= komr (i.e. kemr), feoša =fceša. II. consonants: 1. a
radical / is almost always doubled before the dentals d or / without
regard to etymology; the MSS. thus spell holld flesb, molld mould,
valid power, skalld poet, hallda to hold, hollt a bolt, kallt cold; but
not so if the d is inflexive and soft, e. g. skyl-ši, žol-ši, vai-ši, hul-ši,
etc., from skulu, žola, velja, hylja; as also gal-šr from gala, kul-ši
from kul, skul-š from skulu a debt, etc. This was no doubt due to
the / having in the former case been pronounced aspirate (as it still
is), similar to Welsh //, the I in hollt being sounded exactly as bl
at the beginning of syllables. |3. the z instead of A was almost
always used after the double consonants (with a dental sound), //, nn,
nd, Id, dd, tt, It, nt, ro,
and /, e. g. in the genitives gulls, munnz,
sandz, valdz, oddz, hattz, holltz or hollz, fantz, garšz, knulz or
knśz, as also in botz, vaz or vatz, from gull, munnr,... knśtr, botn,
vatn; in the common spelling gulls, munns, etc.: again, guls from
gulr, dais from dalr, etc. This is not a mere variation of spelling ; the
sibilant in the former cases was no doubt sounded as Engl. z, viz. with a
lisping sound ; the z sound is now lost in Icel, and s is spelt wherever it
is etymologically required. y. the/j instead of 0 (t) was used through-
out as final (inlaut, auslaut) in very old MSS., in later ž and () indiscri-
minately, e.g. guž, orž, secž, dypž,--guš, orš, sekt, dypt (qs. sekš,
dypš) ; as also in inflexions, tocož, vitož, scolož, hafiž, = tókut, vituš,
skulut, hafit; in modern and better spelling tókuš, vituš, skuluš, hafiš,
etc., see introduction to letter D (signif. B), p. 93. 8. the qu — kv

in imitating Latin MSS., e. g. quama, necquerr, quišr, quiqiian, quųqiia,
= kvįma, nekkverr, kvišr, kvikvan, kveykja, (ķv very seldom occurs
in good old MSS.); perhaps the git had a peculiar sound, like that
of the English queen; in mod. Icel. pronunciation there is only a
single k sound throughout: for the use ofc, see Dictionary, p.93. 2.
Norwegianisms, a. the spelling with v bclore it in verbal forms, as
vultu, vuršu, voršinn, from veita, verša, = ultu, uršu, oršiim; these
neither occur in very old MSS. nor in alliteration in old poets nor in
mod. pronunciation. J3. the dropping of b before the liquids /, n, r,
i and writing iutr, not, ringr, instead of hlutr n lot, hnot a nut, hringr
a ring; this dropping of the & seems to have come into fashion
with Icel. writers and transcribers after the union with Norway; but
as early as the 15th century MSS. had resumed the old correct form,
which had never been lost, and which has been preserved in speech
as well as writing up to the present day, Icelanders being now the only
people of all the Teutonic races who have preserved this sound; but
it is curious that the Icel. transcribers, having the b sound in their ears,
frequently blundered, and br, hn occur now and then, which never
happens with Norse transcribers ; there is, for example, no need of
any stronger evidence that Hank Erlendsson (the writer of the vellum
Hauks-bók) was a native Icelander, than that, although he tries to spell
in the Norse way, the b creeps in, see, for instance, facsimile I in Landn.
(ķsl. i, Ed. 1843), where 1.11 hrafnkels, but 1. 12 rafnkels. 3. for
many special usages sec the introduction to each letter.


Btmolfr Jonsson (died 1654) ; he wrote in Latin the first Icelandic Grammar, Grammaticae Islandlcae R-itdimenta, Copenhagen 1651; it
was republished by Hickes at Oxford in 1688, but with many misprints, and in his Thesaurus in 1/03: Hickcs also made the index
of the words occurring in the book. This Grammar is formed upon the Latin principle, and is a useful book; the author was an
Icelandic schoolman, rector of the College at Holar in Iceland, and a learned man.

J6n Magnśsson (born 1664, died 1739, a brother to Ami Magm'uson); his Grammaiica Islandica (also in Latin) was never published,
but exists at Copenhagen in the author's autograph; it is less interesting than the above.

Bask (Rasmus Kristian), the famous Danish linguist (born 1787, died 1832), wrote three Icelandic Grammars:—
o. Veiledning til del Islandslce Sprog, Copenhagen iSli (in Danish).

P. Anvisning til Islandskan, written in Swedish and published at Stockholm in i8l8; this is the best of the three which Rask wrote,
and it was rendered into English by Mr. Dasent in 1843.

y. Kortfattet Veiledning til del Old-nordiske eller Gamle Islands/lie Sprog, Copenhagen 1832 (in Danish), rendered into English
by B. Thorpe.

Grimm, Jacob (born 1785, died 1863), in his Deutscbe Graimnatik, first in 1819 in one volume, but recast in the great Teutonic
Grammar of 18-22 sqq.; the Icelandic paradigms are contained in vol. i,—the nouns, pp. 650-665; the adjectives, pp. 736-743;
the verbs, pp. 911-928 ; the formation of words etc. in the following volumes (ii-iv). The work of Grimm is rightly regarded as
the key-stone for the knowledge of Teutonic languages.

TJnger, C. B. (and P. A. Munch.), Del Norsfie Sprogs Grammatik, Chtistiania 1847, chiefly founded on Grimm's work.

Halldór Frišriksson, ķdenzk Mįlmynda-lżsing, Reykjavik 1861; a small book, but curious as being the only Icelandic Grammar
written in Icelandic.

GRAMMATICAL ESSAYS ON THE SPELLING OF MSS.: a. Frumparlar īslenzkrar Tungn by Konrad Glslaton, Copenhagen 1846, p. The
Prefaces to the various Editions, especially in those edited within the last twenty years.