OUTLINES OF GRAMMAR.

XXXI11

tectivc sense; and in compounds any word may become neuter, regard-
less of its gender when simple, e. g. -berni from barn, a bairn; -meiini
from mar(str-menni, ung-meniii, g-menni, ll-menni) ; -gresi from
gras, (ill-gresi weeds, blom-gresi_/?ouws) ; -neyti from nautr, (fru-neyti,
fellowship) ; al-ingi, but ing ; vald and veldi, power; nafn and -nefai,
a name; stafn and stefni, a stem ; band and -bendi, a siring; garr and

-geri, a fence; bl and -bœii, a den; land and -lendi; s and si,
seed; lund and -lyndi, temper; or and -yri, a word; fugl and -fygli,
a fowl; munnr and -mynni, mouth; helsi a necktie, from hls a
neck; vsetti testimony, from vuttr a witness; hall-ri a bad season,
famine,
from r a year; eli and aal, nature;—indeed any word
may thus be changed into neuter. 2. in -endi; eyr-cndi,
errand; kvik-endi, a creature; heil-indi, health; vl-indi, gullet;
chiefly only in plur., as vis-indi, science; hygg-endi.g'oorf sense; sann-
indi, truth; t-indi, tidings; lik-indi, likelihood; hlunn-endi, endow-
ments;
dy'r-endi, costly things; rang-indi, injustice; rtt-indi, rights;
lei-indi, tediousness; har-indi, a bad season ; sr-indi, soreness; klk-
endi, shrewdness; fr-endi, fine things: in -erni, denoting Itin, cp.
Ul.faprein^Trrpa and yovtis, brerabans = 5(\(o, whence Engl.
brethren, cp. also Lat. -ernilas; fa-erni, br-erni, m-erni, father-
hood, etc.;
j-erni, nationality (mod.) ; lund-erni, temper; lif-erni,
conduct of life; besides sal-erni, s-erni (q.v.): in -elsi, a very few
words, reyk-elsi, incense; fang-elsi, a prison ; hrokk-elsi, a stone grig,
is prob. different: in -ildi, fifr-ildi, a butterfly; ykk-ildi, callousness:
in -di, el-di, q. v. (ala) ; upp-el-di, education : in -in, bynd-in, a sheaf;
aid-in, fruit: in -Hi, heim-ili, home. II. in -si (-sli); brig-si,
rebuke; kyn-sl.prodigy; smyr-sl, ointment; yng-sl, heaviness; bceg-sl,
fins, (bgr, a bow) ; eym-sl, soreness; œxl (qs.œk-sl, from vaxa), excres-
cence;
skrim-sl, a monster; cer-sl, mad pranks, (œrr, mad)', bci-sl, a
bridle;
yrm-sl, mercy; renn-sli, a watercourse. 2. in -sn ; hœn-
sn, poultry; rsek-sn, rags-; fylg-sni, q. v. III. in -al, etc.; -
al, a feud; me-al, medicine (mod.); a-al, nature: in -an, gam-an,
joy; and a few other words but little used, e. g. -r-an, a bad season;
o-lyfj-an, poison ; -t-an, offal of food: in -in, -n, a.ld-in, fruit; meg-
in, main power; reg-in, gods; meg-n, power; reg-n, rain; vat-n,
water: in -gin, fe-gin, father and daughter; syst-kin, brother and
sister;
mœ-gin, mother and daughter: in -a, hr-a, a county;
hundr-a, hundred; for-a, q.v.; luif-u, a' head: in -aid, kaf-ald,
snow; fol-ald, a foal; ker-ald, a tub ; haf-ald, q. v.; gim-ald, an open-
ing;
eisk-ald (poet.), heart; rek-ald, a wreck: in -arn, is-ani (poet.),
iron; ak-arn, an acorn; fo-arn, a crop; und-arn, afternoon: in -.',
fros-t, frost, from frjsa: in -ang, hun-ang, honey.

The following are to be regarded in the light of compds : I.
masculines in -leikr and -leiki; kr-leikr, love; sann-leikr, truth;
heilag-leiki, holiness, (many words) : in -dmr', -dœmi (n.), Engl. -dorn,
Germ, -fhum, helgi-dmr, holidom; Kristin-dmr, Christendom; heiin-
dmr, heathendom; mann-dmr, manhood; lr-dmr, learning; vs-
dmr, wisdom; konung-dmr, kingdom; jarl-dc'nnr, earldom, etc.:
in -skapr, Germ, -schaft, vin-skapr, friendship; fjnd-skapr, enmity;
flag-skapr, fellowship; skld-skapr, poetry; fifl-skapr, folly; grey-
skapr, meanness; grei-skapr, readiness, etc. (several words): in

-angr, lei-angr, levy; far-angr, baggage, etc. II. feminines
in - and -yogi, contr. from hyg, cp. A. S. hygd; denoting tem-
per, mind,
l-ii, sincerity; ll-, spite; var-, heedfulness; st-,
love ; mann-, humanity ; har-, hardness ; grimm-, cruelty;
grunn-ygi, shallow mind, gullibility; har-ygi, etc.: different are
misk-unn, mercy ; vrk-unn, excuse (from unna, cp. afund, envy) : in

-semi from -samr, miskun-semi, mercy, etc. III. neuters in

-œfi; au-cefi, riches; r-cefi, wilderness (only in plur.): in -or, akin
to A. S. wyrtb = weird —fate, go-or, priesthood; met-or, dignity;
gjaf-or,marriage; vit-orb,intelligence; ban-or,deathweird; bn-or,
courting; lof-or and hcit-or,/rorm'se; vtt-or, testimony; leg-or,
q. v., in many of which it is simply derived from or = word: in -lœti,
from adjectives in -ltr, rtt-lti, righteousness; r-lti, liberality, etc.
S" Masculines in -dagi; bar-dagi, battle-; ein-dagi, term; mal-dagi, a
deed;
skil-dagi, condition: feminine pr. names in -unnr, -n, Stein-
unnr, Ing-unn, Jjr-unn, S-unn, etc.; Sig-ny, As-ny, Jjor-ny, etc.: in

-beir or -eir, -rr, Ragn-eir, Sig-rr: masculjne pr. names in

-mundr, -ndr, -fir, Gu-mundr, r-ndr, Eyv-indr, n-undr, Br-r
(qs. Br-rr), Jjr-r (qs. jar-rr), and many trthers.

ADJECTIVES.—They are either simple, as fag-r, g-r, scet-r, or formed
by inflexion: I. in -ligr, Engl. -ly, Germ, -lich, in mod. usage
spelt and pronounced -ligr, counted by hundreds, o. twofold adjec-
tives, e. g. sein-ligr (seinn, slow, and -ligr) ; eilif-ligr, eternal; sl-ligr
(sll) ; grimm-ligr (grimmr), vitr-ligr, fagr-ligr, har-ligr, fram-ligr,
spak-ligr, fr-ligr, kt-ligr, hag-ligr, rang-ligr, hrein-ligr, g-ligr, feig-
Iigr,hlj-ligr(hljr,s7en/),vn-ligr,ung-ligr; veik-li^r,weakly; ung-
ligr, heil-ligr; min-ligr, like myself, etc. p. with a binding vowel i
or v, most of which seem to be formed from verbs; viru-ligr, worthy
(vira); mtu-ligr, deserved; kostu-ligr, costly (kosta); skipu-ligr,
orderly (skipa); tigu-ligr, magnificent; nku-Mgc,rich,opu.ienl; risu-ligr,

elevated, grand;—often in mod. usage spelt with ug, vrug-ligr, rkug-
ligr, etc.: with i, scemi-ligr, seeming (scema) ; ceski-ligr, desirable
(œskja) ; hi-ligr, ridiculous (ha) ; œsi-ligr, violent (œsa) : segi-
ligr, agreeable (gja) ; drengi-ligr, bold; senni-ligr,probable (sauna) ;
skyndi-ligr, sudden (skynda) ; xti-ligr, eatable (eta) ; hcefi-ligr, proper
(hcefa) ; hyggi-ligr, prudent (hyggja) ; skemti-ligr, amusing (skemta) ;
girni-ligr and fsi-ligr, desirable (fy'sa) ; glsi-ligr, splendid (glsa) ;
leyni-ligr, a secret (leyna) ; heyri-ligr (heyra) ; eyoi-ligr, empty (eya) ;
heppi-ligr, lucky; gti-ligr, eaw//cws (gseta) ; illi-ligr, ill-looking. y*
formed from nouns ; dr-ligr,glorious; and-ligr, spiritual; hold-ligr,
carnal; likam-ligr, bodily; verald-ligr, worldly; Gu-ligr, godly;
dag-ligr, daily; ar-ligr, yearly; stund-Iigr, temporary ; si-ligr, well-
bred;
mann-ligr, manly; gaefu-ligr, lucky ; elli-ligr, aged; rek-ligr,
stout; undar-ligr, wonderful; vig-ligr, martial; grt-ligr, wailing;
hlceg-ligr, laughable; kvenn-ligr, womanlike; karlmann-ligr, manly;
hf-ligr, moderate; hgm-ligr, vain : inserting s, yndis-ligr, charm-
ing.
8. with double inflexion; heilag-ligr, holy ; vesal-ligr, wretched;
mikil-ligr.^rawd; gumal-ligT,old-looking; frœkn-ligr,valiant; a-di'ian-
ligr,wonderful; ymis-ligr,various; heimol-ligr,intimate. II. par-
ticipial adjectives : 1. as from strong verbs, a. participles of strong
verbs, in -inn. p. participial adjectives from lost verbs ; bog-inn,
bowed; tog-inn, stretched; hrokk-inn, curled; rot-inn, rotten; hok-inn,
stooping; lo-inn, shaggy; las-inn, dilapidated; sno-inn, shorn; f-
inn, rotten; blg-irin, bulged, swoln ; hi-inn, weary; slg-inn, gloat-
ing,
y. sundry adjectives formed from verbs with a radical n; hei-
inn, heathen; Krist-iim,Christian; tig-inn, noble; teg-inn, fain; eig-inn,
own; œr-mn, ample; yfr-inn, id.; op-inn, open. 8. with a single n ;
jaf-n, even; (or-n,old; gjar-n, willing; frtek-n, valiant; sy'k-n, sackless;
grœn-n, green (from groa). e. many adjectives denoting apt,given to,
or the like ; id-inn, busy, sedulous ; hae-inn, mocking; hrœs-inn, con-
ceited;
rœ-inn, talkative; liost-gxi-'mit,painstaking; hygg-inn,prudent;
gsEt-inn, watchful; skryt-'mn, funny; U^-inn, obedient; lyg-inn, menda-
cious;
gleym-inn, forgetful; skreit-inn, untruthful; brcyt-mn,fickle,
shifty;
teim-inn, shy; kim-inn, ironical; gictt-inn.frowning; bell-inn,
tricking; ryn-inn,prying; frctt-inn, enquiring; hitt-inn, hitting; styrf-
inn, peevish; slys-inn, hapless; hepp-inn, happy, lucky ; lif-inn, rough;
glim-inn, a nimble wrestler; send-inn, sandy, etc. 2. as from
weak verbs: in -ar; participles, tal-ar, bo-ar, kall-ar, etc.:
participial, aldr-ar, aged; gaml-ar, doted; vilj-ar, willing; bless-
ar, blessed; blv-ar, cursed; htig-ar, daring; dlv-ar, tipsy : in-r,
hr-r, hoary; lr-r, learned; reyn-dr, experienced; eyg-r, eyed;
grein-dr, clever, discerning : different is kal-dr, cold, etc. 3. parti-
ciples in -andi; les-andi, able to read: often in a gerundial sense, l-
andi, intolerable; haf-andi, unfit: ver-andi; ger-andi, impossible,
etc.: from those in -andi come the KngL words in -ing, d being changed
into g. III. in -igr, -ugr, -agr; in Goth. etc. all three forms are
used indiscriminately ; in Icel. the ancients prefer -igr, the modern -ugr;
(-agr
remains only in heil-agr, holy, from heil-1); au-igr, wealthy;
matt-igr, mighty; bl-igr, bloody; nau-igr, unwilling; m-igr,
moody; gof-ugr, noble; 'f-ugr,bachvard,inverse; h[-ugr, heavy; kunn-
igr, known; rtt-ugr and ofl-ugr, strong; r-ugr, arduus; gr-igr,
greedy; vit-ugr, witty, clei'er; si-ugr, well-bred; st-ugr, steady;
synd-ugr, sinful; ver-ugr, worthy; minn-ugr, mindful; skyld-ugr,
dutiful; heipt-igr, hating; kr'pt-ugr, powerful; r-ugr, reedy,
sagacious;
sltt-ugr, wily; leir-ugr, clayey; mold-ugr and ryk-ugr,
dusty; snjo-ugr, snowy; hr-ugr, exultant: in -igr, -minded;
grimm-igr,^rce, etc. 2. simple forms, mostly pool., as spr-kar,
propbecyhrg; mein-gir, moaning, Lex. Poet. IV. in -tittr, O. H. G.

-obt, A.S. -ibt, Germ, -icbt; denoting colour, shape, etc.; dumb-ottr,
dusky; skj-ttr,chequered; frekn-ttr,/recW_y; rnd-ttr,striped; flekk-
ttr, q.v.; skjld-ttr ; brnd-ttr, brindled; drofn-ttr, q. v.; bild-ttr,
sokk-ttr, bles-ttr, gols-ttr.bleikill-ttr, ml-ttr, vind-ttr, etc., all of
colour: of shape, or, as Lat. -osus, denoting all over, covered with; kniitt-
ottr, ball-shaped; tind-ttr, with peaks; br-ttr, waved; kringl-ottr,
round; hnll-ttr, bll-ttr, ball-formed; hlykkj-ttr, crooked; gt-ttr,
full of boles, ragged; skll-ttr,a/r/; ko!l-ttr,/wzWe(cow); hruf-t')ttr,
rugged; hnyfl-ottr, etc. : = Lat. -osus, hrukk-ttr, rugosus; bylj-ttr,
gusty; refj-ttr, crafty; gldr-ttr, a wily wizard; skerj-ottr./z/// of
skerries;
gr-ttr, poisoned; kvist-ttr, knotty ; sk-tt, having many
enemies,
etc. etc.:—a rich harvest of such words is found in Hjaltalin's
Icel. Botany, rendering the Lat. technical terms in -osus. "V. in

-all, -ull, -ill; lit-ill, little; mik-i\\,great, muckle ; gam-all, old; ves-all,
poor: as a kind of iterative adjective, denoting frequency or tendency,
hverf-ull, shifty, changeable; svik-all, false; gjf-ull, open-handed-
ag-all, taciturn ; spur-ull, speering, curious; stop-all, shifting; fr-ull,
vagrant; smug-all, penetrating; rf-ull, stumbling, tottering (of a
horse); at-all,_^mre; hvik-ull, wavering; giing-ull and reik-all, ram-
bling;
hug-all, minding, observing; ris-ull, early rising; siig-ull, tell-
| ing tales; svip-z\l,sbifty ; (these words are not very numerous.) fifr In
! mod. usage -ull; g-ull = bag-all; ot-ull, pert: but -all is kept in gam-
I all, yes-all. VI. in-samr; hof-samr, tbrifty; skyn-samr, clever,