XXIV

OUTLINES OF GRAMMAR.

WEAK VERBS.

Remarks on the 1st Conjugation. To this belong four or
five hundred simple verbs, which in the Dictionary are marked ' a,'
i. e. pret. -ai; they are, I. verbs with a primitive root vowel,
a, a, au, o, o, u, (except a few which are placed in the 4th conju-
gation), e. g. tala, baga, haga, skaa, baka, stama, bana, svara, rasa,
tapa, hvata, rata, hata, glata, launa, fagna, banna, safna, anda, varna,
starfa, stoa, loga, loka, losa, rota, hta, rma, hlja, spa: verbs
with i as root vowel, esp. if before a single consonant, fria, skrifa,
kvika, lima, lina, skipa, hita, kvista; some with t, ei, leita, reika, eisa,
geisa, sma, lka, etc. II. derivatives, 1. in -na, inchoative
verbs, daf-na, kaf-na, har-na, vak-na, bl-na, gr-na, fit-na, hvit-na,
vis-na, los-na, ro-na, brot-na, blg-na, fl-na, f-na, dk-na, ves-na,
tro-na, (a hundred words or more.) 2. in -ga, from adj. -igr,
chiefly in a causal sense, to make so and so, about a score of words,
au-ga, bl-ga, m-ga, gf-ga, hel-ga, lf-ga, nau-ga, saur-ga, fjl-
ga, frjv-ga, vin-gast, hold-gast, synd-ga, kvn-gask, hy'r-ga, f-ga:
in -ka, denoting to become or make so and so, h-kka, l-kka, sm-
kka, f-kka, grœn-ka, vn-kast, dp-ka, rm-ka, mj-kka, brei-ka,
sein-ka, v-ka, mn-ka, bl-ka, ur-ka, i-ka, t-ka, rl-ka, which
follow the 1st conjugation without regard to root vowel. 3. in
-sa, iteratives, glep-sa, hrif-sa, taf-sa, hram-sa, kjam-sa, ryg-sa, king-sa,
ving-sa, flak-sa, flang-sa, vind-sa, kal-sa; with these may be reckoned
hug-sa (cogitare), hrein-sa: (these words also are few.) . 4. in -ja,
a few words (perhaps thirty), ve-ja, ste-ja, stef-ja, egg-ja, gnegg-ja,
hrekk-ja, bel-ja, em-ja, gren-ja, her-ja, i-ja, kvi-ja, rif-ja, gil-ja, fit-ja,
vit-ja, klyf-ja, syf-ja, lyf-ja, byr-ja, bryn-ja, skyn-ja, syn-ja, dys-ja,
flys-ja, bryt-ja, -n-ja. 5. in -va, bol-va, mol-va, got-va, 6'r-va,
etc., (a few words.) 6. in -la, a kind of diminutive, but rare,
ding-la (/o dangle), hnd-la (captare), hvarf-la, sng-la (to sing between
the teeth),
skjt-la, vt-la (to drip, ooze), sving-la, trit-la, skurt-la (to
make a slight cut],
iip-la, rup-la, hnup-la, grip-la, jap-la (to clip,
mumble with the teetb),
tnn-last, gut-la, brut-la, cex-la, etc. 7.
in -ra, klif-ra, halt-ra, hli-ra, (a few words, some of which are con-
versational.)

Remarks on the 2nd Conjugation. To this belong several
hundred words, which in the Dictionary are marked variously ' d,
, dd, t, tt,' according to the final root consonant; in words like
feea, reia, the pret. are fced-di, reid-di; so beita, bceta, pret. beit-ti,
bcet-ti: the d becomes after a soft root consonant or a vowel, e. g.
rceg-ja, rceg-i; svœf-a, svcef-i, etc.: it becomes / after hard con-
sonants, or s, reis-a, rcis-ti; leys-a, leys-ti, cp. introduction to letter
D, p. 93 (C. Ill) : it is dropped and cannot be sounded in words
like skept-a, hept-a, frtta, geld-a, send-a, lend-a, ert-a, pret. skept-i,
frett-i, send-i, lend-i, ert-i: in mod. usage a root d may even be changed
into t; Icel. often say, hert-i, ent-i, lent-i, synt-i, from her-a, end-a,
lend-a, synd-a : in words with a double final consonant it is common to
drop one, thus kyss-a, kys-ti; berr-a, er-i; but // and nn are more
often (and properly) retained, as fell-di, fell-t, kenn-di, kenn-t, from
fell-a, kenn-a, better than fel-di, fel-t, ken-di, ken-t. II. to
this conjugation belong chiefly derivative verbs with a changed vowel
in the root, e, ey, , œ, as, e. g. brenna (to make burn), kenna (to
teach),
gleyma, dreyma, bceta, grta, grcea, hy'sa, ly'sa, (several hun-
dred words.) In earlier times (in Gothic) these words had a charac-
teristic j and a primitive vowel, e.g. Goth, dm-jan, hans-jan, — \ce\.
dcem-a, heyr-a ; this j has in Icei. been preserved in verbs with a short
root vowel and a single final consonant (see the y conjugation);
but in verbs with a diphthong or long vowel only if the final be g or k,
or if they end in a vowel, e. g. blekk-ja, drekk-ja, sekk-ja, rekk-ja,
ekk-ja, telg-ja, velg-ja, eng-ja, deng-ja, leng-ja, feyk-ja, teyg-ja, heyg-
ja, beyg-ja, sleik-ja, steik-ja, rk-ja, berg-ja, resk-ja, bg-ja, hœg-ja,
lg-ja, vg-ja, stygg-ja, dryg-ja, byrg-ia, syrg-ja, rja,etc., (about a hun-
dred words, see the Dictionary) : fylgja is a specimen of these verbs.
A few verbs which now have -ja had in olden times -va, e. g. bygg-va,
styrk-va, stygg-va, hrygg-va are older forms than bygg-ja, styrk-ja,
hrygg-ja. Many verbs with i, ei as root vowel belong to this conju-
gation, not only derivatives, as leia, reisa, beita, from the strong verbs
la, rsa, bta; but also other words, as beina, greina, deila, glima,
tna, nta : also verbs with i before a double consonant, as spilla, villa,
dimma, inna, ginna, sinna, dirfa, firra, missa, hitta, flimta, skipta,
gista, hrista, and many others. Monosyllables as m, br, sp, str,
f (pingere), glj, klj, j, hrj, tj, etc. are contracted, but, in spite
of the root vowel, belong to this conjugation.

Remarks on the 3rd Conjugation. To this belong about
ninety words : 1. about fifty verbs with e (a) for the root vowel,
gle&-ja, kve-ja, ble-ja, se-ja, ske-ja (obsolete), te-ja, kef-ja, kref-
ja, svef-ja, tef-ja, vef-ja, seg-ja, eg-ja, hrek-ja, klek-ja, rek-ja, vek-ja,
ek-ja, dvel-ja, kvel-ja, se!-ja, tel-ja, vel-ja, frem-ja, grem-ja, hem-ja,
krem-ja, lein-ja, sem-ja, tem-ja, spen-ja, en-ja, ven-ja, glep-ja, lep-ja,

skep-ja, ber-ja, er-ja, fer-ja, mer^ja, ver-ja (de/endere), ver--ja (indnere]t
et-ja, flet-ja, hvet-ja, let-ja, met-ja, set-ja, legg-ja, pret. bag-i (obso-
lete, vide bg-ja), skil-ja, bil-ja, vil-ja. 2. about thirty verbs with y
(it)
for the root vowel,bry-ja, gny-ja, ry-ja, sny-ja (obsolete),sty-ja,
hygg-Ja) ygg"Ja' tygg'Ja (mod., but old usage strong), kryf-ja, lyk-ja,
byl-ja, dyl-ja, hyl-ja, myl-ja, yl-ja, glym-ja, rym-ja, ym-ja, rym-ja
(obsolete), dyn-ja, dryn-ja, hryn-ja, styn-ja, smyr-ja, spyr-ja, yr-ja
(obsolete), fyr-va, pret. bus-ti (obsolete), pret. us-ti, flyt-ja. 3. a
few verbs with long root vowel, hey-ja,rey-ja,dy-ja,fly-ja,gn-ja,kn-
ja, hly-ja, ly-ja, ty-ja, which have monosyllabic pres. indie, hey-r, dy'-r,
fiy-r, and change even the vowel in pret., h-i (gessi), d-i, kn-i;
and in mod. usage also fi-i, hl-i, l-i, but fly-i, etc. in old writers :

—sel-ja and set-ja have unchanged pret. sel-di, set-ti; skil-ja has skil-di;
vil-ja, vil-di, part, vil-jat; seg-ja and eg-ja a bisyllabic pres. seg-i,
eg-i. II. special remarks: 1. the characteristic marks
are, a. the vowel change in pret. indie, (glad-di, spur-i). p. the
vowel in pret. subj. (gled-di, spyr-i). Y- tne nionosyllabic pres.
indie, sing, (gle, spyrj. 8. the j as characteristic ; only fyrva, au
obsolete word, has v. 2. a participle passive in -ir is used in
some of these verbs by old writers, especially poets, viz. a bisyllabic
form, as kraf-ir. vaf-ir, vak-ir, tal-ir, bar-ir, hul-ir, val-ir, var-
ir, tam-ir, lag-ir, skil-ir, il-ir, fem. bar-i . . . lag-i, neut. bar-
it... lag-it (see Lex. Pot.) : this -ior was in later times changed into

-inn in imitation of the strong verbs, which however is only used in
about thirty-four verbs (a third of the whole number), viz. kraf-inn,
kaf-inn, taf-inn, vaf-inn, hrak-inn, klak-inn, rak-inn, vak-inn, ak-inn,
dval-inn, kval-inn, tal-inn, val-inn, fram-inn, ham-inn, kram-inn, lam-
inn, sam-inn, tain-inn, ban-inn, van-inn, bar-inn, mar-inn, var-inn, skil-
inn, kruf-inn, dul-inn, hul-inn, mul-inn, ul-inn, hrun-inn, kn-inn,
flu-inn, lu-inn (in old writers, kny-ir, rly-ir),—almost the same
words in which the ancients had -ir: these forms begin to occur in
MSS. of the I3th or I4th century, e.g. dulin, Fb. i. 12, Fs. 97 (Arna-
Magn. 132); ilinn, Fbr. 44 new Ed.; barin, Ld. 152, (both from
Arna-Magn. 132) ; as a provincialism it is still older, and frequently
occurs in an old vellum MS. of Mar. S. (Arna-Magn. 655), Unger's
Edit.; framinn, Mar. 449 ; laginn, 465, 484, 491; valin,440; skilinn,
326; laminn, 637 ; samin, 491 ; vaninn, 398 ; barinn, 619; lagin,
633- $3y" This -inn must not be confounded with the participles of
the strong conjugation ; for, a. in this weak -inn the n disappears
in the adjectival inflexion, e. g. plur. taldir. never talnir, whereas fallinn
makes fallnir. P. the weak nom. remains beside that in -inn, e. g.
hul-inn and hul-dr, bak-inn and ak-tr, vak-inn and vak-tr, flu-inn and
fl-r. 7. the inflexive -inn can never be used in the other words of
this conjugation, e. g. glad-dr, never gla-inn ; spur-r, never spur-inn ;
skap-tr, never skap-inn. Some have no participle, as bleja, metja,
bylja, glymja, etc.

Remarks on the 4th Conjugation. To this belong only a
few verbs (thirty or upwards), but some of them are among the chief
verbs of the language, hafa, lafa, vaka, gana, gapa, mara, spara, stara,
hjara, blaka, flaka, blasa, brasa, kra, stra, lifa, loa, ola, skolla, tolla,
ora, brosa, duga, luma, una, tra, grufa, ugga: in -ja, egja, segja,
ja (i), vilja (see above) ; under this also come scekja, pret. stti;
yrk-ja, pret. orti; ykkja, pret. tti; a pret. tti from ekkja is
obsolete and poet.:—and to these may be added the weak preterites
of the verbs with strong preterite in present sense, vissi, tti, mtti,
kntti, kunni, mundi, undi, skyldi; as also verbs such as gra, old pres.
gr-r, mod. gri; Ija (to lend), old pres. le-r, mod. Ij-r; n, pres. ni,
mod. n, ^, q. v. II. special remarks : 1. the character-
istic marks are, a. the root vowel, according to which we should
expect them to follow the 1st conjugation, whereas they all have the
characteristic i of the second. P. in about twenty words the pret.
subj. is formed by vowel change from pret. indie., viz. hefi, vekti,
speri, yldi, yri, dygi, tylldi, mvndi, yndi, tryi, ni, gxi, segi,
egi, from pret. indie, hfu, dugu, . . . tnu, nu, gu; as also
tti, mtti, kntti, yrfti, kynni, from pret. indie, ttu, mttu, knttu,
urftu.kunnu; bcetti,scekti,yrkti,fromttu,sttu,orktu; keypti from
kaupa (emer) is pret. subj. with the sense of pret. indie. -y- son)e
have part. pass, in -at (-a) like the 1st conjugation, vak-at, spar-at (in
old writers also spart), blak-at, blas-at, lo-at, lif-at, toll-at, bros-at,
dug-at, un-at, tr-at, ag-at (from egja), sag-at (from segja, instead
of sagt) occurs in Merl. Spa; haf-at = haft, Vsp. 16; ol-at, bor-at
are now the only forms, but bolt, port also occur in old writers; vilj-at
from vilja, but vilt seems older, cp.also mun-at,vit-a,kunn-at. 2.
the sole, remains of a bisyllabic imperat. in -i (answering to the 1st
conjugation in -a) are the old imperatives vak-i! gap-i! dug-i! lum-i!
ugg-i! un-i! see these words; in mod. usage the sole instance left is
beg-i (tace) or egi-u ! Many of the rest might, but for the primitive
root vowel, well be counted as regular verbs of the and conjugation.
This conjugation seems to answer most nearly to the 3rd Gothic con-
jugation of Grimm.