XX

OUTLINES OP GRAMMAR.

etc.: into I in similar words, e. g. sael-1, heil-1, gamal-1, sl-lar, gamal-
lar (ssell-rar, gamall-rar, etc. are faulty forms); mikil-li, magnae;
Htil-li, parvae, etc.:—it is dropped in those with radical r, vitra, sapi-
intium ;
fagri and fagrar, pulcbrae: into s in words such as viss, e. g.
Vissa, certorvm; but in mod. usage viss-ra and viss-ri, certae; (fag-urri,
fag-urrar are not right, although now and then used in mod. writers) :
—the r is doubled after a long vowel, h-rri altae, mj-rra tenerarum,
at least in mod. usage; old writers seem to have spelt and sounded
mjo-ra, mjo-ri, etc.:—the -ar and -um are contracted after a long
vowel, thus, bl-r caeruleas, bl-m caerulaeo. 5. contraction takes
place, a. in a few words ir -igr, -gr, au-igr, bl-igr, -igr, gf-
igr, f-ugr, hf-igr, fl-ugr, saur-igr, nau-igr, m-ugr, ml-ugr, r-igr
(pot.), mtt-igr; they are contracted before an inflexive vowel, au&g-
an, auftg-ir, aug-um, gfg-ir, g-ir, blg-ir, fg-ir; hfg-ir... mttk-
ir, etc.; in mod. usage the root is dissyllabic and not contracted, thus,
auugir, blugir, hfugir... mttugir, etc.: even in old writers other
adjectives in -igr were not contracted, e.g. hrigr, krptugr, skyldugr,
syndugr, siugr, rigr,—hrigan, e. g. rigan (not rgan), etc.,
both in old and mod. usage. /3. in a few words in -//, gamall, vesall,
ltill, mikill, hugall, gull, etc. II. har: to this belong over
twenty words, with characteristic v, dygg-r, hrygg-r, stygg-r, glogg-r,
hngg-r, sngg-r, rng-r, ng-r, dokk-r, jkk-r (ykk-r), kvik-r,
myrk-r, -yrk-r, rsk-r, lsk-r, l-r, fl-r, r-r, gr-r, hs-s (obsolete), h-r,
mj-r, slj-r (sœ-r) ; the v is freq. spelt with/in the words h-r, mj-r,
slj-r, but not in the rest, see introduction to letter F. In mod. usage and
pronunciation this v or/has been mostly lost; Icel. say h-an, mjo-an,
fol-an.but it still lingers in thewords ending ingg,ng,kk,rk,sk,a.sg,\ogg-
yan, ng-van, ykk-van, rsk-van, etc. are current forms. III.
nr: to this belong adjectives with characteristic;: only a few words re-
main with g, k as final, frg-r, hœg-r, lseg-r, slœg-r, aeg-r, eyg-r, fleyg-r,
yg-r, sek-r, rk-r, ekk-r, rk-r, tcek-r; in very old MSS.the forms fraeg-
jan, y"g-jan, sek-jan, rk-jan, ekk-jan, etc. are almost universal, but
even in olden times the j was dropped in these words, and fraeg-an,
sek-an, rik-an, etc. are now the sole forms. This declension therefore
is now only represented by mi-r (medius) and by the words ending in
a vowel, n/-r, hly-r, -sae-r; but that in pre-historical times this de-
clension was far more extensive is shewn by the many adjectives with
a changed root vowel (prob. caused by a lost/), as dr-r, hyr-r, lynd-r,
streym-r, vn-n, sl-1, sœt-r, skœ-r, nm-r, hœf-r, mr-r, kr-r, ber-r,
ver-r. IV. kominn: to this belong all participles of the
strong verbs, and a great many adjectives; with the exception of the
contraction it conforms to the article. For participles of weak verbs
of the 3rd conjugation see remarks on the verbs below.

Remarks on the formation of the Degrees of Compari-
son : I. the compar. and superl. are, -art, -astr, or -ri, -str,
thus, kaldr, .compar. kald-ari, superl. kald-astr, fem. and neut. plur.
kld-ust; harr, har-ari, har-astr, fem. and neut. plur. hor8-ust;
frjals, frjls-ari, frjls-astr (frjls-ust): in adjectives with character-
istic j or v these letters reappear, glggr, glgg-vari, glgg-vastr; rr,
or-vari, or-vastr; nyr, ny'-jari, ny-jastr ; or it is contracted, mjr, mj-
rri, mj-str, but older are the forms mj-vari, mj-vastr. II.
the compar. is assimilated in adjectives in -nn, -II, vaen-n, vxn-ni, vaen-
str; grœn-n, grœn-ni, grœn-str; heil-1, heil-li, heil-str or heil-astr; sxl-1,
ssel-li, sl-str; svipal-1, svipul-li. III. some few adjectives form
compar. and superl. by vowel change, h-r, h-ri, h-str; f-r, fae-ri,
fae-str; lg-r, laeg-ri, lg-str; lang-r, leng-ri, leng-str ; (fram), frem-ri,
frem-str; fagr, fegr-i, fegr-str; skamm-r, skem-ri, skem-str; grann-r,
grenn-ri, grenn-str; stor-r, stcer-ri, stcer-str; sma-r, smae-ri, sm?E-str;
ung-r, yng-ri, yng-str; ung-r, yng-ri, yng-srr; grunn-r, grynn-ri,
grynn-str: in mod. usage also, full-r, fyll-ri, fyll-str; stutt-r, stytt-ri,
stytt-str; unn-r, ynn-ri, ynn-str; mjk-r, myk-ri, mk-str;
djp-r, dp-ri, dp-str; rng-r, reyng-ri, reyng-str, but also rng-
vari, rng-vastr (older and better); svang-r, sveng-ri, sveng-str;
magr, megr-i, megr-str, etc.; but in old writers we often find full-
ari, full-astr, etc. IV. heterogene, as in other languages, are
g-r, bet-ri, bez-tr; ill-r, ver-ri, ver-str; marg-r, flei-ri, fle-str; liril-1,
min-ni, min-str; mikil-1, mei-ri, me-str; gamal-1, ell-ri, ell-str. V.
forming compar. and superl. from adverbs: 1. from local adverbs
denoting direction, austr, norr, sur, vestr, fram, aptr, t, inn, of,
nir, fjarr, n-; in compar. and superl., eyst-ri (aust-ari), aust-astr;
nyr-ri, nyr-str ; synn-ri, synn-str; vest-ri, vest-astr; frem-ri, frem-str;
ept-ri, ept-str, or apt-ari, apt-astr; yt-ri, yt-str (yztr) ; inn-ri (i-ri),
inn-str; ef-ri ($f-ri), ef-str (0f-str); ne-ri, ne-str; fir-ri, fir-str; nz-ri,
nse-itr. 2. temp, adverbs, s, fyrir; si-ari, s-astr; fyr-ri, fyr-
str. 3. other adverbs, from heldr, sjaldan; in compar. and superl.,
held-ri, hell-str; sjaldn-ari, sjaldn-astr; hind-ri, hinn-str; œ-ri,œ-str;
sk-ri, sk-str: only in compar., hceg-ri, the right; vin-stri, tbe left.

Remarks on the Weak Declension: I. the positive
and the superlative have both strong and weak declension, according
as they are indefinite or definite in sense, whereas the comparative

has in either case only a weak declension. 2. the part, act;
in -andi is declined as the comparative. II. the numerals
rii, fjri, fimti, sexti, etc., tbe third, fourth, Jiftb, sixth, etc.;
have (old and mod.) only the weak declension; rii with a cha-
racteristic _;', ri-ja, plur. ri-ju, fjr-u, fimt-u. III. changes
in mod. usage, 1. the dat. plur. -um, which is almost always
used in good old MSS., is now lost, and dat. is like nom.: thus
Icel. say, hinum beztu mnnum, betri mnnum, ungu mnnum; in old
usage, beztum, betrum, yngrum, (Jn orkelsson, Hauks-bk, 1865,
p. 14, note 4.) The sole remnant in mod. usage of the old -vm is the
compar. fleir-um (pluribus), which is still so pronounced, and often
used in Icel. writings. 2. the sing, has become indeclinable; the
gen. dat. ace. niasc. sing, -a in the compar. is now obsolete; Icel. say
yngri manns (Junioris bominis) for the old yngra, dat. yngra manni,
mod. yngri manni; yngra mann, mod. yngri mann. 3. the part,
act. sing.; here also the gen. masc. sing, is altered; vaxanda vinds
(vindi, vind), crescentis venti, into vaxandi vinds: the neut. -a is also
usually changed into -i, e.g. fall-anda fora into fall-andi fora (a
stumbling-block).

Remarks on the Indeclinable Adjectives. They were ori-
ginally regular adjectives, which, though both definite and indefinite,
had only the weak declension; and—perhaps in order to distinguish
them from other adjectives in definite forms—they have lost all
inflexion, and have no comparative or superlative; they vary be-
tween the forms -i and -a, andvan-i and andvan-a, originally express-
ing the distinction between masc., fem., and neut., but are, in
fact, used without regard to gender, one MS. has -a, another -i,
even in the same passage, e.g. Mar. 3/8; in mod. usage, -a is the
current form. These indeclinable words (in the Dictionary simply
marked ' adj.' or ' adj. indecl.') are very many, chiefly compound
words, e. g. in a/-, ein-, bdlf-, full-, frum-, sam-, and for the latter
part, -vana, -geoja, -laga, -stola, etc., e. g. af-laga, sjalf-krafa (-bjarga,

-ra), ein-hama, ein-mana, ein-staka, ein-skipa, ein-huga, sam-huga,
sam-ra, r-vasa, full-ta, mi-aldra, gjaf-vaxta, frum-vaxta, ham-
stola, vit-stola, -fluga, fLum-sa, al-verkja, al-bata, al-daua, al-
eya, -skynja, ei-rofa, far-fltta, a-mla, sundr-ora, tv-saga,
hungr-mora, str-daua, afl-vana, mtt-vana, and-vana, hlf-vita,
har-brjsta, hand-lama, ft-lama, gagn-drepa, hal!-oka, las-bura:
single words are few, hlessa, hissa, klumsa, reisa, hugsi, jtsi, heitsi,
etc. In some cases it is difficult to say whether the word is to be
taken for a substantive or indeclinable adjective, e. g. ei-rofi or ei-
rofa, harm-daui, full-ti, ing-logi, nsta-brra.

Remarks on the Suffixed Article. This is characteristic of
the Scandinavian languages, and still remains in modem.Danish and
Swedish. It forms a double declension, with substantive and adjective
forms in the same word; or rather it gives to a substantive the form
of an adjective. The inflexive -ar, -ir represent different genders for
substantive and for adjective, thus, all-ir dag-ar, omnes dies, masc.,
but all-ar stund-ir, omnes borae, fem. The same rule applies to the
suffixed article, draumar-nir, but tir-nar. The nouns of the 2nd
strong declension are so few that they scarcely affect this rule. In
very early times we may suppose that the Scandinavian language had
no suffixed article ; in the oldest poems it is rarely used; in old prose
more rare than in modern prose; and at the present time the article
is less used in Icel. than in any other living European knguage,
and is dispensed with in endless cases, where others must use it; in
solemn style it is used less than in conversational. II. the
declension of the suffixed article: 1. the h is dropped throughout
(inn, in, it). 2. the root vowel of the article is dropped, if the
substantive ends with a vowel, and the final n + the inflexion is suffixed,
e. g. slu-nni, tungu-nni, for the vowel of the noun has always the pre-
ference, p. so also after the plur. -ar, -ir, -r, e. g. tiir-nar, draumar-
nir, vetr-nir, fœtr-nir; but not so after -ar, -r in gen. sing., e. g. tar-
innar, ftar-ins, hafnar-innar, bkar-innar and boekr-innar, TOW /3//3Aov,
whereby a distinction is kept between gen. sing, and nom. plur., e. g.
tar-innar temporis, but tir-nar tempora. Icel. say, mur-inni matri,
systur-inni sorori, dttur-inni_///ae, as also mur-innar matris, systur-
innar sororis, dottur-innar filiae; but contracted in fur-num patri,
brur-num/ro/ri,—fur-inum, brur-inum may occur in old writers,
Mar., but is seldom used. y. the masc. dat. -i is often dropped before
the article, but kept if without the article, e. g. draum'-num, saum'-
num, but draumi, saumi: it is difficult here to give a rule. 8. the
ace. sing. fem. is in old writers contracted in such words as, sok-na
(causam), l-na (funem), etc., mod. sok-ina, al-ina, etc. i. the
vowel of the article is also dropped in the dat. of strong masc., as
bekkr of the 2nd declension (without -/'), thus, reyk-num, bekk-num,
not reyk-inum, bekk-inum. 3. in dat. plur. the final m of the
noun is dropped, tiftu-num,—an older form tum-inum, temporibus,
occurs in early Swedish; this -unum is always in mod. usage sounded

-onum (mnn-onum), as also in earlier rhjme, Pass. 9. 7.