This is page 5 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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5 AF -- AFARILLA.

with, Eg. 364; hlaða mörg skip af korni, load many ships with corn,

Fms. xi. 8; klyfja tvá hesta af mat, Nj. 74; var vágrinn skipaðr af

herskipum, the bay was covered with war ships, 124; fylla ker af glóðum,

fill it with embers, Stj. 319; fylla heiminn af sínu kyni, to fill the

world with his offspring, Ver. 3. III. denoting the substance of

which a thing is made, of; used indifferently with ór, though ór be more

frequent; þeir gerðu af honum jörðina, af blóði hans sæinn ok vötnin,

of the creation of the world from the corpse of the giant Ymir; the poem

Gm. 40, 41, constantly uses ór in this sense, just as in modern Icelandic,

Edda 5; svá skildu þeir, at allir hlutir væri smíðaðir af nokkru efni,

147 (pref.); húsit var gert af timbrstokkum, built of trunks of timber, Eg.

233; hjöhin vóru af gulli, of gold, golden, Fms. i. 17; af osti, of cheese,

but in the verse 1. c. ór osti, Fms. vi. 253; línklæði af lérepti, linen, Sks.

287. 2. metaph. in the phrases, göra e-t af e-ti (to dispose of),

verða af (become of), hvat hefir þú gört af Gunnari, what hast thou done

with Gunnar? Njarð. 376; hvat af motrinuni er orðit, what has become

of it? of a lost thing, Ld. 208; hverfr Óspakr á burt, svá eigi vita menn

hvat af honum er orðit, what has become of him? Band. 5. IV. de-

noting parentage, descent, origin, domicile, abode: 1. parentage, of,

from, used indifferently with frá; ok eru af þeim komnir Gilsbekkingar,

descend from them, but a little below -- frá honum eru konmir Sturlungar,

Eb. 338, cp. afkvæmi; af ætt Hörðakára, Fms. i. 287; kominn af Troj-

umönnum, xi. 416; af Ása-ætt (Kb. wrongly at), Edda I. β. metaph.,

vera af Guði (theol.), of God, = righteous, 686 B. 9; illr ávöxtr af íllri

rót, Fms. ii. 48; Asia er kölluð af nafni nokkurar konu, derives her name

from, Stj. 67; af honum er bragr kallaðr skáldskapr, called after his name,

Edda 17. 2. of domicile; af danskri tungu, of Danish or Scandi-

navian origin, speaking the Danish tongue, Grág. ii. 73; hvaðan af

löndum, whence, native of what country? Ísl. β. especially denoting

a man's abode, and answering to á and í, the name of the farm (or

country) being added to proper names, (as in Scotland,) to distinguish

persons of the same name; Hallr af Síðu, Nj. 189; Erlingr af Straumey,

273; Ástríðr af Djúpárbakka, 39; Gunnarr af Hlíðarenda (more usual

frá); þorir haklangr konungr af Ögðum, king of Agdir, Eg. 35, etc.;

cp. ór and frá. V. denoting a person with whom an act, feeling,

etc. originates, for the most part with a periphrastic passive: 1. by,

the Old Engl. of; as, ek em sendr hingað af Starkaði ok sonum hans,

sent hither by, Nj. 94; inna e-t af hendi, to perform, 257; þó at alþýða

væri skírð af kennimönnum, baptized of, Fms. ii. 158; meira virðr af

mönnum, higher esteemed, Ld. 158; ástsæll af landsmönnum, beloved, íb.

16; vinsæll af mönnum, Nj. 102; í allgóðu yfirlæti af þeim feðgum,

hospitably treated by them, Eg. 170; var þá nokkut drukkið af alþjóð,

there was somewhat hard drinking of the people, Sturl. iii. 229; mun

þat ekki upp tekið af þeim sükudólgum mínum, they will not clutch

at that, Nj. 257; ef svá væri í hendr þér búit af mér, if í had so made

everything ready to thy hands, Ld. 130; þá varð fárætt um af föður

hans, his father said little about it, Fms. ii. 154. 2. it is now also

sometimes used as a periphrase of a nom., e. g. ritað, þýtt af e-m,

written, translated, edited by, but such phrases scarcely occur in old

writers. VI. denoting cause, ground, reason: 1. origin-

ating from, on account of, by reason of; af frændsemis sökum, for

kinship's sake, Grág. ii. 72; ómáli af áverkum, speechless from wounds,

27; af manna völdum, by violence, not by natural accident, of a

crime, Nj. 76; af fortölum Halls, through his pleading, 255; af

ástsæld hans ok af tölum þeirra Sæmundar, by his popularity and the

eloquence of S., Íb. 16; af ráðum Haralds konungs, by his contriving,

Landn. 157; úbygðr af frosti ok kulda, because of frost and cold, Hkr.

i. 5. β. adverbially, af því, therefore, Nj. 78; af hví, why? 686

B. 9; þá verðr bóndi heiðinn af barni sínu, viz. if he does not cause his

child to be christened, K. þ. K. 20. 2. denoting instrumentality, by

means of; af sinu fé, by one's own means, Grág. i. 293; framfæra e-n af

verkum sinum, by means of one's own labour, K. þ. K. 42; draga saman

auð af sökum, ok vælum ok kaupum, make money by, 623. I; af sínum

kostnaði, at hi s own expense, Hkr. i. 217. β. absol., hún fellir á mik

dropa svá heita at ek brenn af öll, Ld. 328; hann fékk af hina mestu

sæmd, derived great honotur from it, Nj. 88; elli sótti á hendr honum

svá at hann lagðist í rekkjn af, he grew bedridden from age, Ld. 54; komast

undan af hlaupi, escape by running, Fms. viii. 58; spinna garn af rokki,

spin off a wheel (now, spinna á rokk), from a notion of instrumentality,

or because of the thread being spun out (?), Eb. 92. 3. denoting

proceeding, originating from; lýsti af höndum hennar, her hands spread

beams of light, Edda 22; allir heimar lýstust (were illuminated) af henni,

id.; en er lýsti af degi, when the day broke forth, Fms. ii. 16; lítt var

lýst af degi, the day was just beginning to break, Ld. 46; þá tók at myrkja

af nótt, the 'mirk-time' of night began to set in, Eg. 230; tók þá brátt

at myrkva af nótt, the night grew dark, Hkr. ii. 230. 4. metaph.,

standa, leiða, hljótast af, to be caused by, result from; opt hlýtst íllt af

kvenna hjali, great mischief is wrought by women's gossip (a proverb),

Gísl. 15, 98; at af þeim mundi mikit mein ok úhapp standa, be caused by,

Edda 18; kenna kulda af ráðum e-s, to feel sore from, Eb. 42; þó mun

her hljótast af margs manns bani, Nj, 90. 5. in adverbial phrases,

denoting state of mind; af mikilli æði, in fury, Nj. 116; af móð, in

great emotion, Fms. xi. 221; af áhyggju, with concern, i. 186; af létta,

frankly, iii. 91; af viti, collectedly, Grág. ii. 27; af heilu, sincerely, Eg.

46; áf fári, in rage; af æðru, timidly, Nj. (in a verse); af setning, com-

posedly, in tune, Fms. iii. 187; af mikilli frægð, gallantly, Fas. i. 261;

af öllu afli, with all might, Grág. ii. 41; af riki, violently, Fbr. (in a verse);

af trúnaði, confidently, Grág. i. 400. VII. denoting regard to,

of, concerning, in respect of, as regards: 1. with verbs, denoting

to tell of, be informed, inquire about, Lat. de; Dioscorides segir af grasi

því, speaks of, 655 xxx. 5; er menu spurðu af landinu, inquired about it,

Landn. 30; halda njósn af e-u, Nj. 104; er þat skjótast þar af at segja,

Eg. 546, Band. 8. β. absol., hann mun spyrja, hvárt þér sé nokkut

af kunnigt hversu for með okkr, whether you know anything about,

how, Nj. 33; halda skóla af, to hold a school in a science, 656 A. i.

19 (sounds like a Latinism); en ek gerða þik sera mestan mann af

öllu, in respect of all, that you should get all the honour of it, Nj.

78. 2. with adjectives such as mildr, illr, góðrafe-u, denoting

disposition or character in respect to; alira manna mildastr af fo, very

liberal, often-banded, Fms. vii. 197; mildr af gulli, i. 33; góðr af griðum,

merciful, Al. 33; íllr af mat en mildr af gulli, Fms. i. 53; fastr af drykk,

close, stingy in regard to, Sturl. ii. 125; gat þess Hildigunnr at þú mundir

góðr af hestinum, that you would be good about the horse, Nj. 90, cp. auðigr

at, v. at, which corresponds to the above phrases; cp. also the phrase

af sér above, p. 4, col. I, ll. 50 sqq. VIII. periphrasis of a genitive

(rare); provincialis af öllum Predikaraklaustrum, Fms. x. 76; vera af hinum

mesta fjandskap, to breathe deep hatred to, be on bad terms with, ix. 220;

af hendi, af hálfu e-s, on one's behalf, v. those words. IX. in

adverbial phrases; as, af launungu, secretly; at" hljóði, silently; v. those

words. β. also used absolutely with a verb, almost adverbially,

nearly in the signification off, away; hann bað þá róa af fjörðinn, pass

the firth swiftly by rowing, row the firth off, Fms. ix. 502; var pá af

farit þat seni skerjóttast var, was past, sailed past, Ld. 142; ok er þeir

höfðu af fjórðung, past one fourth of the way, Dropl. 10: skína af, to clear

up, of the skv, Eb. 152; hence in common language, skína af sér, when

the sun breaks forth: sofa af nóttina, to sleep it away, Fms. ii. 98; leið af

nóttin, the night past away, Nj. 53; dvelja af stundir, to kill the time, Band.

8; drepa af, to kill; láta af, to slaughter, kill off; γ. in exclamations; af

tjöldin, off with the awnings, Bs. i. 420, Fins, ix. 49. δ. in the phrases,

þar af, thence; hér af, hence, Fms. ii. 102; af fram, straight on, Nj. 144;

now, á fram, on, advance. X. it often refers to a whole sentence

or to an adverb, not only like other prepp. to hér, hvar, þar, but also re-

dundantly to héðan, ru'-ðan, þaðan, whence, hence, thence. 2. the

preposition may sometimes be repeated, once elliptically or adverbially,

and once properly, e. g. en er af var borit at borðinu, the cloth was taken

off from the table, Nj. 176; Guð þerrir af (off, away) hvert tár af (from)

augum heilagra manna, God wipes off every tear from the eyes of his

saints, 655 xx. vii. 17; skal þó fyrst bætr af lúka af fé vegaiula, pay off,

from, Gþl. 160, the last af may be omitted -- var þá af borið borðinu --

and the prep. thus be separated from its case, or it may refer to some

of the indecl. relatives er or sem, the prep. hvar, hér, þar being placed

behind them without a case, and referring to the preceding relative, e. g.

oss er þar mikit af sagt auð þeim, we have been told much about these

riches, Band. 24; er þat skjótast þar af at segja, in short, shortly. Eg. 546;

þaðan af veit ek, thence í infer, know, Fms. i. 97. XI. it is

moreover connected with a great many verbs besides those mentioned

above, e. g. bera af, to excel, whence afbragð, afbrigði; draga af, to detract,

deduct, hence afdráttr; veita ekki af, to be hard with; ganga at, to be left,

hence afgangr; standast af um e-t, to stand, how matters stand; sem af

tekr, at a furious rate; vita af, to be conscious, know about (vide VII).

D. As a prefix to compounds distinction is to be made be-

tween: I. af privativum, denoting diminution, want, deduction,

loss, separation, negation of, etc., answering indifferently to Lat. ab-, de-,

ex-, dis-, and rarely to re- and se-, v. the following COMPDS, such as

segja, dicere, but afsegja, negare; rækja, colere, but afrækja, negligere;

aflaga, contra legem; skapligr, normalis, afskapligr, deformis; afvik,

recessus; afhús, afhellir, afdalr, etc. II. af intensivum, ety-

mologically different, and akin to of, afr-, e. g. afdrykkja = ofdrykkja,

inebrietas; afbrýði, jealously; afbendi, tenesmus; afglapi, vir fatuus,

etc. etc. Both the privative and the intensive af may be con-

tracted into á, esp. before a labial f, m, v, e. g. á fram = af fram;

ábrýði = afbrýði; ávöxtr = afvöxtr; áburðr = afburðr; ávíta = afvíta (?).

In some cases dubious. With extenuated and changed vowel; auvirðiligr

or övirðiligr, depreciated, = afv- etc., v. those

afa, u, f. overbearing. Am. 1, Ls. 3, Bk. 2, 31, = afaryrði.

afar- and avar- [cp. Ulf. afar = GREEK, GREEK; Germ, aber, esp. in com-

pounds: v. Grimm Gr. ii. 709], only used as a prefix in compounds, very

much, very. Now often pronounced æfar, which form occurs esp. in MSS. of

the 14th and I5th centuries, e. g. Fms. i. 150, xi. 249, Ísl. ii. 131; cp. also

æfr, adj. iracundus. COMPDS: afar-auðigr, adj. very rich, Lex. Poët.

afar-breiðr, adj. very broad, Edda 10. afar-fagr, adj. very fair, Edda

(Ub.) 360. afar-hreinn, adj. very clean, Lex. Poët, afar-illa, adv. very