This is page 11 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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AKRVERK -- ALDIN. 11

akr-verk, n. field-work, harvest-work, Bret. 6, Fms. vi. 187, Stj. Ruth ii.

akrverks-maðr, m. ploughman, tiller of the ground, Ver. 5. Gen. iv. 2.

ak-stóll, m. probably a chair on wheels or castors; Ketilbjörn sat á akstóli

injök við pall, in the banquet at Flugumýri in the year 1253, Sturl. iii. 182.

AKTA, að, [for. word, which therefore does not observe the contrac-

tion into á, which is the rule with genuine words; it appears esp. in

eccl. writers and annalists at the end of the 13th and 14th centuries,

Arna b. S., K. Á., Stj., the Norse Gþl., etc.: cp. A. S. eahtan; Hel.

ahton, censere, considerare; Germ, achten; mid. Lat. actare, determi-

nare et actare, Du Cange in a letter of the year 1284.] I. to

number, tax, value, take a census; akta fólkið, Stj. 2 Sam. xxiv. 10;

fóru þeir víða um land ok öktuðu vísaeyri konungs, taxed, Bs. i. 707;

nú byggir maðr dýrra en vandi hefir á verit, akti (tax) því fremr dýrra ok

fremr til leiðangrs ok landvarnar, he shall be taxed in due proportion,

Gþl. 337. 2. to examine, enquire; aktið inniliga öll þau leyni sem

hánn má í felast, to take diligent heed of all the lurking-places, Stj. 479.

1 Sam. xxiii. 23; aktið þó áðr, and look, that, id. 2 Kings x. 23; hann

aktaði eptir (looked after) urn eignir staðarins, Bs. i. 778. 3. to

devote attention to, study; hann aktaði mjök bókligar listir, Bs. i. 666,

680. II. a law term, esp. in the Arna b. S., to debate, discuss in

parliament; mú er þetta var aktað (debated) gengu menn til lögréttu, Bs. i.

719; var þá gengit til lögréttu, ok lesit bréf konungs ok drottningar ok

aktað (stated) af leikmanna hendi hversu prestar höfðu af stöðum gengit,

735; lögbók öktuð á alþingi, the code of law debated at the althing,

H. Ann. 419. 19. Now only used in the sense of to care for, feel respect

for, but a rare and unclassical

ak-tamr, adj. tame under the yoke; griðungr a., Grág. ii. 122.

aktan, f. [Germ, achtung], heed, consideration, H. E. i. 410.

ak-taumr, m. esp. in pl. ar, lines (taumar) to trim (aka) the sail, dis-

tinguished from höfuðbendur, the stays of the mast, perhaps the braces of

a sail (used by Egilsson to transl. GREEK in Od. 5. 260), þórarinn stýrði

ok hafði aktaumana um herðar sér, þvíat þröngt var á skipinu, had the

braces round his shoulders, because the boat was blocked up with goods, Ld.

56; the phrase, sitja í aktaumum, to manage the sail; ef ek sigli með

landi fram, ok sit ek í aktaumum, þá skal engi snekkja tvítugsessa sigla

fyrir mér, eða ek vilja svipta (reef the sail) fyr en þeir, Fms. v. 337; reiði

slitnaði, svá at bæði gékk í sundr höfuðbendur ok aktaumar, Fas. iii. 118;

reki segl ofan, en a. allir slitni, 204; slitnuðu höfuðbendur ok aktaumar, Bær.

5, Edda (Gl.) That the braces were generally two may be inferred from

the words við aktaum hvárntveggja hálf mörk, N. G. L. i. 199. 2.

metapn., sitja í aktaumum, to have the whole management of a thing;

mun yðr þat eigi greitt ganga ef þér erut einir í aktaumum, if you are

alone in the management of it, Ísl. ii. 49; einir um hituna is now used in

the same sense. (The Engl. yoke-lines, as aktaumar is sometimes inter-

preted (as in the Lat. transl. of the Ld.), are now called stjórntaumar.

Aktanmr is obsolete. See 'Stones of Scotland,' tab. liv. sqq.)

AL- [A. S. eal-; Engl. all, al-; Germ, all-] , a prefix to a great many

nouns and participles, but only a few verbs, denoting thoroughly, quite,

perfectly, completely, answering to Lat. omni- and Gr. GREEK- or GREEK-. If

followed by a u or v it sometimes changes into öl, e. g. ölúð, benignitas;

ölværð, laetitia: ölteiti, hilaritas, is irregular, instead of alteiti. The

prefixed particle al- differs from all-, which answers to Lat. per-, A. S.

eall-, Engl. very: v. the following compds.

ALA, ól, ólu, alið; pres. el, [Ulf. a single time uses the partic. alans =

(GREEK, and twice a weak verb aliþs = GREEK, a fatling. The

word seems alien to other Teut. idioms, but in Lat. we find alere; cp. the

Shetland word alie, to nourish.] Gener. to give birth to, nourish, support,

etc. I. to bear, esp. of the mother; but also of both parents; rarely

of the father alone, to beget: börn ólu þau, they begat children, Rm. 12; þat

barn er þau ala skal eigi arf taka, Grág. i. 178: of the father alone, enda

eru börn þau eigi arfgeng, er hann elr við þeirri konu, which be begets by

that woman, 181; but esp. of the mother, to bear, give birth to; jóð ól

Amma, Rm. 7; þóra ól barn um sumarit, Eg. 166, Fms. iv. 32, i. 14; hon fær

eigi alit barnit, Fas. i. 118. β. metaph. to produce, give rise to; en nú

elr hverr þessara stafa níu annan staf undir sér, Skálda 162. 2. pass.

to be born, begotten; börn þau öll er alin eru fyrir jól, who are born, N. G. L.

i.; 377; the phrase, alnir ok úbornir, born and unborn, present and future

generations, has now become aldir ok óbornir; eigu þau börn er þar alask

(who are born there) at taka arf út hingat, Grág. i. 181; barn hvert skal

færa til kirkju sem alit er, every child that is born, K. Þ. K. 1; ef barn elsk

svá naer páskum, is born, 16. β. of animals (rarely), justus heitir forað,

þat elsk (is engendered) í kviði eins dýrs, 655 xxx. 4. II. to

nourish, support, Lat. alere: 1. esp. to bring up, of children; the

Christian Jus Eccl., in opposition to the heathen custom of exposing chil-

dren, begins with the words, ala skal barn hvert er borit verðr, every child

that is born shall be brought up, K. Á. ch. 1. β. adding the particle upp;

skal eigi upp ala, heldr skal út bera barn þetta, this bairn shall not be brought

up, but rather be borne out (i. e. exposed to perish), Finnb. 112. 2.

to feed, give food to, harbour, entertain; ala gest ok ganganda, guests;

ala þurfamenn, the poor, D. in deeds of gift; en sá maðr er þar býr skal ala

menn alla þá er hann hyggr til góðs at alnir sé, he shall harbour them, D.

i. 169; ala hvern at ósekju er vill. to harbour, 200; Guð elf gesti (a proverb),

God pays for the guests, Bs. i. 247; sótt elr sjúkan, fever is the food of the

sick; utanhrepps göngumenn skal enga ala, ok eigi gefa mat, hvárki meira

né minna, gangrels of an outlying district shall none of them be harboured,

nor have meat given them, neither more nor less, Grág. i. 293, 117. β.

of animals, to nourish, breed; einn smásauð er hann ól heima í húsi sínu,

one pet lamb which he had reared at home in his own house, Stj. 516;

segir allæliligan, ok kvað verða mundu ágæta naut ef upp væri alinn, of a

live calf, Eb. 318. 2. pass, to be brought tip, educated; ólusk (grew

up) í ætt þar, æstir kappar (or were born), Hdl. 18; alask upp, to be brought

up; hence uppeldi, n. III. metaph. in such phrases as, ala aldr

sinn, vitam degere, to pass one's days, Bárð. 165: the phrase, ala e-t eptir

e-m, to give one encouragement in a thing, bring one tip in, esp. in a bad

sense; ól hann eptir engum manni ódáðir, Joh. 625. 93: ala á mál, to

persist in, urge on a thing; karl elr á málið (begs hard) at Gunnar mundi

til hans fara, Sd. 172, Ísl. ii. 133, 163 :-- the present phrase is, að ala e-t

við e-n, to bear a grudge against...; and in a negative sense, ala ekki,

to let bygones be bygones: ala önn fyrir, to provide for: a. öfund, sorg,

um e-t, to grudge, feel pang (poët.),

alaðs-festr, ar, f. [obsolete alaðr, alimentum, Ýt. 13, v. l.], a law term in

the Icel. Commonwealth, viz. the eighth part of the sum fjörbaugr (life-

money), amounting to an ounce, a fee to be paid by a convict in the Court

of Execution (féránsdómr); if a convict, liable to the lesser outlawry,

failed in paying off the alaðsfestr, he thereby became a complete outlaw,

úalandi; hence the name life-money or blood-money. It is thus defined:

þar skal gjaldast mörk lögaura at féránsdómi, goða þeim er féránsdóminn

nefndi; þat fé heitir fjörbaugr, en einn eyrir (ounce) þess fjár heitir a. ef

þat fé (the alaðsf. or the whole fjörb.?) gelzt eigi, þá verði hann skógar-

maðr úæll, Grág. i. 88; nú gelzt fjörbaugr ok a. þá skal dæma svá sekðarfé

hans sem skógarmanns, 132: Njála uses the less classic form, aðalfestr

(per metath.), Nj. 240; cp. Johnsonius (Lat. transl.), p. 529, note 8.

al-auðn, f. devastation, þiðr. 233.

al-auðr, adj. altogether waste, Bret. 168.

al-bata and al-bati, adj. ind. completely cured, quite well, Ísl. ii. 469.

al-berr, adj., now allsberr, quite bare, stark-naked, metaph. manifest,

Sturl. iii. 118.

al-bitinn, adj. part, bitten all over, Rd. 298.

al-bjartr, adj. quite bright, brilliant, Eluc. 10, Fas. i. 663.

al-blindr, adj. stone-blind, Post. 745. 87.

al-blóðugr, adj. all-bloody, Nj. 62, Fms. i. 121, Ísl. ii. 271.

al-bogi = alnbogi, elbow, v. ölnbogi and ölbogi.

al-breiðr, adj. of the full breadth of stuff; a. lérept, Jb. 348.

al-brotinn, adj. part, all-broken, shattered, Fms. ii. 246.

al-brynjaðr, part, cased in mail, Hkr. ii. 26, Fms. vii. 45, Fas. i. 91.

al-búa, bjó, to fit out, furnish or equip completely, at albúa kirkju,

N. G. L. i. 387; but spec, in part, albúinn, completely equipped, esp. of

ships bound for sea [where bound is a corruption of boun, the old English

and Scottish equivalent of buinn. Thus a ship is bound for sea or outward

bound or homeward bound, when she is completely fitted and furnished

for either voyage; windbound is a different word, where bound is the

past part. of bind. Again, a bride is boun when she has her wedding

dress on; v. below, búa and búask, which last answers to busk]: nú byst

hann út til Íslands, ok er þeir vóru albúnir, Nj. 10; ok er Björn var a.

ok byrr rann á, Eg. 158, 194: a. sem til bardaga, all-armed for the battle,

Fms. xi. 22. β. in the phrase, a. e-s, quite ready, willing to do a

thing; hann kvaðst þess a., Nj. 100, Eg. 74: also with infin., a. at ganga

héðan, ready to part, Fms. vii. 243.

al-búinn, ready, v. the preceding word.

al-bygðr, part, completely inhabited, taken into possession, esp. used of the

colonisation of Iceland; þorbjörn súrr kom út at albygðu landi, after the

colonisation was finished, Landn. 142, several times, Hrafn. 3, Eg. 191, etc.

ALDA, u, f. a wave, freq. as a synonyme to bylgja, bára, etc.; it is

esp. used of rollers, thus undiralda means the rollers in open sea in calm

weather, Edda (Gl.) 2. metaph. in the phrase, skil ek, hvaðan a.

sjá rennr undan (whence this wave rolls), hafa mér þaðan jafnan köld

ráð komið, veit ek at þetta eru ráð Snorra goða, of deep, well-planned

schemes, Ld. 284. Now used in many COMPDS: öldu-gangr, m. unruly

sea; öldu-stokkr, m. bulwarks of a ship, etc.

alda- and aldar-, v. old, time, period; (poët. -- people.)

al-dauði and aldauða, adj. ind. dead and gone, extinct, of families,

races, esp. in the neg. phrase, vera enn ekki a., to be still in full vigour;

ok óru (váru) eigi þeir a., Ísl. ii. 310; eptir dauða Haralds var a. hin forna

ætt Danakonunga, died out with king H., Fms. xi. 206; aldauða eru þá

Mosfellingar ef ér Sigfússynir skuluð ræna þá, Nj. 73; ella eru mjök a.

várir foreldrar, Fms. vi. 37; opt finn ek þat, at mér er a. Magnús

konungr, I often feel that for me king M. is dead and gone, Hkr. iii. 107.

COMPD: aldauða-arfr, m. a law term, an inheritance to which there is

no heir alive, Gþl. 282, N. G. L. i. 49; cp. Hkv. Hjörv. 11, where aldauðra-

arfr is a mis-reading; the meaning of the passage hyggsk a. ráða is, that

he would destroy them to the last man.

ALDIN, n., dat. aldini, [Dan. olden; a Scandinavian radical word(?)