OUTLINES OF GRAMMAR.

XXVll

as also haf-u, gr-u, kom-du (kon-du) come tbou! vil-tu, statt-u
stand tbou! bitt-u bind tbou ! pres. boar-u, brennr-u, rs-tu, by'r-
u,... er-tu, tt-u, kannt-u, munt-u, veizt-u, etc.: pret. boair-u,...
dugir-u, brannt-u, bautt-u (baust-u), reist-u, grtst-u, hljpt-u,
hljpst-u, etc.: subj. boair-u,... gleddir-u, etc.: this usage is freq.

in old prose, and already occurs in even the oldest poems, but it has
gained ground in mod. usage, and esp. in speech it has quite super-
seded the detached ; the vowel is ambiguous, being sometimes
pronounced long (vilt), but usually short (viltu), in which latter case
it has become a full suffix.

ADVERBS, PARTICLES, ETC.

ADVERBS.

With. Degrees of Comparison: I. the neut. sing, is
freq. used as positive, e. g. ung-t, beavily; skjot-t, suddenly; fljot-t,
brt-t, t-t, r-t, str-t, har-t, mjk-t, ljt-t, fagr-t, etc. 2. from
adjectives in -ligr is formed an adverb in -liga, skjt-liga, na-liga, etc.:
in a few cases, especially in poetry, they are contracted -la, thus skjt-
la, -la, brl-la, etc.; in prose in var-la, bardly, Lat. vix, but var-liga,
warily; har-la or har-la, very, but har-la, barsbly; ar-la, early; but
from var-la, har-la, r-la no degrees of comparison are formed. 3.
a few end in -a, v-a,/nr and wide; snemm-a, early; ill-a, ill, badly;
grva, quite. 4. special forms, leng-i, Lat. diu, but lang-t, locally;
fjar-, far; ve\,well; sjaldan, seldom; s, late; opt, often; mjk,
much; Htt, little; Inn, in; ut,out; fram, onwards; aptr, backwards;
nir, down; upp, up; heim, borne: of the quarters, austr, norr, sur,
vestr. II. the formation of degrees of comparison is like that
of the adjectives, only that the inflexive -i, -a, -r is dropped; as
kjt-t, compar. skjt-ar, superl. skjt-ast; fljt-t, fljt-ar, tjt-ast;
fagr-t, fegr, fegr-st; skjtlig-a, skjtlig-ar, skjtlig-ast; v-a, v-ar,
v-ast; leng-i, leng-r, leng-st; skamm-t, skem-r, skem-st; (fjar), fir-r,
fir-st; vel, bet-r (melius), bezt; ll-a, ver-r, ver-st; grva, gr-r (more
fully),
gor-st; sjald-an, sjaldn-ar, sjaldn-ast; snemm-a, snem-r, snem-
st; s-r (less), sizt (least), but s-ar (later), s-ast (latest) ; opt, opt-
ar, opt-ast; mjk, mei-r. me-st; lt-t, mi-r or minn-r (less, Lat. minus),
minn-st; inn, inn-ar, inn-st; t, t-ar, t-ast or yzt; upp, of-ar, ef-st;
nir, ne-ar (farther down), ne-st; aptr, apt-ar (farlber behind), apt-
ast or ept-st; austr, aust-ar, aust-ast; norr, nor-ar, nor-ast or nyr-
st; sur, sunn-ar, sunn-ast, synn-st or sy-st; vestr, vest-ar, vest-ast:
without positive are, sk-r (better), ska-st; hand-ar (ulterius), hand-
ast; held-r (ratber), helzt; fyr-r (prius), fyr-st; hand-ar (ulterius), hand-
ast; superl. hinn-st (bindermost). $$i" Old writers usually spell -arr,
thus opt-arr,si-arr, v-arr, etc., as also fyr-r, gor-r, in mod. usage opt-ar,
v-ar, fyr, gr. 2. the full adjectival comparative is frequently
made to serve as adverbial comparative, e.g. hae-ra, higher; lg-ra,
lower; leng-ra in local sense, but leng-r in temp, sense; skem-ra (local),
but skem-r (temp.) :—or both forms are used indiscriminately, as v-ar
and v-ara, skjt-ar and skjt-ara, har-ar and har-ara. 3. if
following after the article the superlative conforms to the neut. sing, of
the weak declension, e. g. ra hit harasta, to ride one's hardest; hit
skjtasta, fyrsta, sasta, etc.

"Without Degrees of Comparison: I. adverbs with
inflexions, 1. formed as genitive in -s, or -is, or -ar; ollungis, quite;
einungis, only; lok-s, at last, or loks-ins, id.; all-s, in all: formed
from nouns, as lei, dagr; heim-leiis, homewards; smu-leiis, like-
wise ;
-leiis, onwards; rak-leiis, straight; ar-degis, early in the day;
framveg-is, furthermore; tbyr-is, overboard; innbyr-is, inwardly;
okeyp-is, gratis; erlend-is, abroad; margsinn-is, optsinn-is, many a
time;
umhverv-is or umberg-is, all around; jafn-foetis, on equal
footing;
and-sœlis, against the sun; for-streymis, for-brekkis, for-
viris; tv-vegis, twice, etc.:—in -ar, from star, allsta-ar, every-
where ;
sumsta-ar, somewhere; annars-sta-ar, elsewhere; einhvers-
sta-ar, anywhere; nokkurs-sta-ar, id.; marg-sta-ar, in many places :
from konar (generis), kind; eins-konar, annars-konar, of another
kind;
nokkurs-konar, of any kind; alls-konar, hvers-konar, margs-
konar : alls-kostar = alls-konar : so, many other words, innan-hiiss,
in-doors; utan-hss, out-doors; utan-lands, abroad; and inn-fjara,
innan-lands, etc. 2. the ace. sing. masc. is often used adverbially,
as har-an, swiftly; br-an, suddenly; ra mikinn, to ride fast;
this is properly an elliptical use, a noun being understood. 3.
in -um, properly a dative form, eink-um, especially; fyrr-um, for-
merly;
long-urn, all along; t-um, often; stund-um, sometimes;
(orb-um,ofyore;
fikj-um, eagerly; -uin, rapidly; br-um, bye and
bye;
endrum og sinnum, now and then; hppum og gliippum, by haps
and gaps;
smm saman, by little and little: also from nouns, hronn-
um and unnvorp-um (Lat. undalim). 4. in -eg, from vegr, a
way;
thus ann-ig, ann-og, thus and thither; hinn-ig, the other way,
hither;
hvern-ig, bow; einn-ig, also: the ancients often spell ann-
og, etc.; in mod. usage bann-inn, hvern-inn, einn-iun; hins-eg-inn

(the other way), qs. ann-iginn or ann-veginn, etc., from the noun
along with the article: the adverbs, bum-egin, on both sides ;
hvrum-egin, on what side; hinum-eginn, on the other side; llum-
eginn, on all sides; hrna-megin, on ibis side; formed from dat.
plur. and vegr, the oldest form is probably bu-megum, both forms
being in dat.: ru-vsi, otherwise. 5. in -an, denoting motion
from a place; h-an, hence; a-an, thence; hva-an, whence; s-an,
since; und-an, before; fram-an, q. v.; hand-an, from beyond; ne-
an,from beneath; of-an,from above; heim-an, from home; inn-an,
from the inner part; ut-zn, from outwards; nor-an,_/row the north;
aust-an, sunn-an, vest-an, etc.: without the notion of motion, -an,
shortly, a little while ago; jafn-an, ' evenly,' frequently; sam-an, to-
gether.
P. in -at, denoting motion to the place, hing-at or heg-at,
hither; ang-at, thither; hver-t, whither. y. terminations denoting
rest in the place, her, here; par, there; hvar, where; hvar-gi, nowhere;
heim-a, at home: old poet, forms are hra, here; ara, there. 8.
mod. forms suffixing a demonstrative particle -na, hr-na, ar-na, tar-
na, this for (qs. at ar-na) : in -i, framm-i (q. v.), upp-i, nir-i. 6.
numeral adverbs, tvisvar, twice; rysvar, thrice, (spelt with y in good
old MSS.) II. special adverbs, ar, early; r-la, id.; egar, at
once,
Lat. jam; sv, so, thus, and svo-na, id.; gaer, yesterday; ,
then; n, now, and nu-m,just now; mtr,when; hve-naer, id.; enn,
still; senn, soon; ella, else; unz, until; j, yes; nei, no; aldrigi,
never; x, ever; t, id.; ei and ey, id.; si, Lat. semper, only in
compounds and in the phrase, si og x,for ever and ever; hvi, why;
hve, how; hversu, id.; alltnd (mod.), always; valt, id.; alla-jafna,
id.; einatt, repeatedly; of, too; van, too little, used singly only in the
phrase, of ok van ; samt, together; sundr, asunder; mis, amiss; ymist,
indiscriminately; iula, repeatedly, etc.

Adverbial Prefixes: 1. in positive and intensive sense,
especially with adjectives, al-, quite, a/-, see Dictionary, p. 11 sqq. ;
ail-, very; au-, easy; afar-, greatly; fj&l-, frequently; of-, too
(very freq.); ofr-, very, greatly: temp, si-, semper: i-, often, again ;
ey- or ei-, ever-; einka-, especially; endr-, again; from-, origin-
ally.
2. in special sense, d-, very; full-, quite; half-, half;
jafn-, equally, in many words, etc.: only as prefixes, aam-, together,-
Lat. con-, in many words ; er-, qs. el- (cp. Lat. ali-us), in er-lendr and
compds; and-,against; gagn-,id.; gr-,quite,altogether. 3.
in negative sense, u- or -, = Lat. in-, Engl. un-, in a great many words;
the mod. form is J-, e.g. o-fagr, unfair, ugly; un- is the etymologi-
cally true form, which is preserved in German and English, as well as
in mod. Danish, Swedish, and Norse ; but that the Icel., even in the
12th century, had already changed ?t- intofo- is shewn by the spelling
of the earliest MSS., and from the statement in Sklda by the second
grammarian, who says that ' o- or - changes the sense of a word,
as in satt (sooth), or o-satt (untrue),' Sklda 171; but in the bulk of
MSS. of a later date, after the union with Norway, the - prevailed,
and was henceforth adopted in the Editions, although the Icel. people
all along pronounced 6-, which also is the spelling in all modern books,
and might well be adopted in Editions too: mis- (cp. Engl. amiss),
differently,
and also badly, in many compds: var-, scarcely, insuffi-
ciently:
svi-, cp. svei, p. xxviii: van-, deficiency,.'wane:' tor-, =
Gr. Svs-, with difficulty, opp. to au-: or-, = Lat. ex-, thus or-skipta
= expers, or-endr = exanimis, etc.: for-, in a few words, cp. p. 182.
$3* Words denoting wonder, awe are often used as adverbial prefixes
n an intensive sense, as geysi-, i-, undra-, fjarska-, furu-, skapa-,
awfully, wonderfully; see Dictionary.

PREPOSITIONS.

With dat. and ace., at, Lat. ad, only exceptionally with ace.;
, Lat. in, Engl. on; fyrir,/or, before; eptir, after; i,in; undir,
under, beneath; yfir, over, above; vi, wzr, = Lat. cum; me,
id. 2. with dat., af, off, of; fr,/ror; or, mod. ur, Lat. ex,
out of:
hj, Lzt.juxta, = besides; mot, against; gegn, id. 3.
with ace., gegnum, through; fram, on, onwards; upp, up; nir,
-lown; ofan, id.; um, Lat. de, per, old form of. 4. with gen.,
til, till, to; an, without; milli or meal, between, tr The pre-