XVlll

OUTLINES OF GRAMMAB.

flœ-i, x-i; otherwise they retain the full declension and must not
be confounded with the indeclinable w*ak feminines gle-i, ell-i, etc.
In the west of Icel. the -r is still in use in flœ-r, vei-r, rey-r
(steypi-rey-r), and all over Icel. in ky"-r, ae-r; as also in br-r, only
here the -r is kept through all cases, so that the word has an indeclin-
able sing., cp. the use of this word in sl. Jpjs. i. 340, 341 (omitted
s. v. p. 84). 2. a great many fern. pr. names: simple, Au-r, Fr-r,
Ger-r, Hild-r, r-r, Unn-r, Ur-r (mythol.): compds, Sigr-r,
str-r, Gur-r, |mr-r, Ragnhei-r, lfhei-r, Hallger-r, Ingi-
ger-r, Valger8-r, |)orger-r, Qunnhild-r, Ragnhild-r, Ingveld-r, |jr-
hild-r, Hlmfr-r, etc.: those in -ur, qs. -unnr, Steinun-n, Ingun-n,
Iun-n, fjrun-n: in -dis, s-ds, Her-ds, Vig-ds, r-ds, f-ds,
dat. acc. dsi (omitted s. v. p. 100), and by way of analogy the foreign
abbadis (abbess), as if compounded with dis; foreign pr. names, Margrt,
Elizabet, etc.: in pr. names the inflexive -r is in full use over Icel.,
so that Baugei, Rand, etc. in old MSS. are only Norwegianisms.
ff The Icel. feminines in -r answer to Gothic -is, and are different
from the Gothic feminines in -s, such as anst-s, alp-s; of these latter
the Icel. nau-r (need, decl. as t) is the sole remnant. It is worth
noticing that the Icel. feminine proper names have preserved and repre-
sent the oldest and fullest declension of feminines.

Bemarks on the 3rd Declension, whigh contains about two
score words: 1. eik, steik, geit, greip, grind, gnit, kinn, kind (in
mod. usage), flk, spk, tk, vk, rt, mjlk, kverk (but in mod. usage
kverk-ar). 2. with changed vowel, bk, brk, gl, not, rt, gt,
ntt, tnn, hnd,nd(anas), mrk, fl, kl, l, r,t, gs, hs,ms, brn,
sto, hnot; plur. bœk-r, glœ-r, gt-r, nt-r, tenn-r, hend-r, end-r, flce-r,
t-r, gses-s, ms-s, bryn-n, ste-r, hnet-r (but in present use, sto-ir,
hnot-ir). $gm A very few of these words have also -r in nom. sing.,
viz. mjlk, mrk, ntt, vk; bœk-r from bk also occurs, though
seldom ; rist-r from rist, Pass. 33. 4, is poet. 3. tb this class we
may refer the plur. dyr-r (q. v.), gen. dura ; the latter r is inflexive, and
the form analogous to ky-r from k ; the plur. ky'-r, -r (q. v.) 4.
to this declension may also be referred the plur. of dttir, systir, mir,
although the r is here radical. gjf The monosyllabic feminines
with a final long vowel are contracted, , br, gj, Gn, Ij, l, kr,
r, sl, skr, sp, r ; as to the declension of these words vide , p. 48,
and bra, p. 77 ; 16, Ey-gl, sl, st, r, dat. l-m ...; sj (q. v.)
has no r in gen., nor tr, fr (q. v.) The root vowel of these words
is not changed, and accordingly they are classed with the 1st declen-
sion of feminines, but in a contracted form.

Neuter.

Remarks on the 1st Declension: I. skip : forms like
this are regular, and occur throughout the book, simply marked
' n.' II. barn: to this belong neuters with a as root vowel,
which in plur. becomes o; a change due to a lost characteristic vowel in
neut. plur., answering to -a in Goth., -u in A. S. (cp. Lat. cornu) : as a
radical a is the only vowel which is affected by an inflexive u, the remains
of this inflexion are only found in the words with that root vowel; these
words are many: 1. single words, ba, bla, va, haf, vaf, flag, drag,
bak, flak, rak, tak, ak, skjal, far, skar, svar, glas, fat, gat, afl, tafl, fall,
fjall, kail, band, grand, bar, skar, bjarg, brag, flag, nafn, safn, gagl,
hagl, tagl, agn, gagn, hald, vald, magn, lamb, mark, rann, happ, hapt,
skapt, hlass, gjald, spjall, spjald, tjald, hvarf, starf, barn, kast, ax, fax, sax,
vatn:—only in plur., log, glp, skp, rok : many have no plur. 2.
with an inflexive -ad, -al, etc., changed into u, hr-a, hundr-a, for-a,
-al, plnr. hr-u, hundr-u, -ul: sum-ar (prop, a masc.), plur.
sum-ur: gaman, dat. contr. gamni: hfu, dat. hfi. III.
nes: to this belong more than a score of words, with characteristic j,
ge, ve, nef, stef, egg, hregg, skegg, l, sel, ben, fen, gren, men, bcr,
sker, nes, flet, net, fley, grey, hey, ki, rif. gil, il, fyl, kyn, ny. IV.
hgg: to this belong a score of words, with characteristic v, hgg,
skrk. kjt, bl, 51, fl, mjl, fjr, smjr, bygg, glygg, lyng, fr, l,
hr, hey: only plur. sl. Sjp The da.hgg-vi, kjt-vi, bl-vi, smjr-vi,
bygg-vi, fr-vi, hey-vi,etc. began to be uncommon even in old writers
and are in mod. usage sounded hogg-i, skrok-i, kjot-i, etc., whereas in
plur. the v still remains, e. g. slva-fjara. For f, kn, tr, see these
words.

Remarks on the 2nd Declension, containing bisyllabic deri-
vative words with characteristic i. Most of these words are derivative
and with a changed vowel wherever possible. A great number are
declined like kl-i, so that it is difficult to give a complete list of them,
e. g. frelsi (by misprint called fern., p. 172) ; in the Dictionary they are
simply marked ' n.' II. riki: to this belong those with a final
g, k, which have j (the characteristic i) in gen. and dat. plur., e. g.
fylki, rki, ski, vgi, lgi, and many others.

WEAK NOUNS.—Masculine.
The original characteristic of weak nouns in Teutonic languages is

the inflexive -n, of which in Icel. the sole remnant is the gen. plur. of
the feminines and neuters.

Remarks on this Declension: I. timi: forms like
this occur almost in every page of the Dictionary, and are simply
marked ' a, m.' II. stei: to this belong only a few primitive
words with characteristic^', as ail-i, bryt-i, ste-i, vil-i, ni-i; the poet,
and obsolete skyt-i, tygg-i; poet. pr. names, Bel-i, I-i, Skyl-i, Jri-i,
Vg-i; compds in -skegg-i, eyjar-skeggjar; names of people in -ver-jar,
Gaulver-jar, Oddaver-jar, and in mod. usage, jver-jar, Spnver-jar,
etc., cp. -varii in old Teutonic names in Latin writers:—compds in -ingi,
hfing-i, heiing-i, k,unning-i, fœing-i, banding-i, leysing-i, auming-i,
rning-i,Vring-i,Skrling-i,etc., pl.hfing-jar, etc.: in -yrkiot-virlii,
ein-virki, spell-virki, etc., pi. einvirk-jar, Tyrki (a Turk, mod.), etc.:—
for le, gen. Ija (lea), and kl, gen. kla, see these words. There is
a curious inflexive -n left in pi. of the obsolete poet, words, brag-nar,
gum-nar, got-nar, from bragi, goti, gumi. ts31 Some masculines have
a double declension, both strong and weak, hug-r and hug-i, hlut-r
and hlut-i, holm-r and holm-i, stall-r and stall-i, munn-r and munn-i,
gar-r and gar-i, odd-r and odd-i, ni-r and ni-i, drang-r and drang-i,
linn-r and linn-i, likam-r and likam-i, glugg-r and glugg-i, -ingr and

-ingi; all derivative words in -leikr have both forms, -leik-r and -leik-i;
cp. also pr. names as rn and rn-i, Bjrn and Bjarn-i, Finn-r and
Finn-i, Odd-r and Odd-i, Gisl and Gisl-i, Geir-r and Geir-i, etc,

Feminine.

Bemarks on the 1st Declension: I. tunga: this
form, marked ' u, f.' in the Dictionary, contains many hundreds of
appellatives, and several pr. names, Halla, sa, ra, Hall-dra, etc.:
fr (q. v.) is contracted ; so also trii-a, gen. tra; the pr. names Gr-a,
G-a, gen. Gr, Go. II. alda: to this belong all the
feminines with a as root vowel, cp. introduction to letter A: volv-a,
a sibyl, gen. vl-u, pi. vol-ur. gsy" Only a few of the words of this
declension (little more than a score, or about two or three per cent, of
the whole) form a gen. plur.; these are esp: the following, vaka, vika,
klukka, ekkja, rekkja, kirkja (gen. ekk-na ... kirk-na), stiilka, tala,
vala, sla (slna, Mar. passim), kla, sla, gata, gta, sta, varta, dfa,
fa, rjpa, rma, visa, hosa, messa, kelda, skylda ; kona has kven-na ;
the nom. of stjarna (a star) and skepna (a creature) may also serve for
gen. plur., skaparinn stjarna, creator stellarum, in a hymn: in some
few cases the gen. plur. is formed by adding the article to the nom.
sing., thus gyja-nna (dearum), gryfja-nna (fovearum): in many
cases the gen. sing, is used collectively, thus Icel. say, ldu-gangr,
impetus undarum,—the words denoting wave, alda, bra, bylgja, are
all of this declension, and none of them have a proper gen. plur.;
bylg-na is found (bylgna-gangr, Mar. 269), but ald-na, bar-na are
impossible forms, one might perhaps say alda-nna, bylgja-nna; sgu-
bk, liber bistoriarum; the gen. sagn-a, historiarum (sagna-ritari),
is rarely used and is borrowed from sgn. Sometimes this deficiency
may become puzzling, chiefly in translating Latin into Icel.; in original
writers it is not felt. In olden times the number of those words that
allowed of a gen. was still more limited.

Remarks on the Indeclinable Feminine :—with perhaps the
sole exception of aevi (life) and elli (age) all the words of this declen-
sion are derivatives from adjectives and formed by a change of vowel,
whenever the root vowel of the adjective is changeable; almost all
these words are abstract (denoting quality), and so have no plural; forms
like glei-r (ludi) or fi-r (vitae) are quite exceptional and ungramma-
tical: 1. single nouns, about two score of words; glei, helgi (boll-
ness),
ergi, leti, gremi, held, speki, hugrekki, frœi, mcei, œi (fury),
hsi, kti, reii, feiti, bleyi, hreysti, veyki, hreysti, fylli, hylli, fy'si,
ski, birti, snilli, girni, teiti, hvti, rvi, mildi, blindi, atgrvi, hnggvi,
inyki: lygi and grsimi in sing., but heteroclite in plur. 2.
derivatives ; -semi from adj. -samr, skyn-semi (very many) : compds
in -frai, -speki, but if prefixed as a double compd they take s,
thus e. g. frœi-bk, but gufrœis-bk; skynsemi (rationis), but
skynsemis-tru (fides rationis, i. e. ra(ionalismus) : -ni from adjec-
tives in -inn, e. g. hei-ni, Krist-ni, hl-ni, and many others : -skygni,

-sni, e.g. glm-skygni, v^-s^ni: -gi from adj. -igr, e.g. gr-gi,
kyn-gi; -gi, har-gi, etc.: -gli from adj. -gull, sann-sgli (vera-
citas)
from sann-sgull (verax) : in -andi only a few, kve-andi, hyggj-
andi, afr-endi, Ver-andi (the Norn): in local names, Skni, Erri, Ylfi
(islands): Skai (the goddess) is declined as masc.

Neuter.

Bemarks on this Declension: it contains, 1. six words
denoting parts of the body, auga, eyra, hjarta, lunga, nyra, eista. 2.
a few appellatives, almost obsolete, none of which form a gen. plur.,
bjga,kla,sima, leika,hnoa, vibeina, vetta (in ekki vetta,noivigbt;
hvat-vetna, every wigbi).