OUTLINES OF GRAMMAR.

XVll

increasing, though the use, ancient and modern, is in the main still the
same. II. himinn : the contraction in dat. sing, and plur.
is to be noted, and the assimilation in nom.; hereto belong all masc.
with inflex. -inn, -win, -arr, -urr, -ill, -all: 1. -nn, aptan-n,
arin-n, drttin-n, himin-n, in-n, morgin-n. 2. -arr, hamar-r,
kamar-r, humar-r, jaar-r, nafar-r, etc.: pr. names in -arr (the -ar in
these is etymologically different) are not contracted, e. g. Einar-r, dat.
Einar-i. 3. -urr, fjotur-r, totur-r, jofur-r; but not so the pr.
names, e. g. Gizur-r, dat. Gizur-i. 4. -//, bagal-1, kaal-1, vaal-1,
biil-1, ketil-1 (q. v.), lykil-1, jkul-1, rul-1, stul-1, sul-1, mndul-1,
ngul-1, ngul-1, etc.: even the pr. names are contracted, e. g. Egil-1,
dat. Agli; Ketil-1, dat. Katli. III. lœknir: hereto belong only a
score of common words used in prose writing, btir, ein-ir, elr-ir, end-ir,
eyr-ir, fell-ir, hell-ir, hers-ir, hir-ir, ks-ir, kyll-ir, ltt-ir, lkn-ir, miss-ir,
ml-ir, mœn-ir, nenn-ir, reyn-ir, skelm-ir, steyp-ir, verm-ir, v-ir, vs-ir,
err-ir: pr. names as, Grett-ir, Brest-ir, Bein-ir, Styrm-ir, Sverr-ir, Jir-
ir, g-ir: local names, Geys-ir, Keil-ir. 2. a great many (more than
a hundred) poet, and obsolete words. $5* In mod. usage the declension
of these words is altered and the r is kept throughout, whereby nom.
dat. ace. sing, become alike, hell-ir, gen. helli-rs, dat. ace. hell-ir, pi.
hell-rar,hell-ra, hell-rum, or laekn-irar, lkn-ira, lkn-irum:—the words
with an inflex. -ari were originally, as shewn by Gothic bcar-eis, of
this declension, but now they are all weak masc., and the sole instances
left on record of the old inflexion are the gen. mutar-is by Sighvat,
and vartar-is, Landn. 197 (v.l. 18) in a verse of the loth century.

Remarks on the 2nd Declension: the words belonging
hereto are far less in number than those of the 1st, perhaps seven score
of simple nouns or thereabout, but they are often irregular, we shall
therefore try to give a list of them ; their marks, besides the plur. -ir,
are the freq. dropping of the dat. sing, -i, the ace. plur. -u, and the
characteristic : I. fundr: skri-r, stuld-r, sull-r, sult-r,
veg-r, fri-r, kvi-r (a womb), feld-r, ver-r, brest-r, gest-r, rett-r,
kost-r, burS-r, skur-r, ur-r, fund-r, mund-r, gris-s,na-r:—inflex.-ar,

-ur, bna-r, fgnu-r, hagna-r, jfnu-r, getna-r, sknu-r, dug-
na-r, rifna-r, skilna-r, etc.:—sta-r, brag-r, mat-r, sal-r, ham-r,
svan-r, val-r, sau-r, -r, sn-r, rtt-r, bol-r, dug-r, hug-r, bug-r,
grun-r, mun-r, hlut-r, skut-r, vin-r, grip-r, glœp-r, ly-r,—in these words
the dat. -/' is dropped, as also in compd nouns in -skap-r, gleskap-r,
fflskap-r, etc.:—pr. names in -rr, -ndr, -kon have also -ar in gen.,
Br-r, Jir-r, Sigur-r, |jrnd-r, Eyvind-r, Geirr-r, Sigr-r, H-kon,
etc.:—in pi., pr. names of some people (countries or counties), Danir,
Frisir, Valir, Indir, Vindir, Lappir, Grikkir, Tyrkir, Kyrjalir, Kvenir,
Serkir, Vanir (the gods) : Egir, Eynir, Hleygir, Mcerir, Syguir, frilir,
JHcendir (in Norway): -dcelir, Lax-dœlir, Vatns-dœlir, etc. tip Irregu-
larities ; some of the words above have -s in gen. sing, like those of the
1st declension, e.g. hal-r, val-r, ham-r, svan-r, bol-r, dug-r, grun-r,
brest-r, gest-r, grs-s, glcep-r, iy-r, n-r :—dal-r, hval-r, staf-r, mar-r,
hver-r, ref-r, sel-r, mel-r have now usually -ir in pi., but in olden times
they had -ar, and belonged to the 1st declension; they also drop the

-i in dat. sing. II. bekkr: with characteristic j, which appears
before a vowel in a score ajid a half of words; be-r, vef-r, bekk-r,
hrekk-r, stekk-r, flekk-r, leyg-r, eyk-r, reyk-r, legg-r, vegg-r, belg-r, elg-r,
merg-r, streng-r, veng-r, hrygg-r, drykk-r, hlykk-r, byl-r, hyl-r, ryf-r,
byr-r, hyr-r, styr-r, Icek-r, bce-r. 2. dreng-r, segg-r, stegg-r, etc.
have -s in gen. sing, fg" Almost all those above (with characteristic^')
also drop, the dat. -i in sing. 3. with characteristic v; sj-r, gen.
sj-var, pi. sjo-ir. III. kottr: with an old ace. pi. in -it,
prob. caused by a characteristic n (cp. the Goth, aims, qvipus, tigus,
vabstus, valus),
three score words: 1. with a plain root vowel;
kvi-r (dictum), kvist-r, kvitt-r, li-r, lim-r, lit-r, si-r, smi-r, stig-r,
tig-r, vi-r, rttr (a fold), bur-r: most of these words drop the -i in
dat. (li, lim, lit, si, smi, stig). 2. with a change in the root
vowel,—o, a, e, lg-r, mg-r, vl-r, vll-r, vnd-r, vr-r, mr-r,
svr-r, bll-r, brk-r, knrr, grpt-r, rn, flt-r, htt-r, kntt-r,
ktt-r, vtt-r, kst-r, vxt-r, lst-r, mkk-r, H-r, Hr-r, Snrt-r,
spl-r (vide bring-spelir):—-j', ja, i, bjrn, fjr-r, hjrt-r, kjl-r,
mj-r, skjld-r, Njr-r (the god) :—d, œ, r-r, s-s, drtt-r, htt-r,
mtt-r, sltt-r, r-r, spn-n, blk-r :—6, ee, bg-r :—o, y, son-r:
the a.cc. pi. -u has been changed into -i, first, in rr, ass, making ru,
su, which changed to ri, si, a change which took place very early,
and later in other words, which have now all got a regular ace. in -i
(limi, firi, ketti, hetti, syni, etc.); syni for sonu occurs even in old
MSS. far To bjrn (p. 66) add that when used as a pr. name it has
in mod. usage a gen., BjOrn-s, not Bjarnar (e. g. Sigurr Bjrnsson).

Remarks on the 3rd Declension: I. ordinary sub-
stantives, 1. gen. -ar, mna-r, pi. -r, mod. -ir; ft-r, q. v.; vetr,
fingr, q. v. 2. gen. -s, ma-r, gen. mann-s, pi. menu (me-r) ;
nagl, gen. nagl-s, pi. negl. II. eigendr : the plur. of parti-
ciples, when used as subst, as gratend-r, fagnend-r, gefend-r; hereto
belong the plur. of bndi, frndi, fjndi, q. v. HI. the plur.
pf fair, brir may also be reckoned ii: this declension. i

4S* The Icel. is the only one of all Teutonic languages, except
Gothic, that has preserved (up to the present day) the masc. inflexive

-r (Goth, -s) ; even in the earliest Anglo-Saxon it is dropped, and the
nom. sing, represents the naked root in the masculines as well as in
the feminines and neuters.

Feminine.

Remarks on the lat Declension: I. t: almost
in every column or page of the Dictionary, and simply marked
' f.' II. hofh: about four score words, with a in the root
vowel changed into o, caused by a hidden characteristic u, which
appears in dat. sing, of a few of them : 1. fonn, nn, bOnn, hgld,
hrnn, hvnn, spnn, gn, lgn, sOgn, gn, drfn, hfn, krf, mrk
(sylva), rk, kk, Hlkk, vmb, mb, skmm, vmm, klOpp,
lpp, sp, vst, xl, mjlt, bjrg, bjrk, tjrn, Gjll (niythol.), lo,
tr, sg, kr, krm, ml; and in mod. usage, dgg, lgg, x,
kvrn (kvern), q. v. 2. with -u in dat. sing.; rdd, riind, strnd,
nd (anima), jOr, hjr, hll, ll, mjll, mOrk (fylva), stng, tOng,
rst. 3. -r in nom. pi.; nd (a duck), mork (rnarca), hand (dat.
hendi), rng, tnn. 4. the following had in olden times -ar in
plur. and thus belonged to the 2nd declension, but changed into -ir at
an early date, so that this is the usual form in Editions of Sagas and the
sole form in mod. usage,— a. with a single final, r, df, grf, gjf,
nOf, tf, fjr, spjr, sk, vk, dvl, fjl, kvl, 10m, gron, mn, n,
for, skor, ks, ns, hvt. p. with double final, vrr, orf, gjr,
grn. (^* It is likely that at earlier times many more of these
words had the plur. -ar and dat. -it; the -ar remained longest in
those with a single final, and the dat. -u in those having dd, nd, 11, ng
as final; dat. sak-u (culpae) occurs on Runic stones, and gjaf-u, dval-u,
etc. may also be supposed. III. sol: with a characteristic
u, which appears sometimes in dat. sing, alone, sometimes in both
dat. and ace.: 1. only in dat. in sal, van, sl, braut, laut, raut,
fold, mold, j, grund, lund, mund, stund, und, ull, hur, ur, dgg
(irreg.), rdd, etc. (above); ntt, night, in plur. naet-r (3rd declension) ;
ey dat. ey-ju, and egg dat. egg-ju belong to the 2nd declension:
mae-r, dat. mey-ju ; even rddu (vocem), Pass. 19. 9, but that is a poet,
licence. 2. fern. pr. names ending in -bjrg, -laug, -run, -n, -ey,

-lei/, Ingi-bjrg, Gu-bjrg, jror-bjrg, Vil-borg, s-laug, Gu-laug,
Gu-rn, Sig-rn, Sig-n, As-n (gen. -njar), jor-ey, Gu-leif, Ingi-
leif; in names of foreign origin, Kristin, Katrin, Elin; in all the pr.
names the -u fixedly remains (in the appellatives it is often dropped),
and this not only in dat. but as a common case for dat. and ace. 3.
feminines with the inflexive -ing, fœ-ing, eld-ing, drottn-ing, kerl-ing,
kenn-ing, ekk-ing, vir-ing, sending, bygg-ing, uppstign-ing, sae-ing,
etc., so many that it would be in vain to try to record them all; they
have -ar in plur. and thus belong to the 2nd declension : in mod. usage
many of them have the -u in common for dat. and ace., thus drottning-u
= reginae and reginatn, kenning-u = doctrinae and docrinam, fœing-u

- nativitatem and nativitati, but this is very rare in old writers, yet
drottningu reginatn (ace.), Mar. 232, 304. 0. in -ung, djorf-ung,
horm-ung, laun-ung, etc., but only in dat.; they have also -ar in plur.

Remarks on the 2nd Declension: I. nl: 1. the
feminines in -ing, -ung, vide above. 2. over two score simple
nouns, r, l, nl, skl, tag, flaug, laug, rauf, dreif, kleif, veig, geil,
seil, hlein, rein, -vl, hei, rim, sin, hlf, smi, fik, kv, for, bn
(q. v.), run, lend, kvern, ox (the old form), alin:—with radical r,
gymbr, lifr, vinstr, vigr:—only in plur., leif-ar, hrcer-ar, ger-ar, her-
ar, fg-ar, s-ar, hreys-ar, slr-ar, gjlln-ar, meim-ar (pot.) : hetero-
gene are, lim-ar, tl-ar (lim, tl in sing, are neut.): heteroclyte are,
lyg-ar, gorsim-ar (sing, indecl. weak fern.) 3. add the words r,
df, etc. above recorded (ist declension II. 4). II. fit: over
a score of words, with characteristic j, which appears before a vowel,
hel, skel, ben, eng, egg, dregg, ey, des, fles, il, vin (only in local names,
e. g. Bjorg-vin), fit, klyf, lyf, nyt, dys, nausyn, Frigg (the goddess),
fiski (q. v.), m-r (q. v.), pi. mey-jar:—only in plur., ref-iar, sif-jar,
skef-jar, men-jar, skyn-jar, hre-jar. 2. with characteristic v, or,
gen. sing. nom. plur. r-var, st, b, dgg, gen. st-var, b-var,
dgg-var ; only in plur., gt-var (obsolete). t" Heterogene are the
local names in Norway ; in fern, plur., Holt-ar, Hus-ar, Hris-ar, Torg-
ar, Tn-ar, orp-ar, Nes-jar (holt, hs, hrs, torg, tn, orp, nes are
all neut. appellatives), L-ar, Les-jar, Vag-ar, Vin-jar, Kvild-ar, etc.,
see Munch s pref. (p. x) to Norge's Beskriv. III. heir:
feminines with an inflex. -r in nom. and characteristic i, which has
caused a vowel change in most of them, and which appears in dat. ace.
sing.: 1. about a score of appellatives; hei-r, vei-r, Hlei-r,
erm-r, helg-r (a boliday), eyr-r, mer-r, rey-r, br-r, byr-r, fyll-r,
flœ-r, -r (an eider-duck), se-r (vena), my'r-r, vsett-r, ox (qs. Ox-r) ;
kv-r, -r, sy'-r (q. v.), all three contr. in dat. and plur.; the obsolete
y'-r, rvt;-r, gy'g-r (pl. -jar, rg-jar, gg-jar) :—in mod. usage the -r
has changed into -/, in hei-i, vei-i, erm-i, eyr-i, mer-i, byr-i, fyll-i,