XXXIV

OUTLINES OF GRAMMAR.

intelligent; feng-samr, q.v.; ln-samr, lucky; si-samr, upright, honest;
fri-samr, peaceful; likn-samr and miskun-samr, merciful; ro-samr,
calm; grun-samr,suspicious; iju-samr, busy; atorku-samr, starf-samr,
hard-working; vorliun-samr, forbearing; rok-samr, officious; gaman-
samr, merry; ar-samr, pro/liable ; and many others. VII. in

-skr, Germ, -scb, Engl. -ish; bern-skr, childish; msel-skr, eloquent;
prjOt-skr,stubborn; ni-skr,stingy; bei-skr,bitter; dx\-skr,easy; ffl-skr,
foolish ; heim-skr, silly; brei-skr, brittle; va-skr, kar-skr, hor-skr, ro-
skr, vigorous; fri-skr, fresh : esp. in names of nations, Dan-skr, Danish;
Scen-skr, Swedish; En-skr, English ; r-skr, Irish ; Skot-skr, Scottish;
Val-skr, Welsh; Gri-skr, Greek; Finn-skr, Finnish; Ger-skr, Russian ;
Bret-skr, British (i. e. Welsh) ; Gaut-skr, Gautifb; in -eyskr, Sur-
eyskr, Orkn-eyskr, Fr-cyskr, from Sudor, the Orkneys, the Faroes : in

-lend-skr, -lenzkr (-land), Is-lenzkr, Icelandic; Grœn-lenzkr, Green-
landisb
(but Gren-skr of the county in Norway) : in -dœl-skr (dalr) :
in -ver-skr (-verjar), Vk-vcrskr, |jj-verskr (German), Rom-verskr
(Roman), formed from Vk-verjar, jj-verjar, Rm-verjar (Romans) :
in -neskr, Sax-neskr, Saxon ; Got-neskr, Gothic; F'rakk-neskr, Prank-
ish
or French:—this n belongs to the noun, cp. Saxon, Gotnar, Lat.
Gotbones : hence the mod. names (formed by a false analogy, since the
noun has no n), Rss-neskr, Russian; Prss-neskr, Pmssian, etc.:
in appellatives, him-neskr, heavenly (himinn); jar-neskr, earthly
(irreg.) VIII. in -œnn; cp. Goth, -ein; O.H.G. -in; A.S.

-en; in five words, esp. denoting the quarters of heaven, austr-cenn,
eastern ; nor-cenn, northern, Norse; sur-cenn, southern, Scot, southron;
vestr-cenn, western: also aldr-cenn, aged;—in all these words the r
seems to belong to the root: ut-rcenn, haf-rcenn, blowing from the
sea,
are mod. words formed by analogy: ein-rcenn, peculiar, odd, is
qs. ein-rynn; but how can we explain fjall-rcenn in Kristni S. ch. 6 in
a verse of the year 998, unless this too is due to a false analogy ? IX.
adjectives in -ltr, -mannered; dramb-ltr, str-ltr ; mikil-ltr, proud;
ltil-ltr, bumble; vand-ltr, zealous; rtt-ltr, righteous; r-ltr,
liberal; f-ltr, silent, cold; akk-ltr, thankful, etc.: in -leitr,

-faced, looking, fl-leitr, pale ; ykk-leitr, etc.: in -eygr, -eyed, fagr-
eygr,fair-eyed, etc.: in -lyndr, -mooded, tempered, g-lyndr, gentle;
\\\-\y\\ai, pettish; grii-\yi\di;, spiteful;
fjl-lyndrjcWe; fa-lyndr, melan-
choly;
fijot-lyndr, hot-tempered; or-lyndr, liberal, etc.: in -karr, var-
krr, cautious; laun-krr, hirking: in -rœr, tt-rcer, n-rœr, t-
rcer, tlf-rœr (see p. xxi), prob. akin to Goth, ga-rajan — mtme-
rare;
cp. also r, a row :—these with several others may be regarded
as compounds.

VERBS.-—The 1st and 4th weak conjugations, as also the strong,
consist of primitive words; the 2nd and 3rd weak consist of deriva-
tives from nouns, adjectives, and preterites of strong verbs (see the
remarks on the umlaut); the exceptions are the verbs of the 1st with
infiexive syllables. Inflexions : I. in -na, denoting to become,
grow so and so;
these words seem originally to be formed from
strong participles or adjectives in -inn, whence the n in the inflexion;
and so they may serve as guides in tracing lost strong verbal in-
flexions : 1. where a participle or adjective in -inn exists;
ro-na, to blush (roinn) ; vis-na, to wither (visinn) ; sof-na, to go to
sleep
(sofinn) ; dof-na, to get benumbed (dotinn) ; vak-na, to awake
(vakinn) ; bog-na, to be bowed (boginn) ; klOk-na, to be softened;
drukk-na, to drown (drukkinn) ; rot-na, to come to an e/t/(rotinn);
stork-na, to be curdled (storkinn) ; brot-na, to break (brotinn) ; rot-na,
to rot (rotinn) ; sou-na, to be cooked (so-inn) ; hlot-nast, to fall to
one's lot
(hlotinn) ; skri-na, to slip (skriinn) ; svi-na, to be singed
(sviinn) ; blik-na, to turn pale (blikja) ; slit-na, to be torn (slitiim) ;
rif-na. to be rent (rifinn) ; vik-na, to give way (vikinn) ; hnip-na, to
quail
(hnip-inn); l-na, to rot (finn); br-na, to melt (brinn); tog-
na, to become leaky (toginn); bolg-na, to bulge, sivell (blginn); hnig-
na, to decay (hniginn); gis-na, to be ' geizened' (gisinn); las-na, to decay
(lasinn); slok-na, to be quenched; hang-na, to become hanghm. p.
where a lost participle can be suggested ; ag-na, to become silen!; glp-
na, q. v.; kvik-na, to be engendered; hit-na, to become hot; fit-na, to
growfat;
dig-na, to get wet; gli-na, q. v.; do-na, q.v.; los-na, to get
loose;
stik-na, to be roasted; or-na, to be dry (purr, porrinn); lif-na, to
become alive;
i-na, hl-na, and -na, to thaw; kaf-na, to be choked;
hja-na, to wane. 2. formed from plain adjectives, perhaps by way
of analogy to the above ; har-na, to harden, grow hard (harr); stir-
na (stirr, stiff"); ykk-na (ykkr, stout); sort-na, to become black
(svartr); hlj-na, to become silent (hljr); fl-na, to grow pale (flr);
gul-na, to grow yellow (gulr) ; ves-na, to grow worse (verri) ; bat-na,
to grow better (bati) ; bla-na, to grow blue (blr); gr-na (grr, grey) ;
dokk-na, to darken (dokkr, black) ; vok-na, to get wet (vkvi); sur-na,
to get sour (sun); hvit-na, to whiten (hvitr); sar-na, to smart (srr);
volg-na (volgr, lukewarm); gla-na, to be gladdened (glar) ; meyr-na
(meyrr, Germ, murbe); hly-na, togetwarm (hlr); tre-na, to dry (tr, a
log);
re-na,/o sink, dwindle; gild-na (gildr, stout). 3. the sense is
different in such words as sam-na, to collect (saman) ; gam-na (gaman);
fag-na, to rejoice (feg-inn); sak-na, to miss; gag-na, (o gain; tig-na,

to honour (tiginn): as also Krist-na, A) Christianize (Kristinn); drott-na,
to rule (drttinn); var-na, to shun; spyr-na, to spurn, etc. II.
in -ga, from adjectives in -igr; au-ga, to enrich (auigr) ; hel-ga,
to hallow (heilagr); r-gast, to take counsel, see p. xxiv. 2. in

-ka, formed from adjectives, to become (and to make) so and so ; hk-
ka, to heighten; lk-ka, to lower; fk-ka, to become few; dy'p-ka, to
deepen;
min-ka, to lessen; smk-ka, to become smaller; stcek-ka, to
become larger;
brci-ka, to become broad; v-ka, to widen; mjok-ka,
to make narrow; s-ka, to become ' sid;' sein-ka, to make slow, etc.,
see p. xxiv ; some of these are also intrans., e. g. min-ka, to lessen and
to become less. III. in -sa and -ra, a kind of iterative verb
mentioned in p. xxiv. IV. in -la, id.

Final Bemarks on the Formation of "Words. From the
roots fresh words branch out by means of prefixed or suffixed syllables;
the ablaut is probably due to a prefix (reduplication), the umlaut to a
lost inflexion; root vowels seem not to change of themselves, but
from some outward cause. Ablaut, umlaut, and inflexions are the
three chief agents in forming words. All three degrees of formation
may be found in a single word ; e. g. kann (knew) is a strong preterite,
formed by way of ablaut; whence kenna, to teach, by umlaut; whence
kenn-sla, teaching, by inflexion : or to take another example,—from
heil-1, whole, comes heil-agr, holy, whence hel-ga, to sanctify, whence
helgan (i. e. hel-g-a-n), where we have ablaut + threefold inflexion :
so also from son atonement, sacrifice (in snar-giiltr, snar-dreyri,
sacrificial blood, Germ, s'tibne), is formed syn- (in old MSS. spelt
syn-), a sin, a thing to be atoned for, whence synd-ugr sinful, whence
svndg-a to sin, whence syndga-n (syn-d-g-a-n) sinfulness. Yet beyond
son with its long vowel, as well as heill with its diphthong, lie primitive
words whence son and heill were formed by means of ablaut, and so in
many other cases. The growth of words is slow, and between the first
and last of these formations centuries elapsed;—son is a heathen
word, synd and derivatives are Christian; heill, heilagr, and helga are
heathen, whereas helgan is Christian. Many of the inflexions are the
latest, and from them were formed fresh words to express ideas un-
known in heathen times: such especially are most of the feminities
in -n and -ing (from verbs) of late growth, and but few of them
perhaps known to the men of the loth century (the Saga time) ;
some of the new words displaced older, e.g. hugga-n, comfort;
but Ii'kn is older : again, the umlaut belongs to the early, the ablaut
to the earliest stage of the language,—dOmr (doom), dcerna (deem),
dmiug (deeming, damnation), represent the three steps. In some
instances the succession is different, and an inflexion comes between
ablaut and umlaut, thus purr dry, or-sti thirst, whence yr-str thirsty ;
grOa to grow, gr-r growth, whence grcea to heal, whence grœ-sla
healing; and many others.

Pet Names.

These are diminutives, and in compound names are chiefly formed
by a sort of contraction and by changing a strong declension into
a weak (usually in the latter, but sometimes in the former part of
the name), or by adding -si, -ka, or the like: I. girls; Sigga
from Sig-rr; Gunna from Gu-rn ; Inga from Ing-unu, Ing-veldr ;
Imba from Ingi-bjorg; Gudda from Gu-rr; Manga from Mar-
grot ; Valka from Val-gerr; Ranka from Ragn-eir and Ragn-hildr ;
JOka from Jo-hanna ; Tobba from or-bjrg; Sissa from Sig-nr ;
Kata (Engl. Kate) from Katrin; Kitta from Kristin; Asia from
s-trr ; ura from Jjur-r ; Dura from Hall-dOra, etc.; Disa from
Val-dis, Vig-tlis, Her-dis, etc.; Geira from Geir-laug; Fra from
Hlm-frr, etc.; Jjra from Jar-rr, Sig-rr ; Lauga from Gu-
laug ; Asa from As-laug. II. boys ; Siggi from Sig-urr ; Gvendr
from Gu-mundr; Simbi from Sig-numdr ; Brynki from Bryn-jOlfr;
Steinki from Stein-grimr; Mangi from Magnus; Riinki from Run-Olfr;
Sveinki from Sveinn; Sebbi from Sig-bjiirn,Svein-bjrn(rare); Erli from
Erl-indr(Erlingr); Gutti fromGuthormr,or rarely Gu-brandr,— mi skal
harm Gutti (Guddi ?) setja ofan, Safn ii. 128 ; Kobbi from Jakob; Valdi
from or-valdr; Mundi or Asi from As-mundr, etc.; Lki from Jjor-
lkr; Leifi from or-leifr ; Lfi from lafr ; Eyvi from Eyj-Olfr ; Keli
from |jor-kell; Laugi from Gunn-laugr; Turni (Engl. Tommy") from
Thomas occurs in Icel. as an independent name about the middle of
the I 2th century (Stud.), and was probably borrowed from the English ;
FsifromVig-fs; Grimsi from Gn'mr; JOnsi from JOn^Engl. Johnny);
Bjrsi from Bjrn ; Bensi from Benedikt. These names, and others
similar to them, are not of yesterday, but can be traced back even to
the heathen time; many of the old names with weak declension in

-i and -a were probably originally pet names, e. g. Bjarni from Bjorn;
Ami (Arne) from Orn ; Bersi from Bjrn ; Karli (Engl. Charley) from
Karl; JOra from Jreir ; Ragna from compounds in Ragn-, Ragn-eir ;
Ingi and Inga from compounds in Ing-; Goddi (Laxd., cp. Germ.
Gotze) probably from compounds in Go- (Gumundr) as the present
Gudda of girls; Boddi (a name of the 8th century) from those in B-