

tung-a

ald-a | ell-i

i aug-a

GEN. ]






i

DAT. I

tm-3

ste-ja

tung-u

Old-u

ell-i (unclianged)

i
i aug-a (u

Acc. j







NOM.

tm-ar

stc-jar

tung-ur

ld-ur

no plur.

i
| avjg-u

GEN.

tm-a

ste-ja

tung-na



! aug-na

DAT.

tm-um

ste-jum

tung-um

ld-um


j aug-um

Acc.

tin-a

ste-ja

tung-ur

ld-ur


1 aug-u

Neuter.

hjart-a

hjort-u
hjart-na
hjOrt-um
hjort-u

STRONG NOUNS.—Masculine.

Remarks on the 1st Declension: I. heimr: words
of this form are found almost in every column of the Dictionary,
a.nd are therefore usually only marked ' m.' 2. about half a
score of masculines have a characteristic v, which appears before a
vowel, hor-r, hjr-r, br-r (pot.), sng-r, m-r, sse-r, snj-r (si-r,
snj-r), sr-var (poet., pi.) ; in dat. sing, hor-vi,... sOng-vi, m-vi,
ssc-vi, snja-vi; in pi. hOr-var, sng-var, snj-var. The dat. in -vi is now
obsolete, but the pi. is still used. 3. remarks on the inflexion, a.
the nominative : -r assimilates with the final radicals /, n, s : in words
with long root vowel, al-1, gal-1, hval-1, hol-1, kjol-1, stol-1, fil-1, hl-1,
rl-1, flein-n, stein-n, svein-n, brn-n, dn-n, hiin-n, s-s, bs-s, ls-s,
haus-s, hnaus-s, meis-s, s-s, s-s, etc. In mod. usage the inflex. -s in
s-s . .. s-s is dropped, as is the -r after a radical r, in ur-r, aur-r,
hver-r, her-r, geir-r, leir-r, hr-r, rnr-r, r-r, hamar-r, and thus the
nom. becomes like the ace., s, bs,.. . r, hver, hamar, etc.:—the r
is dropped, in words like aft, gafl, skafl, nagl, vagi, fugl, karl, jarl, iaxl,
lax, hrafn, stafn, ofn, stofn, porn, vagn, svefn, egn, geisl, gsl, hls,
fress, sess, foss, koss, kross, purs, dans, fans, angr, klungr, hungr, akr,
hafr, sigr, otr, lr, hriir, nar, nykr, ver (me/her), vikr, grr, aldr,
Baldr, galdr, ldr, meldr, arr, hltr, blstr, austr, estr, bakstr, mokstr,

| apaldr. p. the genitive ; graut-r, skog-r, hofund-r have -ar in gen. as
i the 2nd declension. ^-the dative; some words of this declension drop
the -;', but it is difficult to draw an exact line, as this use is rather a
licence than a law :—all the words in -leik-r, kr-leik (charilnti\ fr-
lcik (venustati), sann-leik (yeritat); as also leik-r, fil-1, kil-1, skril-1,
(dat. fil. kil, skril), hrepp-r, lepp-r : words with long root vowel and a
final p or f, hf-r, hp-r, sop-r : words with ei as root vowel, dat.
hlcif, Hm. 51 (but h!eif-i, 140); svcip, meis, sveig, dverg (but dvcrgi,
Yt. 2), strk, snap, skap, bat and bt-i (scapbne^); |ir, kr, nor, bor,
hor, from r-r, etc.; daun (odori), dun, Bnin, hiin, nuil, rniir, diir,
etc., for diin-i ... dr-i, which are obsolete ; so also bk and bk-i, diik
and dk-i, mug and mg-i, reit and reit-i: those with a long vowel as
final, e.g. jo, sk, n, Frey, cy, from j-r. ..ey-r:—in masculines with
a characteristic v the old dat. form is -vi, whereas the mod. drops both
letters, thus dat. mr, hr, m, snj, for the old mOr-vi, hr-vi, m-vi,
snjo-vi. Nouns with the inflexive endings -i'tgr, -ungr seldom drop
the i,konung-i,buning-i: words with a radical r never, e.g. galdr- i,aldr-i,
not aldr, galdr: the proper names of this declension very seldom drop
it,.e. g. Jjoreif-i, Jjorlk-i, Jjorlcik-i: dag-r, dat. deg-i, but as pr. name
Dag. In olci writers many of these apocopate forms begin to appear,
e. g. r-i (the god) is only found in a single instance used by a poet
of the 8th century; yet the decay of the dat. inflexion is a little