OUTLINES OF GRAMMAR.

PRONOUNS.

PERSONAL (i stand 2nd pers.)

PERSONAL(3rd pcrs.) with gender.

REFLEXIVE.

DEMONSTRATIVE (s, tbe, that;

essi, this).



wnnoui: genuer.

Afasc.

Pent.

Next.


Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

' ——— \

Ntut.

SING.

NOM. ck

han-n

hon (hun)

at


s (sj)

Fl (SJ)

bat

essi

essi

etta


GEN. mn n

han-s

hen-nar

ess

sin

ess

eir-rar

ess

essa

essa-rar

essa


DAT. nx'-r r

haii-uni

hen-ni

vi

sr

dm

eir-ri

vi

ess-um ess-ari

essu


Ace. mik ik

han-n

han-a

at

sik

j ;inn

l"'t

at

enna

essa

etta

DUAL.

NOM. vit it (it)












GEN. okkar ykkar



;









DAT.] , , , ,
. )-okkr ykkr
Ace. J J



i








PLUR.

NOM. vr r (IT)

pei-r

-r

au 1


css-ir

ess-ar

cssi





GEN. vr yar

ei-rra i

i all genders

j


essa-ra

in all genders


S common f

if both demonstratives


DAT.! ,
. Voss vor
Acc.j

ei-ni i

i all gcnJcrs

-r

i
au 1


ess-um
css-a

in all genders

ess-ar

cssi



INTERROGATIVE.

In plural sense (' who (

Inch of many').

In dual sense ('\

INDEFINITE (one, seme one'].

SlNO.

PLUR.

Ma sc.

Fem.

Neiil.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

NOM. hver-r

hver

hver-t and hvat

hvur-r

hviir

hvur-t

nokkur-r

nokkur

nokku-t

GEN. hver-s
DAT. hver-jum
Acc. hver-n

hver-rar
hver-ri

hver-ja

hver-s
hver-ju
hvcr-t

hviir-s
hv;ir-um
hvar-n

hvr-ra r
hvar-ri
hvar-a

hvar-s
hvar-n
hvar-t

! nokkur-s
nokkur-um
nokkur-n

nokkur-rar
nokkur-ri
nokkur-a

nokkur-s
nokknr-u

nokku-t

NOM. hver-ir
GEN. hver-ra

hver-jar

in all genders

hver

hvar-ir
hvar-ra

hvi'ir-ar

in all genrterj

hvr

nokknr-ir
nokkur-ra

nokkur-ar

in all gender-:

nokkur

DAT. hver-jum
Acc. hver-jii

in all genders

hver-jar

hver

hvar-um
hvar-a

in all genders

hvar-ar

hvr

nokkur-um
nokkur-a

nokkur-ar

nokkur

Masc. Fern. Netit.
NOM. tvei-r tv-r tvau (tvii)

GEN. tve-ggja in all genders

DAT. tvei-m or tvei-mr in all genders
Ace. tv tv-r tvau(tv)

Masc.

b-ir
bc-gg

Fern.
b-ar

in all g
bi'l-UIU in all genders

b-a b-ar

NUMERALS (two, both, three, four).

Neut. Masc. Fern.
bœ-i

dors

bœ-i

br-r rj-r
bri-ggia in al!
ri-ni or bri-nir in all g
rj-i'i Jirj-r

Neut.

Maic.

Fem.

Neut.

rj-

flor-ir

fjor-ar

fjugr

gtnders

fi(jg-urra

in all genders


gend.-rs

flor-um

in all genders


brj-u

f;-a

fjrsir

fjr.gr

Other Pronouns: I. the demonstrative hinn, hin, hitt
(the other one] is declined like the article, only the neut. sing, with
-.'/. II. the possessive pronouns arc, 1. minn, min, mitt
(meus); binn, bin, itt (tuns): the reflex, sinn, sin, sitt (SMK). 2.
in dual sense ; okkar-r, okkur, okkat (nosier] ; ykkar-r, ykkur, ykkat
(venter). 3. in plur. sense ; vr-r, var, v;ir-t (noster) ; yvar-r,
yur, yar-t (vsster) ; declined as nokkurr, but contracted, e. g. yrir.
In mod. usage these possessives in plur. and dual sense are rare, and
instead of them the gen. of the personal okkar, ykkar, yar is used as
indeclinable. III. for the pronouns sami (weak) idem, sjlfr
ipse, neinn (no einn) nullus, einhverr every one, sumr some, engi no
one,
annarr-hvurr one of the two, alternter, hvargi or hvarigr neither
of the two, neuter,
hvurr-tveggja or hvrr-tveggi each, uterque (the
former part following the strong declension, the latter the weak),
vlkr and slikr such, tails, hvlkr as, qualis: see the Diction-
ary. IV. as relatives the old language has only the particles
er and sem, see the Dictionary, pp. 131,132.

Remarks : 1. personal and demonstrative ; in the mod. lan-
guage ek etc. have become eg, mig, ig, sig, vi, i, vor; and lion or
hon has become him :—in the neut. pau is sounded bang, but seldom
spelt so:—old writers often use sju, as a common nom. for masc. and
fern., sj mar, that man, and sj kona, that woman :—dat. fern, bcssi -—
essari is used in old writers:—dat. sing. masc. eim-a = eirn, and dat.
sing. neut. v-sa occur in old prose and poems ; in Runes, ansi =
enna. 2. interrogative and indefinite ; remains of an older declen-
sion are, hvat, what (still in full use) ; dat. hveim (poet, and obsolete) ;
hvi, why; hve, how, mod. also hversu; the mod. hvaa is curious,
being indeclinable throughout:—old form nekkverr or nakkverr
(necquerr, naquarr in the MSS.) : in mod. usage nokkurr, but con-
tracted before a vowel, e.g. nokkr-ir, nokkr-urn, etc.

Remarks on the Numerals: I. the cardinals; the first
four are declined, einn, tveir, etc.: the rest indeclinable, imni, sex,
sjau (mod. sj), tta, nu, tu, ellifu, tlf, rettn, fjrtn, fimmtn,
sextan, sjautjn (mod. sautjn), tjn, ntjn, tuttugu (twenty), tuttugu
ok einn, etc.,—the decades first and then the smaller numbers: but
with the even decades, from twenty onwards, the reverse is common
iu Icel.,—einn og tuttugu (one and twenty),... tiu og tuttugu (' ten

and twenty'),... nitjrin og tnttugu ('nineteen and twenty'), frutn
(forty), einn og fjrutu (one and forty), and so on to sixty, tht-n
from sixty to eighty, from eighty to ' tenty' (tu-tu = &w/f/r/), from
'tenty' to a hundred (i.e. tht; gross hundred, 120). Icel. children in
play, shepherds in counting their llocks, and fishermen in counting their
catch are sure to reckon in this way. From forty and upwards the
Danes say, tre-sinds-tyve ( —three times twenty = three score) for 60, /?r-
sinds-tyve (=fvur fcore) for 80, and balv (reds ( = three .-.core mitti/s
a half score)
for 50, halv fjerds (=four score minus a half icore~] lor
70, halv ferns ( —- half thejifih score, i. c.fve scnre minus a half) for
90; but not so in Sweden and Norway. The decades are in old
writers treated as independent words, and declined, rr tigir, dat. remr
tigum, ace. rj tigi, with a following genitive, e. g. flora tigi manna
(quadraginfa ' hominum'), etc.; in mod. usage indeclinable, brj-tiu,
fjoru-tiu, fimm-tiu, se.x-tiu, sjii-tiu, tta-tiu, nu-tu, tu-tu ('ten ten' i.e.
one hundred), but usually hundra; both hundra (hundred] and piisund
(thousand) are in old writers (and frcq. in mod.) declined and followed
bv a genitive, e. g. sund manna, tveim hundruum skipa. II.
the ordinals ; fyrstr (q. v.), annarr (q. v.) : the rest only in the weak
declension, rii, gen. dat. ace. riia, plur. riju indecl.; tr-i,
fimm-ti, set-ti, sjaun-di (mod. sjun-di), t-ti (mod. attun-di), niun-
di, tun-di, ellef-ti, tlf-ti, brettn-di, fjrtn-di,... tuttug-asti (twen-
tieth),
rtug-asti, fertug-asti,... ntug-asti, hun-dra-asti,... sund-
asti. III. distributives from I to 4; ein-ir (singiiti), tvenn-
ir (bini), brenn-ir (irini), fern-ir (quaterni), all as regular adjec-
tives. t IV. multiplicatives, either tve-nnr (duplex), re-nnr
(triplex), fer-n (quadniplex); or with -faldr, ein-faldr, tvau-faldr (two-
fold),
r-faldr, fcr-faldr, . . . tt-faldr, ni-faldr, ti-faldr, . . . tvitug-
fuldr, britug-faldr, . . . hundra-faldr, nsund-faldr, all regular adjec-
tives. V. the adjectives in -tugr and -rœr, denoting aged,
meat tiring,
for the decades, from twenty and upwards : a. -tugr,
for the decades, from 2O to 70, tv-tugr, bri-tugr, fer-tugr, fimm-tugr,
sex-tugr, sjau-tugr. p. -rcedr, for the decades, from 80 to I2O, tt-
rœr, n-rcer, t-rœr (centenarius), tlf-rœr (numbering I2O), hence
tlf-rœtt hundra = !2O, and t-rcett hundra=loo. VI.
numeral adverbs, tvisvar = 6i's, rysvar = /r/s: the rest formed by sinai
or sinnum, (hues; fjorum-sinnum./oj/r limes = quater, etc.