This is page 10 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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10 AFþVATTR -- AKRTIUND.

heldr fyrir þeim fyrir öðrum mönnum, he had little to do with the earl,

but rather ran them down before other men, Orkn. 378.

af-þvattr, m. a washing off, ablution, Fr.

af-æta, u, f. [af and eta], prop, a voracious beast, a glutton, a great

bully; ér langfeðgar erut garpar miklir ok afætor, Fms. xi. 111; sterkir

menn ok afætur miklar, iii. 143. It is perhaps identical with the present

ófóti, n. a vile thing, offscouring.

AGG, n. brawl, strife, now freq.

AGI, a, m. [A. S. oga; Dan. ave; Engl. awe: cp. Ulf. agis, n., and

perh. GREEK or GREEK], gener. awe, terror; þá skelfr jörð öll í aga miklum,

then all the earth quakes in great awe, Hom. 100; agi ok ótti, awe and

terror, Fms. vi. 442. β. metaph. turbulence, uproar, disorder, esp. in

the phrase, agi ok úfriðr, uproar and war, Fms. ii. 241, vi. 298, 430. γ.

awe, respect; var eigi sá annarr konungr, er mönnum stæði af jafnmikill agi

af fyrir vizku sakir, there was not another king who inspired his men with so

much awe for his wits' sake, Fms. x. 406; Guðs a., fear of God, Sks. 354,

667. δ. discipline, constraint, now freq. in this sense; í æskunni meðan

hann er undir aga, Sks. 26. II. moisture, wet, now freq., cp. vatn-

sagi. Also a verb aga, að, to chastise, is now freq. COMPDS: aga-sam-

ligr, adj. unruly, Fms. vii. 274. aga-samr, adj. turbulent, in uproar;

agasamt mun þá verða í héraðinu, ef allir þorláks synir eru drepnir, there

will be uproar in the district if all Thorlak's sons are slain, Eb. 230.

AGN, n. bait, Barl. 123, Niðrst. 623. 3. There is now in many

cases a distinction between agn, bait for foxes and land animals, and

beita, bait for fish; but in the poem Hým. 18, 22, at least, agn is used of

fishing; ganga á agnið is to nibble or take the bait: cp. egna.

agn-hald, n. a barb of a hook.

agn-sax, n. fishing knife, with which bait for fish is cut, Edda 36,

Nj. 19 (arnsax is a false reading), Fas. i. 489.

agn-úi, a, m. the barb of a hook for keeping on the agn; skal a. vera á

hverjum þorni, Sks. 419 (B. reads agnör).

agn-ör, f. a barbed hook, Sks. 89 new Ed.

AKA, ók, óku, ekit; pres. ek. It also occurs in a weak form, að,

Fagrsk. 104, which form is now perhaps the most common. [Neither

Ulf. nor Hel. use this word, which appears also to be alien to the South-

Teut. idioms. The Germans say fahren; the English to drive, carry;

cp. Engl. yoke. In Latin, however, agere; Gr. GREEK] Gener. to move,

drive, transport, carry: I. to drive in harness in a sledge or other

vehicle (where the vehicle is in dat.), as also the animal driven; bryggjur

svá breiðar, at aka mátti vögnum á víxl, 'briggs' (i. e. wharfs or piers,, cp.

'Filey Brigg') so broad, that wains might meet and pass each other, Hkr.

ii. 11; gott er heilum vagni heim at aka, 'tis good to drive home with a

whole wain, to get home safe and sound, cp. Horace solve senescentem,

Orkn. 464, Al. 61; þórr á hafra tvá, ok reið þá er hann ekr, in which he

drives, Edda 14, Ób. adds í (viz. reið þá er hekr i), which may be the

genuine reading. β. with the prep, i; Freyr ok ok í kerru með gelti,

Edda 38. γ. absol. to drive, i. e. travel by driving; þeir óku upp á land,

Eg. 543; fóru þeir í sleðann ok óku nóttina alia, drove the whole night,

Fms. iv. 317. With the road taken in acc.; aka úrgar brautir, Rm. 36;

báðu hennar ok heim óku (dat. henni being understood), carrying a bride

home, 37. 20. II. to carry or cart a load, (to lead, in the north of

England) :-- in Iceland, where vehicles are rare, it may perhaps now and

then be used of carrying on horseback. The load carried is commonly

in dat. or acc.: α. acc.: aka saman hey, to cart hay, Eb. 150; saman

ok hann heyit, Ísl. ii. 330; hann ok saman alla töðu sína, Landn. 94; þá

tekr Gísli eyki tvá, ok ekr fé sitt til skógar, Gísl. 121; but absol., ok ekr

til skógar með fjárhlut sinn, l. c. 36; þá let konungr aka til haugsins vist

ok drykk, then the king let meat and drink be carted to the 'how' (barrow),

Fms. x. 186; vill hann húsit ór stað færa, ok vill hann aka þat, carry it

away, Grág. ii. 257; líkin váru ekin í sleða, carried in a sledge, Bs. i.

144. β. dat. more freq., as now; hann ók heyjum sínum á öxnum,

carried his hay on oxen, Fbr. 43 new Ed.; einn ók skarni á hóla, carted

dung alone on the fields, Nj. 67, Rd. 277. γ. with the animals in dat.,

þórólfr let aka þrennum eykjum um daginn, with three yoke of oxen, Eb. 152;

or with the prep. á, ríðr þórðr hesti þeim er hann hafði ekit á um aptaninn,

Ísl. ii. 331, Fbr. 43; ef maðr ekr eðr berr klyfjar á, leads or carries on

packsaddles, Grág. i. 441. δ. absol., þat mun ek til finna, at hann ok

eigi í skegg ser, that he did not cart it on his own beard, Nj. 67. ε.

part., ekinn uxi, a yoked, tamed ox, Vm. 152. III. used by sailors,

in the phrase, aka segli, to trim the sail; aka seglum at endilöngum

skipum, Fms. vii. 94; bað hann þá aka skjótt seglunum, ok víkja út í

sund nokkut, 131. In mod. Icel. metaph., aka seglum eptir vindi, to set

one's sail after (with) the wind, to act according to circumstances; cp.

aktaumar. IV. metaph. in a great many proverbs and phrases, e. g.

aka heilum vagni heim, v. above; aka höllu fyrir e-m, to get the worst of

it, Ld. 206; aka undan (milit), to retire, retreat slowly in a battle; óku þeir

Erlingr undan ofan með garðinum, Fms. vii. 317; akast undan (reflex.), id.,

278; þeir ökuðust undan ok tóku á skógana, they took to the woods, Fagrsk.

174 (where the weak form is used); sumir Norðmenn óku undan á hæli

ofan með sjónum, x. 139: aka e-m á bug, the figure probably taken from

the ranks in a battle, to make one give way, repel, en ef Ammonite aka,

þér á bug, if they be too strong for thee, Stj. 512. 2 Sam. x. 11. Mkv. 7; also

metaph., aka bug á e-n, id.; mun oss þat til Birkibeinum, at þeir aki á oss

engan bug, to stand firm, with unbroken ranks, Fms. viii. 412. It is now

used impers., e-m á ekki ór að aka, of one who has always bad luck, pro-

bably ellipt., ór steini or the like being understood; cp. GÍsl. 54, the phrase,

þykir ekki ór steini hefja, in the same sense, the figure being taken from a

stone clogging the wheels; ok hann af sér fjötrinum, threw it off by rubbing,

Fas. ii. 573; þá ekr Oddr sér þar at, creeps, rolls himself thither, of a fet-

tered prisoner, id.; the mod. phrase, að aka sér, is to shrug the shoulders as a

mark of displeasure: aka ór öngum, ex angustiis, to clear one's way, get out

of a scrape, Bjarn. 52; aka í moínn, to strive against, a cant phrase. Im-

pers. in the phrase, e-m verðr nær ekit, is almost run over, has a narrow

escape, varð honum svá nær ekit at hann hleypti inn í kirkju, he was so hard

driven that he ran into the church, Fms. ix. 485; hart ekr at e-m, to be in

great straits, ok er þorri kemr, þá ekr hart at mönnum, they were pressed

hard, Ísl. ii. 132; ekr mi mjök at, I am hard pressed, GÍsl. 52; er honum

þótti at sér aka, when death drew near,, of a dying man, Grett. 119 A.

Reflex., e-m ekst e-t í tauma, to be thwarted in a thing, where the figure

is taken from trimming the sail when the sheet is foul, Fms. xi. 121. In

later Icelandic there is a verb akka, að, to heap together, a. e-u saman,

no doubt a corruption from aka with a double radical consonant, a cant

word. Aka is at present a rare word, and is, at least in common speech,

used in a weak form, akar instead of ekr; akaði = ók; akat =

AKARN, n. [Ulf. akran -- GREEK; Engl. acorn; Germ. ecker; Dan.

agern] , acorn, Edda 30 and Gl.

ak-braut, n. carriage road, Hkr. ii. 253, Fær. 102, vide Fb. i. 144.

ak-færi, n. driving gear, carriage and harness, Fms. iii. 206, Nj. 153.

AKKERI, n. [no doubt, like Engl. anchor, of foreign origin; cp. Gr.

GREEK, Lat. ancora. It occurs, however, in a verse as early as the year

996], ankeri, Lv. 99, is a corrupt form from a paper MS., so is also atkeri,

Hkr. i. 311; liggja um akkeri, to lie at anchor, Fbr. 52; leggjast um a., to

cast anchor, Fms. iv. 301; heimta upp a., to weigh anchor, 302; a. hríffr

við, the anchor holds, Ld. 21, Grág. ii. 397, Jb. 397, Eg. 129, Fms. vii.

264, ix. 44, x. 136, Hkr. i. 311, Lv. 99, Fas. i. 511, 515. Metaph., a.

vánar, anchor of hope, 677. 17. COMPDS: akkeris-fleinn, m. the

fluke, palm of an anchor, Fms. ix. 387, Orkn. 362. akkeris-lauss,

adj. without, an anchor, Ann. 1347. akkeris-lægi, n. anchorage,

Jb. 396. akkeria-sát, f. id., Grág. ii. 402, 408. akkeris-stokkr,

m. an anchor-stock, Orkn. 362. akkeris-strengr, m. an anchor-rope,

cable, Fms. ii. 10. akkeris-sæti, n. anchorage, Jb. 397 B.

AKKORDA, að, [for. word], to accord, Rb. 446.

AKR, rs, pl. rar, [Ulf. akrs; A. S. œcer; Engl. acre; Germ, acker;

Lat. ager; Gr. GREEK], arable land, ground for tillage: α. opp. to

engi, a meadow; cp. the law term, þar er hvárki sé a. ne engi, Grág. i.

123, Hrafn. 21. β. opp. to tún, the 'town' or enclosed homefield;

bleikir akrar en slegin tún, the corn-fields are white to harvest and the

'town,' i. e. the 'infield,' is mown, Nj. 112; helgi tuns ok akra ok engja,

Bs. i. 719; teðja akra, Rm. 12. 2. metaph. the crop; þeir höfðu niðr-

brotið akra hans alla, destroyed all the crop in the fields, Fms. v. 50; ok

er hann óð rúgakrinn fullvaxinn, þá tók döggskórinn á sverðinu akrinn

uppstandanda, and when he (Sigurd Fafnir's bane) strode through the

full-waxen rye-field, the tip of his sword's sheath just touched the upstand-

ing ears. Fas. i. 173; sá hinn góði akr (crop) er upp rann af þeirri hinni

góðu jörð, Hom. 68. β. name of several farms. COMPDS: akra-

ávöxtr, m. produce of the fields, Ver. i. akra-gerði, n. a 'field-

garth,' enclosure of arable land, N. G. L. i. 22. akra-karl, m. cognom.

'Acre-carle,' Lv. 40. akra-spillir, m. cognom. destroyer of fields,

Glúm. 333, Fas. ii. 362, better askaspillir, q. v.

akr-dai, n. (?), wild gourds; veit ek eigi hvat þat heitir (adds the

translator) þat var því líkast sem a., Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 39.

akr-deili, n. a plot of arable land, D. N. ii. 123 (Fr.)

akr-gerði, n. enclosure of arable land, Fms. vii. 178.

akr-görð, f. agriculture, akrgörðar-maðr, m. ploughmen, Nj. 54.

akr-hæna, u, f. a 'field-hen,' quail, opp. to heiðarhæna or lynghæns, Stj. 292.

akri, a, m. a bird, Edda (Gl.)

akr-karl, m. a 'field-carle,' ploughman or reaper, Stj. 273, 441, El. 4, 19.

akr-kál, n. 'field-kale,' potherbs, Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 39.

akr-land, n. land for tillage, Grág. ii. 258, D. I. i. 268, Bs. i. 348,

Fms. iii. 18. akrlands-deild, f. division of a field, Grág. ii. 260.

akr-lengd, f. a field's length (now in Icel. tunlengd, i. e. a short dis-

tance); svá at a. var í milli þeirra, so that there was a field's length between

them, Bev. 14 (Norse).

akr-maðr, m. ploughman, tiller of ground, Fms. vi. 187.

akr-neyttr, part, used as arable land, tilled, Sks. 630, v. l.

akr-plógsmaðr, m. ploughman, Stj. 255.

akr-rein, f. a strip of arable land, D. N. ii. 561.

akr-skipti, n. a division of afield, Fms. xi. 441.

akr-skurðr, ar, m. reaping, akrskurðar-maðr, m. a reaper, Stj.

Ruth ii. 21 (young men).

akr-súra, u, f. field-sorrel, Hom. 82, 83.

akr-tíund, f. tithe paid on arable land (Norse), N. G. L. i. 391.