OUTLINES OF GEAMMAB.

xix

ADJECTIVES.

A. STRONG DECLENSION, as in Substantives, used of Adjectives, both positive and superlative, when indefinite.


Masc. Fern. Neut. Masc.

Fern. Neut.

Masc. Fern. Neut.

SlNO- NOM.

ung-r ung ung-t

fagr

fgr fagr-t

h-r h h-tt

GEN.

ung-s ung-rar ung-s

fagr-s

fagr-ar fagr-s

h-s h-rrar h-s

DAT.

ung-nm ung-ri ung-u

fogr-um fagr-i fogr-um

ha-vufh ha-rri ha-vum

Ace.

ung-an ung-a ung-t

fagr-an

fagr-a fagr-t

h-van h-va h-tt

*"*- NOM.

ung-ir ung-ar ung

fagr-ir

fagr-ar fgr

h-vir h-var- h

GEN.

ung-ra in all genders

fagr-a

in all genders

ha-rra in all genders

DAT.

ung-um in all genders

fgr-um in an genders

ha-rum inaH genders

Ace.

ung-a ung-ar ung

fagr-a

fagr-ar fogr

h-va h-var h



THE ARTICLE. PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES hi 'inn.


Masc. Fern. Neat.

Masc, Fern. Neuf.

Masc. Fern. Nevf,

S"*0* NOM.

n-r ny ny-tt

hin-n

hin hi-t

komin-n komn-ar komi-t

GEN.

n-s ny-rrar ny'-s

hin-s

hin-nar hin-s

komin-s komin-nar komin-s

DAT.

ny-jum ny-rri njf-ju

hin-um hin-ni hin-u

komn-um komin-ni komn-u

Ace.

ny-jan ny-ja ny-tt

hin-n

hin-a hi-t

komin-n komn-a komi-t

Pum* NOM.

ny-ir ny-jar ny

hin-ir

hin-ar hin

komn-ir komn-ar komi-n

GEN.

ny-rra in all genders

hin-na

in all genders

komin-na in all genders

DAT.

ny-jum in all genders

hin-um in all genders

komn-um in all genders

Ace.

ny-ja ny-jar ny

hin-a

hin-a hin

komn-a komn-ar komi-a

B, WEAK

DECLENSION, used of Adjectives, both posit, and superl., when indef. ; and general in compar. and part, act; sing.

POSITIVE (definite). COMPARATIVE (def. and indef.) SUPERLATIVE (definite).


Masc. Fern. Neat.

Masc.

Fern. Neut.

Masc. Fern. Neut.

^8' NOM.

ung-i ung-a ung-a

yng-ri

yng-ri yng-ra

yng-sti yng-sta yng-sta

GEN.")





DAT. I

ung-a ung-u ung-a

yng-ra

yng-ri yng-ra

yng-sta yng-stu yng-sta

Ace. j





^^ NOM.-





GEN. I
Ace. j

Ung-U in all genders

yng-ri

in all genders

yng-stu n all genders

DAT.

Ung-um ta all genders

yng-rum in all gende-rs

yng-stum In all genders

0. INDECLINABLE ADJECTIVES Q -a and -i, see remarks beow.

B. THE ARTICLE SUFFIXED TO NOUNS.


Masc. Fern. Neat.

Masc. Fern. Neut.

Smo- NOM.

heimr-inn t-in skip-it

timi-nn tunga-n elli-n auga-t

GEN.

heims-ins tar-innar skips-ins

tima-ns tungu-nnar elli-nnar auga-ns

DAT.

heimi-num t-inni skipi-nu

tima-num tungu-nni elli-nni auga-nu

Ace.

heim-inn ti-ina skip-it

tima-na tungu-na elli-na auga-t

**"*- NOM.

heimar-nir tir-nar skip-in

timar-nir tungur-nar augu-n

GEN.

heima-nna tfa-nna skipa-nn*

tima-nna tungna-nna augna-nna

DAT.

heimu-nura tu-num slripu-num

,timun-um tnngu-num augun-um

Ace.

heima-na tir-nar skip-in

tima-na tungur-nar augu-n

Remarks on the Adjectives: I. the nom, raasc.:—
the nom. -r is dropped in fagr (qs. fagr-r), magr, dapr, *pr, vakr,
digr, vitr, bitr, itr, lipr, snotr, forn, sykn, frœkn, gjarn, frjals, burr,
hvass, hress:—it is assimilated in bein-n, ein-n, hrein-n, sein-n,
grcen-n, kœn-n, -rœn-n, vaen-n, bryn-n, fryn-n, syn-n, hal-1, heil-1,
veil-1, sl-1, fl-1, hs-s, fs-s, laes-s, laus-s, ljos-s, vis-s, etc.; inflexive,
Htil-1, mikil-1, gamal-1, vesal-1, forul-1, atal-1, spurul-1, gul-1, heimil-1,
etc. 2. the nom. fem. sing, represents the root of the adjective
(ung, ny, h):—adjectives with a as root vowel change into in
fem. sing, and neut. plur., e. g. all-r, oil, all-t; marg-r, morg, marg-t;
haro-r, hr, har-t; hag-r, hog, hag-t; fagr, fbgr, fagr-t; stak-r, stk,
stak-t; van-r, vn, van-t; hvass, hvss, hvas-t; varm-r, vorm, varm-t;
sam-r, som, sam-t; tam-r, torn, tam-t: in the infiexive -ar, a is
changed into w, aldra-r, fem. ldrn; gamla5-r, fem, gmlu; gamal-1,
fem. gomul; tala-r, fem. tlu, etc., see introduction to letter A, p. I:
this change is all that remains of an obsolete characteristic w, answering
to the inflexive -w in Anglo-Saxon. 3. the nom. neut. sing, is formed

by adding -/ to the root:—after a long root vowel -//, e. g. h-tt, mjo-tt,
ny-tt, gra-tt, hra-tt, sma-tt, etc.:—the / assimilates with a final ± e. g.
mi-r, brei-r, bl-r, str-r, fr-r, g-r, -r, str-r; in neut., mit-t,
breit-t, blt-t, strt-t, fr-t, got-t, t-t, etc.:—in long syllables with d
or d as final, the 6 is dropped, as in har-r, stirS-r, lynd-r, dœmd-r,
reynd-r; ,in neut., har-t, stir-t, lyn-t, dcem-t, reyn-t, qs. har-t, etCi :—
the t is dropped in such words as reist-r, bratt-r; in neut., reist,
bratt, etc.; cp. the participles of the second weak conjugation :-±—
in the participles and adjectives in -ar, the d is dropped, e, g, elskaft-r
(amo/i/s), elska-t (amatum), but in mod. usage elska-; and onb/ the
change of vowel marks the distinction between fem. and neut., e.g.
tlu (dicta), but talaft (dictum):—in adjectives in -inn, the root n Is
dropped before the neutral /, hi-t, heii-t, komi-t, Kristi-t, qs. hio-^,
heidin-t, etc. 4. as to the cases, the inflexive -r in gen. and dat.
sing. fem. and gen. pi. is assimilated into n in the words in -inn, and
monosyllables in -nn with a long root vowel, thus, komin-na (q. v.),
vaen-na (venustontm), vn-ni (venustae, dat.), vaen-nar (vtnuslae, gen.).