This is page 4 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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4 AF.

lawed) af Noregi, where ór would be more regular, 344; af Islandi, of a

traveller, Fms. x. 3; búa her af báðum ríkjunum, to take a levy from, 51;

hinir beztu bændr ór Norðlendingafjórðungi ok af Sunnlendingafjórðungi,

the most eminent Southerners and Northerners, 113; Gizzurr gékk af

útsuðri at gerðinu, from south-west, Sturl. ii. 219; prestar af hváru-

tveggja biskupsdæmi, from either diocess, Dipl. ii. 11; verða tekinn af

heimi, to be taken out of the world, 623. 21; gruflar hon af læknum,

scrambles out of the brook, Ísl. ii. 340; Egill kneyfði af horninu í einum

drykk, drained off the horn at one draught, literally squeezed every drop

out of it, Eg. 557; brottuaf herbúðunurn, Fms. x. 343. γ of things more

or less surrounding the subject, corresp. to yfir or um; láta þeir þegar

af sér tjöldin, break off, take down the tents in preparing for battle, Eg.

261; kyrtillinn rifnaði af honum, his coat burst, caused by the swollen

body, 602; hann hafði leyst af sér skúa sína, he untied his shoes (but

binda á sik), 716; Steinarr vildi slíta hann af sér, throw him off, of one

clinging to one's body, 747; tók Gísli þá af sér vápnin, took off his

arms, Fms. vii. 39. Of putting off clothes; fara af kápu, Nj. 143;

far þú eigi af brynjunni, Bs. i. 541; þá ætlaði Sigurðr at fara af bryn-

junni, id.; þá var Skarphóðinn flettr af klæðunum, Nj. 209: now

more usually fara or klæðum, fötum, exuere, to undress. δ. con-

nected with út; föstudaginn for út herrinn af borginni, marched out of the

town, Nj. 274; ganga út af kirkjunni, to go out of the church, now út úr,

Fms. vii. 107: drekki hann af þeirri jörðunni, of something impregnated

with the earth, Laekn. 402. ε. more closely corresponding to frá, being

in such cases a Latinism (now frá); bréf af páfa, a pope's bull, Fms. x. 6;

rit af hánum, letter from him, 623. 52; bréf af Magnúsi konungi, a letter

from king Magnus, Bs. i. 712; farið þér á brautu af mér í eilífan eld, Hom.

143; brott af drottins augliti, Stj. 43. ζ. denoting an uninterrupted

continuity, in such phrases as land aflandi, from land to land, Eg. 343, Fas.

ii. 539; skip af skipl. from ship to ship, Fms. v. 10; brann hvat af öðru, one

after another, of an increasing fire, destroying everything, i. 128; brandr

af brandi brenn, funi kveykist af funa, one from another, Hm. 56; hverr

af öðrum, one after another, in succession, also hverr at öðrum, Eb. 272,

280 (where at in both passages). 2. metaph., at ganga af e-m

dauðum, to go from, leave one dead on the spot, of two combatants;

en hann segiz bani hins ef hann gekk af dauðum manni, Grág. ii. 88,

Hkr. 1. 327; undr þykir mér er bróðir þinn vildi eigi taka af þér starf

þetta, would not take this toil from thee, Nj. 77; þegnar hans glöddust

af honum, were fain of him, Fms. x. 380; at koma þeim manni af sér er

settr var á fé hans, to get rid of, Ld. 52; vil ek þú vinriir af þér skuldina,

work off the debt, Njarð. 366; reka af sér, to repel, Sturl. ii. 219; hann

á þá sonu er aldri munu af oss ganga, who will never leave us, whom we

shall never get rid of, Fas. i. 280; leysa e-n af e-u, to relieve, 64;

taka e-n af lífi, to kill, Eg. 48, 416, Nj. 126; af lífdögum, Fms. vii. 204;

ek mun ná lögum af því ???, get the benefit of the law in this case,

Eg. 468; muntu enga sætt af mér fá, no peace at my hand, 414; rísa

af dauða, to rise from death, Fms. ii. 142; guð bætti honum þó af þessi

sótt, healed him of this sickness, ix. 390; vakna af sýn, draumi, svefni,

to awaken from a vision, dream, sleep, 655 xxxii. I, Gísl. 24, Eb. 192,

Fas. i. 41. Rather with the notion out of, in the phrase af sér etc.,

e. g. sýna e-t af scr, to shew, exhibit a disposition for or against, Ld. 18;

gera mikit af sér, to shew great prowess, Ísl. ii. 368; éf þú gerir eigi meira

af þér um aðra leika, unless you make more of thyself, Edda 32; Svip-

dagr hafði mikit af sér gert, fought bravely, Fas. i. 41; góðr (illr) af sér,

good (bad) of oneself, by nature; mikill af sjálfum sér, proud, bold,

stout, Nj. 15; ágætastr maðr af sjálfum sér, the greatest hero, Bret.:

góðr af ser, excellent, Hrafn. 7; but, on the contrary, af sér kominn,

ruinous, in decay; this phrase is used of old houses or buildings, as

in Bs. i. 488 = Sturl. l. c.; af sér kominn af mæði can also be said of a

man fallen off from what he used to be; kominn af fotum fram, off his

legs from age, Sturl. i. 223, Korm. 154 (in a verse). II. WITH-

OUT MOTION: 1. denoting direction from, but at the same time

continuous connection with an object from which an act or thing pro-

ceeds, from; tengja skip hvárt fram af stafni annars, to tie the ships in a

line, stem to stern, Fms. i. 157, xi. 111; svá at þeir tóku út af borðum,

jutted out of the boards, of rafters or poles, iv. 49; stjarna ok af sem

skaft, of a comet, ix. 482; lúka upp af hrossi, to open a gate from off a

horse, Grág. ii. 264; hon svarar af sínu sæti sem álpt af baru, Fás. i.

186; þar er sjá mátti utau af firði, af þjóðleið, that might be seen from

the fareway on the sea when sailing in the firth, Hkr. ii. 64; þá mun

hringt af (better at) Burakirkju, of bells rung at the church, Fms. xi. 160;

gengr þar af Meðalfellsströnd, projects from, juts out, of a promontory,

Ld. 10. 2. denoting direction alone; upp af víkinni stóð borg mikil,

a burg inland from the inlet, Eg. 161; lokrekkja innar af seti, a shut bed

inward from the benches in the hall, Ísl. ii. 262; kapella upp af konungs

herbergjum, upwards from, Fms. x. 153; vindr stóð af landi, the wind stood

off the land, Bárð. 166. β. metaph., stauda af e-u, vide VI. 4. γ.

ellipt., hallaði af norðr, of the channel, north of a spot, Boll. 348; also,

austr af, suðr af, vestr af, etc. 3. denoting absence; þingheyendr

skulu eigi vera um nótt af þingi (away from the meeting), eðr lengr,

þá eru þeir af þingi (away from (be meeting) ef þeir eru or (out of)

þingmarki, Grág. i. 25; vera um nótt af várþingi, 115; meðan hann er

af landi héðan, abroad, 150. β. metaph., gud hvíldi af öllum verkum

sínum á sjaunda degi, rested from his labours, Ver. 3. 4. denoting

distance; þat er komit af þjóðleið, out of the high road, remote, Eg. 369;

af þjóðbraut, Grág. ii. 264, i. 15; Otradalr (a farm) var mjök af vegi, far

out of the way, Háv. 53.

B. TEMP, past, from, out of, beyond: 1. of a person's age,

in the sense of having past a period of life; af ómaga aldri, of age, able

to support oneself, Grág. i. 243; af aeskualdri, stricken in years, having

past the prime of life, Eg. 202; lítið af barnsaldri, still a child, Ld. 74;

ek em nú af léttasia skeiði, no longer in the prime of life, Háv.

40. 2. of a part or period of time, past; eigi síðar en nótt er af

þingi, a night of the session past, Grág. i. 101; þá er sjau vikur eru af

sumri, seven weeks past of the summer, 182; tíu vikur af sumri, Íb. 10;

var mikit af nótt, much of the night was past, Háv. 41; mikið af vetri,

much of the winter was past, Fas. ii. 186; þriðjungr af nótt, a third of the

night past, Fms. x. 160; stund af degi, etc.; tveir mánoðr af sumri, Gþl.

103. 3. in adverbial phrases such as, af stundu, soon; af bragði,

at once; af tómi, at leisure, at ease; af nýju, again; af skyndingu,

speedily; af bráðungu, in a hurry, etc.

C. In various other relations: I. denoting the passage or

transition of an object, concrete or abstract, of, from. 1. where a

thing is received, derived from, conferred by a person or object; þiggja

lið af e-m, to derive help from, Edda 26; taka traust af e-m, to receive sup-

port, comfort from, Fms. xi. 243; taka mála af e-m, to be in one's pay, of

a soldier, Eg. 266; halda land af e-m, to hold land of any one, 282; verða

viss af e-m, to get information from, 57, Nj. 130; taka við sök af manni

(a law term), to undertake a case, suit, Grág. i. 142; hafa umboð af e-m,

to be another's deputy, ii. 374; vera góðs (ills) maklegr af e-m, to deserve

good (bad) of, Vd. 88 (old Ed., the new reads frá), Fs. 45; afla matar

af eyjum, to derive supplies from, Eb. 12. 2. where an object is

taken by force: α. prop. out of a person's hand; þú skalt hnykkja

smíðit af honum, wrest it out of his hand, Nj. 32; cp. taka, þrífa, svipta

e-u (e-t) af e-m, to wrest from. β. metaph. of a person's deprival of

anything in general; hann tók af þér konuna, carried thy wife off, Nj.

33; tók Gunnarr af þér sáðland þitt, robbed thee of seedland, 103; taka af

honum tignina, to depose, degrade him, Eg. 271; vinna e-t af e-m, to carry

off by force of arms, conquer, Fms. iii. 29; drepa menu af e-m, for one,

slay one's man, Eg. 417; fell þar lið mart af Eyvindi, many of Eyvind's

people fell there, 261. γ. in such phrases as, hyggja af e-u (v. afhuga),

hugsa af e-u, to forget; hyggja af harmi; sjá af e-u, to lose, miss; var svá

ástúðigt með þeim, at livargi þóttist mega af öðrum sjá, neither of

them could take his eyes off the other, Sturl. i. 194; svá er mörg við ver

sinn vær, at varla um sér hon af hoiuun nær, Skálda 163. 3. de-

noting forfeiture; þá eru þeir útlagir, ok af goðorði sínu, have forfeited

their priesthood, Grág. i. 24; telja hann af ráðunum fjár síns alls, to

oust one, on account of idiocy or madness, 176; verða af kaupi, to be

off the bargain, Edda 26; þá skalt þú af allri fjárheimtunni, forfeit all

the claim, Nj. 15; ek skal stefna þér af konunni, summon thee to for-

feit, a case of divorce, id.; ella er hann af rettarfari um hana, has for-

feited the suit, Grág. i. 381. β. ellipt., af ferr eindagi ef, is forfeited,

Grág. i. 140. II. denoting relation of a part to a whole, off,

of, Lat. de; höggva hönd, höfuð, fót af e-um, to cut one's hand, head, foot

off, Nj. 97, 92, Bs. i. 674; höggva spjót af skapti, to sever the blade from

the shaft, 264; hann lét þá ekki hafa af föðurarfi sínum, nothing of

their patrimony, Eg. 25; vil ek at þú takir slíkt sem þér líkar af varningi,

take what you like of the stores, Nj. 4; at þú eignist slíkt af fé okkru

sem þú vili, 94. β. ellipt., en nú höfum vér kjörit, en þat er af kross-

inum, a slice of, Fms. vii. 89; þórðr gaf Skólm frænda sínum af landnámi

sínu, a part of, Landn. 211; hafði hann þat af hans eigu er hann vildi,

Sturl. ii. 169; þar lá forkr einn ok brotið af endanum, the point broken

off, Háv. 24, Sturl. i. 169. γ. absol. off; beit hann höndina af, þar

sem nú heitir úlfliðr, bit the hand off, Edda 17; fauk af höfuðit, the head

flew off, Nj. 97; jafnt er sem þér synist, af er fótrinn, the foot is off,

id.; af bæði eyru, both ears off, Vm. 29. 2. with the notion of --

among; mestr skörungr af konum á Norðrlöndum, the greatest heroine

in the North, Fms. i. 116; hinn efniligasti maðr af ungum mönnum í Aust-

fjörðum, the most hopeful of youths in the Eastfirths, Njarð. 364; af

(among) öllurn hirðmönnuni virði konungr mest skáld sín, Eg. 27; ef hann

vildi nokkura kaupa af þessum konum, Ld. 30; ör liggr þar útiá vegginum,

ok er sú af þeirra örum, one of their own arrows, Nj. 115. β. from,

among, belonging to; guð kaus hana af ollum konum sér til móður,

of the Virgin Mary, Mar. A. i. 27. γ. metaph., kunna mikit (lítið) af

e-u, to know much, little of, Bragi kann mest af skáldskap, is more cunning

of poetry than any one else, Edda 17. δ. absol. out of, before, in prefer-

ence to all others; Gunnarr bauð þér góð boð, en þú vildir eingi af taka,

you would choose none of them, Nj. 77; ráða e-t af, to decide; þó mun faðir

minn mestu af ráða, all depends upon him, Ld. 22; konungr kveðst því

mundu heldr af trúa, preferred believing that of the two, Eg. 55; var honum

ekki vildara af ván, he could expect nothing better, 364. 3. with the

additional sense of instrumentality, with; ferma skip af e-u, to freight a