This is page 19 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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vápnatak, because the weapons having been laid aside during the session

were again taken (cp. Engl. wapentake), thus fell on the first or second

Wednesday in July. As to the rules of the alþingi, vide esp. the first chapter

of the Þ. Þ. Grág. (Kb.) i. p. 38 sqq. The most eventful years in the history

of the alþingi are, A. D. 930 (foundation), 964 (reform), 1000 (introduction

of Christianity), 1004 (institution of the Fifth Court), 1024 (repudiation

of the attempt of the king of Norway to annex Iceland), 1096 (introduc-

tion of tithes), 1117 (first codification of laws), 1262-1264 (submission to

the king of Norway), 1272 and 1281 (new codes introduced). In the year

1338 there was no alþing held because of civil disturbances, eytt alþingi

ok þóttu þat údærni, Ann. s. a., Grág. (Þ. Þ.) Íslend. bók, Kristni S., Njála,

Sturl., Árna b. S., Ó. H. (1853), ch. 114; of modern writers, vide esp.

Maurer, Entsteh. des Ísl. Staates; Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal; some

of the Introductions by Jón Sigurðsson in D. I., esp. that to the Gamli

Sáttmáli of the year 1262. COMPDS: alþingis-dómr, m. the court of

justice in the a., Grág. i. 87, 130, alþingis-för, f. a journey to the

a., Js. 6. alþingis-helgun, f. hallowing, inauguration of the a., cp.

allsherjar goði, Landn. 336. alþingis-lof, n. permission, leave given

by parliament; ef... sættist á víg fyrir a. fram, against the rules of the

a. = unlawfully, Grág. ii. 173. alþingis-mál, n. parliamentary rules,

proceedings of parliament; ef þeir taka eigi af alþingismáli, do not in-

fringe the parliamentary rules, Grág. i. 103: in the legal phrase, at

alþingismáli réttu ok allsherjar lögum, where the first rather denotes the

form, the last the substance of the law. alþingis-nefna, u, f. nomi-

nation to the legislative body and the courts, including dómnefna and

lögréttuskipan, Grág. i. 5; cp. Íb. ch. 5. alþingis-reið, f. a journey

to the a., Nj. 100, Grág. ii. 78. alþingis-sátt, f. an agreement entered

into at the a. alþingiasáttar-hald, n. the keeping of sucb an agree-

ment, Grág. i. 217, Sturl. i. 66. alþingis-sekt, f. a conviction in the

courts. alþingissektar-hald, n., Stud. i. 66 (seems to be a false

reading); v. the preceding word.

al-þingis = öllúngis or öldungis, quite, altogether, D. N. (not Icel.)

al-þjóð, f. rare and obsolete = alþýða, the commons, Ad. verse 17,

Sonatorr. 9, 15; a. manna, Sturl. iii. 229, 125, Fms. vii. 240.

al-þykkr, adj. quite thick, foggy, Stj. 1 Kings xviii. 45.

al-þýða, u, f. the public, people; svá at a. vissi, Sd. 167; sagði þá allri

alþýðu, told all people, Eg. 271. β. people assembled in a body; er þat

bænarstaðr minn til allrar alþýðu, all the assembled commons, Nj. 189,

Fms. i. 33. γ. í alþýðu lífi, in common life, 655 xxi. 3. With gen., a.

manna = öll a., everybody, the overwhelming majority, bulk of people assem-

bled, Eg. 193, where it is used of the household; a. manna var á brott

farin, nearly all people had left, 220; a. manna gerðu (pl.) góðan róm at

máli hans, the whole meeting cheered his speech, Fms. vii. 242. It is

now almost solely used of the common people, allt fólk, bæði ríka menn

(wealthy) ok alþýðu, Fms. v. 113; cp. alþýðis-fólk. COMPDS: alþýðu --

drykkja, u, f. a common banquet, Sturl. ii. 245. alþýðu-leið, f. a

high road, Eg. 579, Bjarn. 49. alþýðu-lof, n. popularity, general

praise, Hkr. iii. 31. alþyðu-maðr, m. a working man, Vd. 172 old Ed.,

wrongly instead of alþýða manna, Fs. 67. alþýðu-mál, n. common,

general report, þat er a. at, Hkr. iii. 34. alþýðu-skap, n., in the

phrase, vera ekki við a., to be unpopular, úvinsæll ok lítt við a., Fs. 63.

alþyðu-tal, n. reckoning, common calculation, Íb. ch. 7, Rb. 18. al-

þyðu-vápn, n. common weapons, Fas. iii. 620. albýðu-vegr, m.

a public road, Sturl. i. 36, Hkr. iii. 54. alþýðu-virðing, f. public

opinion, consensus popularis, Bs. i. 158. alþýðu-vitni, n. universal tes-

timony, Sks. 12. alþýðu-þyss, m. a general tumult, Bs. i. 46, Hom. 46.

al-þýðask, dd, dep. in the phrase, a. til e-s, to incline towards, attach

oneself to, Fms. vi. 135.

al-þýði, n. = alþýða, and alþýðis-fólk, id., Bs. i. 805.

al-þýðligr, adj. common, general; a. maðr = menskr maðr, a common

man, Fas. ii. 251; í alþýðligri ræðu, common parlance, Skálda 185; hitt

væri alþýðlegra (more plain), at segja, 208; a. fyrir sakir siðferðis, of plain

manners, Finnb. 298.

al-þægr, adj. [þiggja], quite acceptable, pleasant to, Hom. 75.

al-œstr, adj. part, excited, stirred up, Sks. 230.

AMA, að, to vex, annoy, molest; with dat. of the person, eigi skuluð þér

a. Ruth, Stj. 423, Fms. i. 244. β. dep. (more freq.), amast við e-n, to

annoy, molest, in order to get rid of one, Landn. 66, Nj. 130, 199, v. l.;

ömuðust liðsmenn lítt við hana, Fms. v. 305, vii. 166, Fs. 32; at hann

mundi eigi a. við (object to) bygð hans, Sd. 139: absol. to dislike, Nj.

167. ami, a, m. vexation, annoyance, is now used in the phrase, að vera

e-m til ama, to become a cause of vexation to: ama-samr, adj. and ama-

semi, f. bad humour; cp. also ömurligr, distressing; amatligr, loathsome.

amallera, að, to enamel (Fr. word émailler), Fms. xi. 427, Vm. 152,


amathysti, a, m. amethyst (for. word), Str.

amatligr or ámátligr, adj. loathsome, hideous (freq. at the present

day), Hkv. 1. 38.

amban, f., ambana, að, and ambim, ambuna, recompense (Norse);

v. ömbun, ömbuna.

AMBÁTT, pl. ir, f. [cp. Ulf. andbahts = GREEK, GREEK; A. S.

ambight; Hel. ambaht, servitium; O. H. G. ampaht; hence the mod. Germ,

amt, Dan. embede, Icel. embætti; the mod. Rom. ambassador, ambassade

are of the same stock; Ital. ambasciadore, nuntius; cp. Caes. Bell. Gall. 6.

15 -- circum se ambactos clientesque habent, v. Diez on this root. The

Icel. am- is an assimilated form from and-], a bondwoman, handmaid;

þræll eðr a., Grág. ii. 152, 156. (where the older form ambótt), N. G. L.

i. 76; konungs a., freq. of a royal concubine, Fms. i. 14, Fagrsk. ch. 21:

cp. embætta and embætti. Cp. also mod. ambaga, u, f. an awkward

person; amböguligr, adj. and ambögu-skapr, m. clumsy manners,

perh. all of them related to ambótt. COMPDS: ambáttar-barn, n.

child of an a., Fms. i. 72. ambáttar -- dóttir, f. daughter of an a., Eg.

345. ambáttarligr, adj. vile, like an a., Fas. i. 244. ambáttar-

mót, n. expression of an a., Fas. i. 147. ambáttar-sonr, m. son of an

a., Grág. i. 363, Ld. 70, 98. ambátta-fang, n. a term of contempt,

a woman's tussle, as it were between two bondswomen, Sd. 162 (of


amb-höfði, a, m. a nickname of uncertain signification. Egilsson sup-

poses that of bi-ceps: most probably amb- denotes some animal; cp.

Hjart-höfði, Hart-head, and Orkn-höfði, Seal-head, Sturl. i. 35 (in a verse).

amboð, n. utensils, v. andboð.

AMLÓÐI, a, m. 1. the true name of the mythical prince of

Denmark, Amlethus of Saxo, Hamlet of Shakespeare. 2. now used

metaph. of an imbecile, weak person, one of weak bodily frame, wanting

in strength or briskness, unable to do his work, not up to the mark.

It is used in phrases such as, þú ert mesti Amlóði, what a great A. you are,

i. e. poor, weak fellow. In a poem of the 10th century (Edda 67), the sea-

shore is called the flour-bin of Amlode (meldr-lið Amlúða, navis farinae

Amlodif), the sand being the flour, the sea the mill: which recals the

words of Hamlet in Saxo, -- 'sabulum perinde ac farra aspicere jussus

eadem albicantibus maris procellis permolita esse respondit.' From this

poem it may be inferred that in the 10th century the tale of Hamlet was

told in Icel., and in a shape much like that given it by Saxo about 250

years later. Did not Saxo (as he mentions in his preface) write his story

from the oral tradition of Icelanders? In Iceland this tale was lost, together

with the Skjölduaga Saga. The Icel. Ambales Saga MS. in the Brit. Mus.

is a modern composition of the 17th century. COMPDS now in freq.

use: amlóðaligr, adj. imbecile; amlóða-skapr, m., or amlóða-háttr,

imbecility; also amlóðast, dep. Torfaeus, in his Series Reg. Dan. p. 302,

quotes an old Swedish rhyme running thus: 'Tha slog konungen handom

samman | och log fast och gorde aff gamnian | rett some han vore en

Amblode | then sig intet godt forstode,' where it means a fool, simpleton,

denoting a mental imbecility. [Perhaps the A. S. homola is cognate;

thus in the Laws of King Alfred, ' Gif he hine on bismor to homolan

bescire,' if he in mockery shave his (a churl's) head like a fool, which

Lambarde renders morionis in morem: see Thorpe's Anc. Laws ii. Gloss.

sub voce, and cp. the quotation from Weber's Metrical Romances ii. 340.]

AMMA, u, f. [cp. afi], grandmother; now in freq. use, but rarely in

the Sagas, which use föður-móðir and móður-móðir, Hým. 7, Rm. 16,

Edda 109, Nj. 119, Ld. 328. In compds, ömmu-bróðir, ömmu-

systir, etc.; lang-amma, u, f. is a great-grandmother. [In Germ.

amme means a nurse.]

ampli, a, m. and hömpull, s, m. [ampulla], a jug, Vm. 6, 47, Dipl. iii. 4,

B. K. 31. COMPD: ömpuls-brot, n. a potsherd, Pm. 93.

amra, að, to howl piteously, Fs. 45 (of cats); cp. ömurligr, piteous, and

ömruligr, adj. id.

amstr, n. [cp. Germ, amsteig = palearium], a rick, Orkn. 448, an GREEK

GREEK amstr now means toil: cp. amstrast, að, to toil.

AN, conj. than, Lat. quam, is the old form, and constantly used in

MSS. of the 12th century, instead of 'en' or 'enn,' q. v.

ANA, að, to rush on, now freq.

AND-, a prefixed prep. [Ulf. uses a separate prep. and; A. S. and-;

Germ, ant-, ent-, empf-; it exists in Engl. in an-swer; Lat. ante-; Gr.

GREEK], denoting whatever is opposite, against, towards, and metaph.

hostile, adverse; freq. spelt and pronounced an- or ann-; it is used in a

great many compds, v. below. If followed by v, the a changes into ö,

e. g. öndverðr, adversus; in andvirði, prize, however, the a is unchanged.

ANDA, að, [Ulf. has us-anan = GREEK; cp. Gr. GREEK, wind, and

Lat. animus, anima, spirit, breath: the Germans say geist, spirit, and

athmen, spirare: Ulf. translates GREEK by ahma, voûs by aha; Hel.

spiritus by gêst and athom, whence Germ. athmen: cp. Swed. ånd, ånde,

spiritus, spirare.] I. act. to breathe, and of the wind, to waft;

meðan þeir megu anda ok upp standa, Bs. i. 224, Karl. 95; þórðr andar

nú handan, Sturl. i. 21 (in a verse). II. dep. andast, to breathe

one's last, expire; Mörðr Gígja tók sótt ok andaðist, Fiddle Mord 'took

sick' and breathed his last, Nj. 29; en ef svá ferr at ek öndumk, but if it

fares so that I die. Eg. 127; þar hefir andast faðir minn, Fas. iii. 619.

Part. andaðr, dead; hón var þá onduð, had breathed her last, Ld. 16;

jarlinn vai þá a., Fms. i. 149.

anda- and andar-, the compds belonging to önd, anima, and önd, a

duck, v. sub voce önd.

and-blásinn, adj. part, [önd], inflated, Skálda 169.