XXV 111

OUTLINES OF GRAMMAK.

positions ft and I are in the MSS. usually joined to the following word,
thus alandi = ii landi, iriki — rki. As to the syntactic use of pre-
positions, elliptically and adverbially, see Dictionary. In poetry, even
in plain popular songs, hymns, epics, etc., a preposition can be put
after its case, e. g. birtust snjhvtum bning , blessair englar lka,
Pass. 21.10; himnum = himnum, in the heavens; but scarcely,
unless before a pause at the end of a line.

CONJUNCTIONS.

The chief of these are, ok, mod. og, and, also; n, nor, Lat. neque;
ea or er, or, Lat. out; ellegar, id.; en, but, Lat. sed, autem, vero ;
en (an), than, Lat. quam ; enda, and even, and then; ef, if, Lat. si;
nema, unless, but, Lat. nisi; heldr, but, Lat. sed; sem, as, Lat. ut,
sicut;
bo, though, although,yet; alia, because; hvrt, whether, Lat.
an; bvi, therefore: we may here add the enclitical particle of or um
(different from the prep, um), which is very much used in old poetry,
and now and then in laws and very old prose, e. g. hann of s, be
saiv;
er sr of getr, who gets for himself, see Lex. Poet.

Compounds of adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions are much
used: 1. prepositions and adverbs or double prepositions;
mean, whilst, meanwhile; undan, ahead; eptir, behind; milli
and meal, among, between; ofan, to boot; samt, together;
mti, against; fram, on, along; a-lengdar, afar; ii san,
since; 4 vi, alike: auk-heldr, still more; hn, from, cp. Swed.
if ran; i sundr, asunder; i gegn, against; hj, aside; senn, in
one;
kring, around; undir eins, at once; at auk, to boot; at ofan,
from above; upp aptr, over again; kringum (qs. kring um), all
around;
gegn-um, all through; yfir um (proncd. ufrum), across;
fynum, formerly;
framan af, in the beginning; han af, henceforth;
aan af, thenceforth ; allt af, for ever; hinga til, hitherto ; anga
til, until; eptir , after, (so valt, for of allt) ; ofau , insuper; framan
a, in front; nean , beneath on; aptan , behind on : as also, ofan i,
down; nean , underneath, at the bottom; framan i, in the face;
aptan i, in the rear; framan til, until; austan til, noran til, sunnan
til, vestan til, etc.; a aptan, and aptan til, behind; fyrir fram,
beforehand; fyrir tan, except, etc., see e.g. fyrir and fram:—with
nouns, vixl, alternately; laun, secretly; vit, towards; mis,
amiss; braut, abroad, away; ska, askance; v ok dreif, scattered
abroad.
2. with a conjunction ; at or -tt, although; sv
at (sva-t), so that, Lat. ut; v at,/or that, because; hvrt a, whether;
ef a, if; fyrr en, Lat. priusquam ; r en, id.; at eigi, that not, lest;
eins og, as; a eins, only, barely; egar er, Lat. simul ac; san er,
Lat. postquam; mean er, Lat. dum; hvrt er, Lat. tttrum; hvar's,
wheresoever; hvegi er, whosoever: in mod, usage, egar a, san a,
mean a, hvrt a, and many others. 3. adverbial phrases, e. g.
a vrmu spori (tepido vestigio), at once; um hl, ' turning the heel,'
in return;
af bragi, af stundu, instantly; aptr bak, backwards; um
lci, by (be way; eptir a hyggja, apropos, and many others.

INTERJECTIONS AND EXCLAMATIONS.

To denote consent, j j or j j, yea yea ! j, O yes! jaur or
jur, bear! O. H. L. 10, 45, 69, Mirm. (jur) ; in mod. usage, jir jr
or jur jr, sounded almost like the Engl. hear hear! (it is doubtful
whether this Engl. exclamation has any connection with hear =
aitdire):—
half consent, jja, yea yea !—denial, nei nei, nei,
ekk, ekk, O no!—bittin, wait a bit!—loathing, bja, fussum,
f$,fe! vei, Lat. foe, Engl. woe, whence the compd svei or svei cr
(qs. s vei, woe be to tbee /), (a shepherd's shout, e. g. to a dog worrying
the sheep), or Lat. apage! putt (Dan. pyt, Swed. pyti), pish, pshaw!
Mork. 138 : bey jey, tusb !—hushing to sleep, etc., dillind, kor-
riro, bium biuni, bi bi (as in the rhyme, Bi, bi og blaka 1)—ho ho,
bo, boa ! a shepherd's cry in gathering his flock so as to make the fells
resound, hence the verb ha; trutt trutt, hott hott, h h ! the
shout in driving or leading horses; tu tu tu tu, kus kus, bs bs
in milking or driving cows into the byre ; kis kis, puss puss (to a
cat); sep sep or hep hep (to a dog); rhrhrh! in driving horses or
cattle out of a field, imitating the sound of a rattle, called a siga :—
amazement, uss, sussu (qs. sv sv), sei sei, , eh!—a cry of pain,
ai ai ! which form occurs in Sm. 118 and jborf. Karl. 390, v. I., whence
the mod. œ (proncd. like Engl. long i); this Icel. use is curious, as mod.
Swedes, Danes, and Norsemen, as well as Germans, all say flu (proncd.
ow) ; from comes the verb ja, to cry; œ, i, beigb-oh ! av, =
Germ, oh web, is foreign;—exultation, hœ hœ, , aba !—wonder,
delight, 6 6!—enquiry, h, what?—chattering of the teeth from cold,
atatata, hutututu, Orkn. 326. 2. interjections imitating the
voice of birds or beasts, e. g. dirrindi (of the lark) ; there is a pretty
legend about this in isl. ]pjs. ii. 2 ; krunk krunk (of the raven) ;
mj mj (of the cat); gagg gagg (of the fox); kv kv kv, cp.
lywitt kywill in the bird's song in Der Machandelboom in Grimm's

Miirchen; t t t, hh! Bb. 3. 12; v v (of birds and ducks);
gagga-gagg (of a gull).

THE SUFFIXED PARTICLES.

These are suffixed to nouns and verbs, but never used separately: I.
the nominal suffix -gi, originally a copula, akin to Lat. -que, and used
so in some words, but chiefly used in a negative sense, see Dictionary,
p. 199. II. the verbal negative suffix -a, -at, see p. xxvi.
The true explanation of this particle is found in the Gothic, which
makes frequent use of a suffixed particle -uh (esp. in verbs and also
in pronouns), to which the particle pan is freq. added in an indefinite
enclytical sense, almost as the Gr. 5e, thus vas-ub-ban, or assimi-
lated vas-up-pan = Gr. fjv 5t; skal-up-pan = $( yap ; stop-ub-pan
= (iaTTjitti of ; nam-uh-pan = (\a@t Si ; qva-vp-pan =- tAt-yc t;
vsun-uh-pan — ?jao.v 5 ; qvpun-ub-pan = c\tyoy ovv ; vitum-uh-
pan
= oiafj.ev 8t; vilaidedun-ub-pan = iraptrrjpovv St'; bidjandans-
v-pan = irpofftvxptvot
5t; and even in passages where the Gr. text
has no particle, qvipid-ub = (twart (Mark xvi. 7)- There can be
little doubt of the identity, by way of assimilation, of the Goth, -ub or

-up-pan and the Scandin. -a or -ap (-at). As to the sense, the difference
is that whereas in Gothic this suffix is used indefinitely or is almost
an affirmative copula, the Icel. is only used in a decidedly negative
sense. But the freedom in the use of the particles is greater than
in any other part of speech; and the negative and affirmative fre-
quently take the place of one another in different dialects, e. g. -gi,
see above ; so eyvit etymological!v = ougbt, but in fact used = naught
(the etymological notice p. 136 is scarcely correct); or, on the other
hand, neinn or ne-einn, qs. none (n'one), but actually used = Lat.
ullus; nokkurr, prop, from ne and hverr, = ne-quis, but in fact used
= aliqxis; ein-gi, ein-igr are both used negatively = none, and posi-
tively — any; Icel. mann-gi, Lat. nemo, is etymologically identical to
Engl. many ; ei-manni, nobody, Vm., is etymologically = Germ, je-
mand = everybody;
the particle ei- is used both in a positive and nega-
tive sense; vtr, a wight, is positive, but is used negatively = naught.
As to the form, the Icel. -a answers to Goth, -uh, the Icel. / orp to Goth.
p, whereas the -an is dropped. The double Goth, form -ub and

-uh-pan (-up-pan) also explains the puzzling Icel. double form -a and

-ap (-at); the -a represents the -uh singly, the -ap the compd -uh-pan or

-up-pan. A further proof is that neither the Goth, nor the Icel. suffix
was used with nouns. In the 9th and loth centuries the negative
suffixed verb appears to have still been in full use among Icelanders
(at that time there were no books), else it could not have survived
in laws and old saws ; there are about four or five hundred instances,
three-fourths in poetry; it lingered on into the nth or even 12th
century, and then became obsolete; in Norway, Sweden, and Den-
mark it seems to have disappeared much sooner, and has left no
traces. From Ulf. we see that in his days the Goths used the -ub
freely, though in a different sense. As a pronominal suffix the Gothic

-ah seems to remain in the Icel. word eim-a, Goth.paim-ub — UH;
perhaps also in hvat-ta, what! Mork. 129 (cxclam. indignantis); cp.
also the mod. hvad-a, who? perhaps also in end-a = ^8^; and lastly,
the demonstrative pronoun petta = Goth. pat-ub = Gr. rovro, but in
these cases the particle has not taken the negative sense (see
Grimm's Gr. iii. 24, 25 ; the explanation of the negative -at, as sug-
gested in iii. 718, from vtr, is not admissible). $S" A different kind
of negative is the particle ne before a verb, only in old poets, e.g.
Vsp., sl at ne vissi (thrice within a single stanza) ; in A. S. and
Early Engl. often prefixed to the verb, as nolde = n'wolde, nadde —
n'badde,
cp. Lat. nolo, nemo; in Icel. it remained in the adj. neinn
and nokkurr (see above), cp. also neita or nita, negare. In mod.
usage eigi or ekki has replaced almost all other negative particles.
To make it emphatic, nouns are added, ekki grand, not a grain ; ekki
vitund, not a whit; ekki hot, qs. ekki hvat, naught; ekki gn, not a
mite;
ekki augna-blik, not the twinkling ofan eye; ekki fet, not a step :
and borrowed from French, ekki par, ne pas. Phrases of this kind are
of modern growth and were scarcely used bv the ancients;—ekki lyf,
Skv. 2, is dubious, if not corrupt. In sense the Icel. enclitical particle
of or um answers to the Goth, -ub, but is detached and placed before
the verb or noun : this particle, although a favourite with the old
poets (like the Homeric ' pa), is obsolete, and in prose is only found
now and then in the oldest writers, in laws and the like. III.
the demonstrative suffix -na, in mi-na, ar-na, hcr-na, sva-na ; this

-tia is akin to Lat. en, ecce (qs. en-c), and is found in A. S. eno and
O. H. G. ino ; cp. the Icel. exclamation ha-na, hana-nu ! It probably
explains the Icel. and Scandin. demonstrative pronoun hann (be),
hon (fhe), compared with Engl. be; hann, lion being qs. ha-n, ho-n,
be there, she there, en tile, en ilia! cp. also gr-na---gr, q.v.; r-
na, tibirnet, Mork. 120. IV. a pronominal suffix -sii, -sa
occurs in hver-su, how; v-sa, dat. neut, of bat; eim-sa, dat. masc,
from s.