This is page 7 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 29 Apr 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.

7 AFHLYÐAST -- AFLEITK,

af-hlýðast, dd, to disobey, D, N. ii. 173.

af-hrapi, a, m. offscourings, outcasts, (an GREEK, -- afhrak being now

used); ok ræðr hann sér einum á hendr afhrapa hans, Grág. i. 294 (of the

consequences of harbouring a vagabond).

af-hroð, n. destruction, v. afráð, Fas. iii. 169.

af-huga, adj. ind. averse, having turned one's mind from; verða a. e-u or

við e-t, to forget, mind no more, Ísl. ii. 274, Stj. 202, Fs. 47, Bs. i. 78, 655 xi. 3.

af-hugast, að, dep. gov. dat. to forget, Fms. viii. 252; part. afhugaðr

við e-t = afhuga, having put it out of one's mind, ii. 336.

af-hus, n. out-house, side-apartment, Eb. 10.

af-hvarf, n. [hverfa], a diversion, turning aside, Hm. 33, in which pas-

sage it is opp. to gagnvegr, the straight path, Lâ. 204.

af-hýða, dd, to scourge thoroughly, 'hide,' Grett. 135, Sturl. iii. 295.

af-höfða, að, to behead, Fms. i. 217, Stj. 464.

af-högg, n. a law term, 'off-hewing,' mutilation, maiming, N. G. L. i.

170, Bs. i. 675, H. E. i. 237. II. chips, splinters, Fms. ii. 290.

AFI, a, m. [cp. Lat. avus, Ulf. avô = GREEK, and aba = GREEK, vir],

grandfather: it is now frequent, but occurs very rarely in old writers,

who almost always use móðurfaðir or föðurfaðir. Yet it occurs in the

poem Rm. 16 -- afi ok amma -- and Vþm. 29, where it = föðurfaðir. It

is curious to observe that in the poem Skm. -- whence it is again transferred

into the Grógaldr -- it is used in the sense of a boy or a son; cp. as an

illustration of this use the Norse phrase -- D. N. iv. 848 -- afi eptir afa =

son after father, man after man in uninterrupted succession, in accord-

ance to the Gothic aba; Edda 108, Fms. iv. 288, vi. 346, xi. 6. We

also say lang-afi, great-grandfather, and langamma, great-grandmother.

COMPD: afa-systir, f. great aunt, Landn. 317.

af-kaup, n. bad bargain, Fms. v. 255.

af-káraligr, v. afkárligr.

af-kárligr, adj. = afkárr, Lex. Poët.; now freq. afkáralegr, adj. and

-lega, adv. of manners, odd, like a madman.

af-kárr, adj. [af- intens.; kárr does not occur; cp. the modern kári,

a gale, tempest, (poët.)], strange, prodigious; er hér nokkut afkárt

inni, of a giant pulling a bear out of his den by the ears, Fas. ii. 237;

it occurs repeatedly in Lex. Poët. = very strong, remarkable; afkárr söngr,

discordant song, of shouting, Akv. 38; cp. launkárr.

af-kleyfi, n. in the COMPD afkleyfls-orð, n. a metric, term, a superfluous

word, syllable, in a verse, an enclitic syllable preceding the höfuðstafr in a

verse. COMPD: afkleyus-samstafa, u, f. syllaba hypermetra, Edda (Ht.) 137.

af-klæða, dd, to undress, Stj. 194. β. reflex, to undress oneself, Eg.

420, Fms. x. 294.

af-komandi, part, descendant, Hkr. iii. 170.

af-kvremi, n. [kvám], 'off-coming,' offspring, in a collect, sense, Fms.

i. 212, Hkr. i. 325, Orkn. 142, Stj. 39. COMPD: afkvæmis-maðr,

m. descendant, Stj. 39, 160.

af-kymi, a, m. nook, Ísl. ii. 471 (paper MS.); kymi, id., is now freq.

AFL, s, m. hearth of a forge, Edda 69, 70, Stj. 312, Fms. viii. 8; in

N. G. L. i. 328 it seems to mean hearth (in general).

afl, m. [Grimm mentions an O. H. G. aval; abal is a dub. GREEK in A. S.

poetry, Ormul. avell] , strength, esp. physical force; afreksmaðr at afli ok

áræði, Eg. 1; styrkr at afli, Fms. i. 19; ramr at afli, 155; fullkominn

at afli ok hyggju, bodily and mental vigour, Ld. 256; stillt þú þó

vel aflinu, at þú verðir eigi kendr, Nj. 32; hafa afl til e-s, be a match

for, be able to do, Gþl. 411. β. virtue; afl dauðfærandi grasa, virtue

of poisonous herbs, 623. 26. 2. metaph. strength, power, might,

Th. 19. 3. a law term, force, validity; dæmdu vér þetta boð Bjarna

úlögligt ok ekki afl hafa, void, Dipl. iii. 3. 4. a law term,

majority, odds, in the phrase, ok skal afl ráða, plurima vota valeant;

ef gerðarmenn (umpires) verða eigi ásáttir ok skal a ráða, Grág. i. 493;

nú verða fjórðungsmenn eigi ásáttir, þá skal afl ráða með þeim, i. l,

cp. 44, 531 (where it is used of a jury); en ef þeir verða eigi ásáttir er í

lögréttu sitja hvat þeir vilja lofa eðr í lög leiða, þá skolu þeir ryðja

lögréttu (viz. divide) ok skal ráða a. með þeim, Nj. 150. 5. force,

violence; taka með afli, Stj. 4. 30; bjóða e-m afl, Bs. ii. 106. COMPDS:

afls-munr, m. odds, superiority of strength, esp. in the phrase, kenna

aflsmunar, where there is a short struggle, the one being soon overcome,

Eb. 182, Eg. 508, Hkr. i. 286: β. kenna aflsmuna = kosta afis, to exert

oneself to the utmost; varð hann at kenna a. (to exert the whole of his

strength) áðr hann kæmi honum undir, Eb. 172. afl. s-raun = aflraun.

AFLA, að, [cp. Swed. afvel, breed, slock: Dan. avling, farming; avls-

gaard, farm; faareavl, qvægavl, breed of sheep or cattle. In Norse (mod.)

avle is to harvest; Swed. afla, to beget. In the Icel. verb afla the idea of

producing or gathering prevails, whereas the nouns branch off; the

weak afli chiefly denotes produce, means, stores, resources, troops, forces;

the strong one -- afl -- force alone. Yet such phrases as ramr at afli indi-

cate something besides the mere notion of strength. In the mod. Scandin.

idioms -- Dan., Swed., Norse -- there are no traces left of the idea of 'force:'

cp. the Lat. opes and copiae. The Icel. spelling and pronunciation with bl

(abl) is modern, perhaps from the time of the Reformation: cp. the words

efla etc. with a changed vowel. The root is OP-, as shewn in Lat. ope,

opes, the o being changed into a ?]. I. with gen. of the thing, to gain,

acquire, earn, procure; vandara at gæta fengins fjár en afla þess (a proverb);

þá bjöggu þeir skip ok öfluðu manna til, got men to man it, Eg. 170. β.

the phrase, afla sér fjár ok frægðar, to earn fame and wealth, of young

heroes going sea-roving; fóru um sumarit í víking ok öfluðu sér fjár,

Eg. 4; afla sér fjár ok frama, Fs. 5; fjár ok virðingar, id.; hann hafði aflat

sér fjár (made money) í hólmgöngum, Eg. 49; aflaði þessi bardagi honum

mikillar frægðar, brought him great fame, Fms. ii. 307; kom honum

í hug, at honum mundi mikillar framkvæmdar afla, bring him great ad-

vantage, Eb. 112. 2. as a law term, to cause, inflict a wound; ef

maðr aflar einum blóðs eðr bens af heiptugri hendi, N. G. L. i. 387. II.

with acc., mostly in unclassical writers, but now rare, to earn; aflaði hann

þar fé mikit, Fms. vii. 80; aflandi þann thesaur er,, 655 xxxii. i; hafit ér

ok mikit í aflat, Al. 159; mun ek til hafa atferð ok eljun at afla mér

annan við, to contrive, Ld. 318, where, however, the excellent vellum

MS. A. M. 309, 4to, has gen. -- annars viðar -- more classically, as the Saga

in other passages uses the gen., e. g. afla sér manna ok hrossa, to procure

horses and men, l. c. little below. β. reflex., e-m aflask e-t, gains,

Fb. 163. γ. absol., njót sem þú hefir aflat, of ill-earned means,

Nj. 37. δ. part, aflandi, Njarð. 366. 2. now used absol. to fish,

always with acc.; a standing phrase in Icel., the acc. only being used in

that particular connection. III. with dat. in the sense of to

perform, manage, be able to; hann aflaði brátt mikilli vinnu, ok var

hagr vel, Fms. i. 289; fyr mun hann því afla en ek færa honum höfuð

mitt, it will sooner happen, Fms. iv. 291, where the Hkr. reads orka; bauð

út leiðangri, sem honum þótti landit mestu mega afla, to the utmost that

the country could produce, Fms. x. 118; ekki aflar harm því at standa í

móti yðr, he is not man enough to stand against you, Fas. iii.

af-lag, n. [leggja af], gen. aflags. I. used as adv. = afgangs,

sparingly, Fas. iii. 477. In modern Icel. hafa aflögum or aflögu, to have to

spare. II. slaughtering of cattle, killing off; leggja af margan

fénað ... minti biskup enn á um aflögin, the slaughtering, Bs. i.

af-laga, adv. unlawfully, Grág. i. 473, ii. 367, Gþl. 294, 432, 473,

Hkr. ii. 246, Al. 153; ganga a., Stj. 430. 2. now used in the sense

to be out of joint, things going wrong.

af-lagliga, adv. = aflögliga, 655 xxxii. 4.

aflan and öflun, f. gain, acquisition, Hkr. ii. 218, Sks. 233. COMPD:

öflunar-maðr, m. a good steward, Sturl. iii. 130.

af-langr, adj. oblong, Ann. year 1414; formed from the Lat. (?), new

common.

af-lausn, f., Lat. absolutio. 1. some small release, ransom, com-

pensation, Sturl. iii. 142, 239; gjöra a. urn e-t, to relieve, release oneself in

regard to a thing: Ólafr konungr mælti, 'Framar hefir þú þá gert urn

vígin á Grænlandi, en fiskimaðrinn kallar a. vera fiskinnar; því at hann

kallast leysa sik, ef hann dregr fisk fyrir sik, enn annan fyrir skip sitt,

þriðja fyrir öngul, fjórða fyrir vað," king Olaf said, 'Thou hast done more

then in the matter of manslayings in Greenland, than what the fisherman

calls the ransom of his fishing; for he says that he has freed himself (of

his fishing), if he draws (up) a fish for himself, but another for his boat,

a third for his angle, a fourth for his line,' (this way of reckoning their

catch is still common with fishermen in many parts of England and Scot-

land), Fbr. 154: cp. a stanza in a Scottish ballad, 'I launched my boat

in Largo Bay, | And fishes caught í three; | One for wad and one for

hook, | And one was left for me.' 2. eccles. = absolution, K. Á. 226,

Hom. 137, Grett. 162, Fms. x. 18.

af-lát, n. leaving off, relinquishing; a. synda, Stj. 567, Sks. 612 B; án

afláti, used adverb. incessantly, 625, p. 77, Th. 20. β. remission, par-

don; aflát misgörninga, Hom. 160; a. synda, 159. COMPD: afláts-

korn, n. surplus corn, store corn, Gþl. 352, v. l. aflaupskorn.

af-látr, adj. negligent, lazy, Hom. 152.

af-leiðing, f. 'off-leading:' 1. now generally used in the pl.

consequences, result; 2. in old writers, on the contrary, it seldom

occurs, and then in a peculiar sense. So Sturl. iii. 128, góðar afleiðingar

eru með e-m, they are on good terms, things go on pretty well between

them. 3. metric, continuation; her er hinn fyrri visuhelmingr

leiddr af þeirri vísu, er áðr var kveðin ok fylgir þat málsorð, er afleiðing

(continuation) er kölluð, Edda (Ht.) 126.

af-leiðingr, s, m., skilja góðan afleiðing, used adverb. to part on friendly

terms, Sturl. iii. 134: cp. the preceding word, 128; both passages are taken,

from the þorgils S. Skarða, to which the phrase seems to be peculiar.

af-leiðis, adv. 1. loc. astray, out of the path, Sd. 146, 655

xvii. 4. 2. metaph., færa a., to pervert, Stj. 227, 519; þeir lugu á

okkr, en þú færðir orð þeirra a., you perverted their words, Bs. i. 7, Glúm.

327; Snúa e-m a., to seduce, Andr. 625. 75. β. impers., e-u þokar a.,

turns out wrong, Bs. i. 340.

af-leifar, f. pl. scraps, remnants, leavings, Stj. 383, Bs. i. 237; f.

búsafleifar, Grág. i. 299.

af-leitinn, adj. = afleitr, of odd appearance, Fas. ii. 329.

af-leitliga, adv. perversely, Stj. 55; ilia ok a., 173.

af-leitligr, adj. = afleitr, perverse, deformed, Stj. 274, Al. 96.

af-leitr, adj. [líta, cp. also -leitr in compounds], strange, hideous; neut.,