This is page 9 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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AFSAKA -- AFÞOKKA. 9

the same signification, a. with dat, a. lögunum, to break, neglect the law,

Al 4. β. with acc. (now always so), a. sitt höfuðrnerki, Karl. 189. γ.

uncert. dat. or acc., a. Guðs hlýðni, Edda (pref.) 144, Stj. 241. δ. with at

and a following infin., Gþl. 183; konungar afræktust at sitja at Uppsölum,

left off, Hkr. ii. 97. ε. absol., Fms. vii. 221, 188, Gþl. 506.

af-saka, að, to excuse, exculpate, K. Á. 230, Stj. 37. β. pass, afsak-

ast, to be (stand) excused, K. Á. 226, Stj. 125.

af-sakan and afsokun, f. a 'begging off,' excuse, exculpation, K. Á.

228, Stj. 152. COMPD: afsakanar-orð, n. pl. excuses, Stj.

af-saki, a, m. excuse, 623. 60.

af-sanna, að, to refute, prove to be false ('unsooth'), 655 xvii. 1.

af-sáð, n. seed-corn, N. G. L. i. 240.

af-segja, sagði, to resign, renounce; a. sér e-t, Barl. 210. Now used

in the sense of to refuse, deny.

af-setja, setti, to depose, put down, v. the following.

af-setning, f. and afsetningr, m. deposition, (off-setting, cp. Scot. 'aff-

set,' Jam., which means dismissal, the act of putting away), H. E. ii. 74, 523.

af-siða, adj. ind. immoral, of loose manners, Grág. i. 138.

af-sifja, að, [sifjar], a law term, to cut off from one's 'sib,' alienate

from one's family, renounce; gefa má maðr vingjafir at sér lifanda, hest

eða yxn, vápn eða þvílíka grfpi, ok afsifjar (Cod. A reads afsitjar, but

doubtless wrongly) hann sér þó at sex skynsömum mönnum þyki eigi

arfsvik gör við erfingja, Jb. 163, D. N. i. 141, Pál Vidal. p. 84. The

word appears to be a Norse law term, and does not occur in the laws of

the Icel. Commonwealth, but came into use with the code Jb.

af-síða, adv. aside, apart, Krók. 56.

af-skapligr, adj. [skapligr], misshapen, monstrous, huge, shocking;

a. áfelli, shocking accident, Stj. 90; herfiligr ok a., 655 xiii. A. i; a. ok

úmannligt, Stj. 272; a. úmenska, Fms. ii. 225, K. Á. (App.) 230.

af-skeiðis, adv. astray, H. E. i. 252, 655 xi. 3, Hom. 99.

af-skipan, f. deposition, dismissal, D. N. (Fr.)

af-skipta, adj. ind. cut off, from an inheritance or the like, Lat. expers;

in the phrase, vera görr a., to be wronged, Hrafn. 14.

af-skipti, n. pl. dealing with, intercourse, (cp. the phrase, skipta sér af

e-u, to meddle with, care about); ok eingi a. veita heiðnum goðuin, Fms. ii.

160; ef hann veitir súr engi a., does not deal with, Grág. ii. 121. COMPDS:

afskipta-lauss, adj. heedless, careless, having nothing to do with, Fb. i.

392. afskipta-lítill, adj. caring little about, Fms. vii. 181, Orkn. 142.

afskipta-samr, adj. meddling, partaking, v. úafskiptasamr.

af-skiptinn, adj. meddling, partaking, Ld. 66.

af-skiptr, part. = afskipta, wronged, cheated, Fas. iii. 619. Metaph.

void of, having no interest in, Stj. 155, 195.

af-skirrandi, participial noun, [skirrast], an offscouring, outcast; leiði

þér þenna a. út ór horgiimi, 656 C. 33.

af-skrámliga, adv. hideously, Hom. 155.

af-skrámligr, adj. [af- intens.; skrámr means a giant; skrimsl, a mon-

ster; cp. Engl. to scream], hideous, monstrous; a. illvirki, a sacrilege,

K. Á. 222: also spelt askramligr and askramliga, Al. 142, Hom. 155.

af-skræmi, n. a monster, v. the following.

af-skræmiliga, adv. hideously: a, of a scream; þá lét út á stöðli a.,

howled piteously, of a ghost, Hkr. ii. 312, Eb. 320, of the bellowing of

a mad bull. β. of a monstrous shape; þrællinn (of a ghost) rétti inn

höfuðit, ok sýndist honum a. mikit, Grett. 83 new Ed. γ. metaph.,

óttast a., to be shocked at, Stj. 101.

af-skurðr, ar, m. a chip, lappet, Dipl, iii. 3.

af-skyld, f. a law term, due, obligation, encumbrance, several times in

the Cartularies and deeds of gift, in the phrase, sú er a. þessa fjár, D. I. i.

273, etc.; með þessi a. fara þessir fjárhlutir, 282, Vm. 108: cp. the still

more freq. phrase, sú er afvinna, cp. afvinna.

af-snið, n. a lappet, snip, Pr. 412.

af-sniðning, f. snipping off, afsniðningar-járn, n. a chopper, Fr.

af-sníðis, adv. cut through, across, Bs. i. 388.

af-spraki, a, m. [cp. A. S. sprecan; Germ, sprechen] , rumour, hearsay;

Hákon jarl hafði fengit afspraka nokkurn (perh. better in two words),

Fms. 1. 187.

af-springr, m., Al. 11, Hkr. iii. 277, Edda (pref.) 146, and various

other forms; afsprengr, m. and afspringi, n., Gþl. 47, Fms. viii. 237,

Sks. 46 B, Stj. 63, Orkn. 176; the form now usual is afsprengi, n., Fms.

v. 217, Fas. ii. 391, Bret. 112. 1. gener. offspring, progeny, v. the

quotations above. 2. in pl. used of the produce of the earth, Sks. 48 B

(rare). 3. metaph.: α. a band, a detached part of a body;

þóttist Hrafn þegar vita, at þessi a. mundi vera af ferð þeirra þorgils, that

this detachment must be from the host of Thorgils and his followers, Sturl.

iii. 274. β. a branch, ramification; ok er mikil van, at þar verði

nokkurr a. (offshoot) af þessum ófriði á Limafirði, Fms. xi. 13. γ.

rumour, notice, = afspraki; fá nokkurn a. um e-t, Fms. viii. 160.

af-spurn, f. a 'speering of,' news, notice, Fms. i. 187.

af-spýttr, part, spit out of, deprived of, Anecd. 42.

af-standa, stóð, [Germ. absteben] , to cede, part with, Sturl. i. 164,

v. l. miðla, Fms. iii. 208.

af-stigr, s, m, by-path, Fî. 5, Fær. 102.

af-stúfa, að, or afstýfa, ð, to lop, prune, of trees; a. við, N. G. L. i.

350, Lex. Poët., v. stufr.

af-stúka, n, f. side-nook, 655 xxxii. 4; a side-room in a temple, Fas.

iii. 213; now stúka is almost always used of a sacristy.

af-svar, n. refusal, in pl. in the phrase, veita e-u afsvör, to refuse,

Ld. 114, Fas. i-444, Fbr. 120.

af-svara, að, to deny, refuse, Fas. i. 528; with dat. of pers. and thing,

Sturl. iii. 180.

af-sviptr, part, stripped; with dat., afsviptr þinni ásjónu, cut off from

thy countenance, Stj. 228. Gen. xlviii. 11, Sks. 342, H. E. i. 457.

af-sýnis, adv. out of sight, Fms. viii. 344.

af-sæll, adj. luckless, in the proverb, a. verðr annars glys jafnan, (another

version of the proverb is quoted s. v. afgjarn), coveted wealth, which is

eagerly looked for by another, is luckless, difficult to keep safe, Stj. 78.

af-tak, n. 1. gener. taking away, B. K. 108. 2. 'taking

off' (Shaksp.), slaying, executing; hvat hann vill bjóða fyrir a. Geirsteins,

compensation for the slaughter of G., Fms. vii. 360; en a. hans (slaying)

segja eigi allir einum hætti, x. 390; með aftaki Ólafs, by slaying him,

195; um manna aftök, executions, Gþl. 137: cp. aftaka, and taka af, to

execute, behead. 3. in pl. commonly used of, a. flat denial, in

such phrases as, hafa aftök um e-t, to deny flatly. In some compds this

signification can be traced, as in aftaka-minni, Fms. i. 139. β. it is also

now used in many compds of whatever is excessive, above all measure,

e. g. aftaka-veðr, a hurricane. COMPDS: aftaks-skjöldr, m. a huge

shield, Fas. i. 415. aftaka-maðr, m. a determined, obstinate person;

hón var a. mikill um þetta mál, he was very stubborn in this case, Hkr. ii. 74.

aftaka-minni, adj. compar. less obstinate, more pliable; stóð konungr í

fyrstu fast á móti, en drottning var allt aftakaminni, the king at first stood

fast against it, but the queen was all along less stubborn, Fms. i. 139.

af-taka, n, f. = aftak: 1. gener. loss, privation; a. ok missa, of a

personal loss by death, Edda 37. 2. death by violent means, slaughter;

til aftöku manna eðr fú upp at taka, for the cutting off of men or the con-

fiscation of their goods, Eg. 73, 252; hann hafði verit at aftöku þorkels

fústra, Fms. vii. 201, Orkn. 22 old Ed. Formerly there were no public

executions in Icel., except the stoning of wizards or witches, Ld. ch. 98,

Eb. ch. 20, Vd. ch. 26; and the hanging of thieves, Fbr. ch. 19, Kb. l. c.

Now, however, used in the sense of public execution, and in various

compds, e. g. aftöku-staðr, m. place of execution, etc.

af-tekja, u, f. dues, collections, revenues, or the like; til forræðis ok

allra aftekna (gen. pl.), Bs. 692; ábúð ok a. staðanna, revenue, 752.

af-tekning, f. taking away, a grammatical term, an apostrophe,

Skálda 182.

af-tekt, f. = aftekja, Fms. v. 274, xi. 441, Bs. i. 68.

af-telja, talði, to dissuade, Fms. x. 27.

af-tigna, að, now antigna, v. andtigna, to disgrace, Sks. 225.

af-trú, f. unbelief, heresy, Orkn. 188.

af-trúast, að, dep. to fall into unbelief, Bs. ii. 181.

af-tækiligt, n. adj. advisable, feasible, [cp. taka e-t af, to decide for],

Fms. viii. 348.

af-tækt, n. adj. blamable; er þat ok ætlun mín at fátt muni vera

aftækt um yðra skapsmuni, I 'ettle' that there will be little blameworthy

about your turn of mind, Fms. v. 341.

af-tæma, ð, to 'loom off,' to empty, Fr.

afugr, backwards, going the wrong way, v. öfugr.

afund, envy, v. öfund.

af-undinn, adj. cross, uncivil.

afusa, gratitude, pleasure, v. aufusa.

af-vega, adv. [afvegar, Bs. ii. 92], off the way, astray, Sd. 149. Metaph.

in moral sense; leiða a., to mislead; ganga a., to go astray.

af-vegaðr, part. misled, Mar.

af-vegis = afvega, astray, Skálda 203.

af-velta, adj. [the Scot, awald or awalt], cast, used of cattle, sheep,

or horses that have fallen on the back and are unable to rise. Háv. 44.

af-vensla, u, f. expenses, outlay; auðræði (means) urðu brátt eigi mikil,

en afvenslur þóttu varla með mikilli stillingu, Bs. i. 136.

af-vik, n. a creek, recess, Stj. 195; metaph. a hiding-place, þiðr. 137.

af-vikinn, part, secluded, retired; a. staðr = afvik.

af-vinna, u, f. encumbrance, due, fees, outgoings, = afskyld. Freq. in

deeds of gift. e. g. D. I. i. 203, 266; þá lágu öngar gjafir til staðarins, en a.

varð öngu minni, then no gifts came in to the see, but the outlay was in

nothing less, Bs. i. 84; þá görðust fjárhagir úhægir í Skálaholti, urðu

afvinnur miklar (great outgoings) en tillög (incomings) eingin, Bs. i. 99.

af-virða, ð and t, to despise, Barl. several times.

af-virðiligr, adj. worthless, poor, despicable, Barl. 75, 154; v. auvirðiligr

and auðv., which are the Icel. forms.

af-virðing, f., contr. ávirðing, disrepute, disgrace, fault, Bs. ii. 187.

af-vænn, adj. unexpected, Fas. 11. 552.

af-vöxtr, m. 'off-wax,' i. e. decrease, N. G. L. i. 214; opp. to ávöxtr.

af-þerra, ð, and mod. að, to wipe off; metaph. to expunge, Stj. 142.

af-þokka, að, in the phrase, a. e-t fyrir e-m, to throw discredit on,

run down, set against, Fms. ii. 145; hann útti fátt við jarl, en afþokkaðí