This is page 23 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 14 Sep 2019. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
imported into Scandinavia from abroad; the word appears only in the later heroic poems, such as the Hkv. Hjörv. 6; the verses in Sdm. 5 are in a different metre from the rest of the poem, and probably interpolated, Fas. i. 120; epli á apaldri, Sks. 106; tveir apaldar (with the radical r dropped), Fas. iii. 60; apaldrs flúr, Karl. 200, 311: as the etymological sense in the transmuted word soon got lost, a fresh pleonastic compound was made, viz. apaldrs-tré. COMPDS: apaldrs-garðr, m. [Dan. abild-gaard], orchard of apple-trees, Þiðr., D. N. apaldrs-klubba, u, f. club made of an a., El. 22. apaldrs-tré, n. apple-tree, Þiðr. 58.
apal-grár, adj. dapple-gray, i.e. apple-gray, having the streaky colour of an apple (cp. Fr. pommelé), of a horse, Nj. 274, Karl. 426, Landn. 93 (where it is used of a river horse); of an ox, uxi a. at lit, Ld. 120.
API, a, m. [A. S. apa; Erse apa; Bohem. op; Germ. affe; all of them dropping the initial guttural tenuis: Sanskr. kapi], an ape. It appears in early times in the metaph. sense of a fool in the old poem Hm. and even in a proverb; so also in the poems Fm. 11 and Gm. 34, vide Lex. Poët. A giant is in Edda (Gl.) called api, no doubt because of the stupid nature of the giants. Apavatn, a farm in Icel., probably got its name from a nickname of one of the settlers, at the end of the 9th century. In Hým. 20 a giant is called áttrunnr apa, the kinsman of apes. The passage in the Hm. verse 74 appears to be corrupt, and ought to be restored thus, margr verðr af aurum api, the fool of earthly things, cp. the passage in Sl. 34, margan hefir auðr apat, which is another version of the very same proverb. It is esp. used in the connection, ósvinns-api or ósviðra-api, a baboon, big fool, Gm. l.c., Fm. l.c.; (the passage in Hm. 123 ought perhaps to be restored to ósvinns-apa or ósvinnra-apa in a single word; the sense is no doubt the same in all these passages.) Rare in old prose in the proper sense of ape, vide however 673. 55. COMPD: apa-mynd, n. form of an ape, Th. 76.
APLI, a, m. in Edda (Gl.), α. an ox, or β. a horse, hackney: apli according to Björn s.v. means the embryo of animals, e.g. apla-kálfr and apla-lamb, n. abortive lamb or calf; apalgengr, adj. a hackney, a rough goer. Björn also mentions apalgrýti, n. aspretum, (an unknown and dubious word.)
appella and appellera, að, to cite, summon to the pope (eccles. Lat.), Fms. ix. 339, 486 (v.l.), x. 99, Bs. i. 776, K. Á. 218.
APR, adj. gen. rs (and thus not akin to api), cold, sharp, chilly; en aprasta hríð, sharp fighting, Ó. T. 59; sterkastr ok aprastr við at eiga, the worst to deal with, Þiðr. 183; erida vóru allöpr tilbrigðin (cold, malignant), 89; því föru vér aprir, we feel sad, chilly, a verse written in 1047, Lex. Poët.: a word quite obsolete. (Björn however mentions it as a living word.) Mod. Icel. napr, adj. nearly in the same sense, cold, chilly, of weather; cold, spiteful, snappish, of temper: nepja, u, f. a chill, piercing cold: nepringr, m. id.: [are these words identical (?).]
aprligr, adj. cold, chilly, of weather; a. veðr, Vápn. 11. MS.
APTAN and aftan, s, m., dat. aptni, pl. aptnar, sometimes spelt apni and apnar, [Hel. aband; Germ. abend; Engl. even, evening; in Ulf. we only find andanahti = Gr. GREEK, GREEK; Swed. afton, Dan. aften, -- as it is often spelt], evening; not very freq. in prose, where kveld is the common word. It prop. meant the time from 3 till 9 o'clock, like the Old English 'even;' miðraptan (middle-eve) is 6 o'clock; at 9 o'clock the night sets in, v. náttmál: a distinction is made between aptan and kveld, einn aptan at kveldi, an afternoon when the kveld (twilight) sets in, Edda 35: but gener. = kveld, um aptaninn síð er myrkt var orðit, Fms. iv. 308, viii. 228, xi. 113; at aptni, 623. 55, Fms. viii. 201, Grág. i. 146; of aptna (apna), Grág. ii. 224; á öptnum, Bjarn. 23; miðraptan, Hrafn. 9, Nj. 153; aptans bíðr óframs sök, a laggard's suit bides till even (a proverb).
aptan and aftan, adv. prop. from behind, behind, opp. to framan; augu a. í hnakka, N. G. L. i. 339; a. á milli herða, Vígl. 26; þá greip hann a. undir hendr honum (from behind), Eg. 747; hala sem leo, ok gadd í a., ... at the tip of the tail, Al. 168: now aptan í is opp. to framan í. II. fyrir a., as prep. with acc., behind, opp. to fyrir framan; ek hjó varginn í sundr fyrir a. bóguna, I hewed the wolf in sunder, just behind the withers, Nj. 95; standa fyrir a., to stand behind, Fas. ii. 516. β. a. at, with dat.; ganga, koma a. at e-m, to approach from behind.
aptan-drykkja, u, f. an evening carouse, Pr. 419.
aptan-langt, n. adj. even-long, all the evening, Karl. 95.
aptan-skæra, u, f. twilight, Lat. crepusculum (cp. morginskæra, dawn, aurora), Sighvat (in a verse).
aptan-stjarna, u, f. the evening star, Al. 54, Stj. 92; now kveld-stjarna.
aptan-söngr, m. even-song, evening service, Fms. vii. 152, K. Þ. K. 58.
aptari and aptastr, compar. and superl. latter, posterior, and last, v. eptri, epztr.
aptarla and aptarliga, adv. behind, far in the rear, Lex. Poët. (freq.)
aptna, að, to become evening; þartil at aptnaði, Fms. iii. 181. Dep., þá aptnaðisk, Greg. 51; now kvelda.
APTR and aftr (aptar, N. G. L. i. 347), adv., compar. aptar, superl. aptast, [Ulf. aftra = GREEK], the spelling with p is borne out by the Gr. GREEK. I. Loc. back, back again: 1. WITH MOTION, connected with verbs denoting to go or move, such as fara, ganga, koma, leiða, senda, snúa, sækja, etc., where aptr almost answers to Lat. re-, remittere, reducere, reverti ...; gefa a., reddere; bera a., refellere; kalla a., revocare; reka a., repellere: a. hverfr lygi þá er sönnu mætir (a proverb), a lie turns back when it meets truth, Bs. i. 639. 'aptr' implies a notion a loco or in locum, 'eptir' that of remaining in loco; thus skila a. means remittere; skilja eptir, relinquere; taka a., recipere, in a bad sense; taka eptir, animum attendere; fara a., redire; vera e., remanere, etc.; fara, snúa, koma, senda, sækja, hverfa a., Nj. 260, 281, Fms. x. 395, iv. 300, Edda 30, Eg. 271, Eb. 4, Fs. 6; færa a., to repay, N. G. L. i. 20; snúast a., Lækn. 472. Without actual motion, -- as of sounds; þeir heyrðu a. í rjóðrit óp, they heard shouting behind them, Fms. iv. 300; nú skal eigi prestr ganga svá langt frá kirkju at hann heyri eigi klokkur hljóð aftar ( = aftr), he shall not go out of the sound of the bells, N. G. L. i. 347. β. backwards; fram ok a., to and fro (freq.); reið hann suðr aptr, rode back again, Nj. 29; aptr á bak, supine, bent or turned back, Eg. 380; þeir settu hnakka á bak sér a., bent their necks backwards in order to be able to see, Edda 30; skreiðast a. af hestinum, to slip down backwards from the croup of a horse, to dismount, Fs. 65. γ. connected with many verbs such as, láta, lúka a., to close, shut, opp. to láta, lúka upp, Fær. 264, Eg. 7, Landn. 162; in a reverse sense to Lat. recludere, reserere, rescindere, resolvere. 2. WITHOUT MOTION = aptan, the hind part, the back of anything; þat er maðr fram (superne), en dýr a., the fore part a man, the hind part a beast, 673. 2; síðan lagði hann at tennrnar a. við huppinn, he caught the hip with his teeth, Vígl. 21. The English aft when used of a ship; breði a. ok fram, stern and stem (of a ship), Fms. ix. 310; Sigurðr sat a. á kistunni, sate aft on the stern-chest, vii. 201; a. ok frammi, of the parts of the body (of a seal), Sks. 179. Compar. aptarr, farther back, Fms. vi. 76. II. TEMP. again, GREEK, iterum: this use of the word, general as it is at present, hardly appears in old writers; they seem to have had no special expression for again, but instead of it said síðan, enn, or used a periphrase, á nýja leik, öðru sinni, annat sinn, or some other substitute. It is, however, very freq. in Goth. aftra = GREEK, Swed. åter, Dan. atter; some passages in the Sagas come near to the mod. use, e.g. bæta a., restituere, to give back (but not temp.); segja friði a., to recal, N. G. L. i. 103; hann maelti at engi mundi þann fald a. falda, El. 20, uncertain whether loc. (backward) or iterum, most likely the former. It is now used in a great many compounds, answering to Lat. re-, cp. also endr.
aptra, að, to take back, hinder, withdraw; with dat., a. ferð sinni, to desist from, delay, Fms. x. 17; Þorgrímr bað þá niðr setjast, ok skal eigi boði a., i.e. you shall be welcome as before, Valla L. 217; eigi mun ek a. mér (hesitate) at þessu, Grett. 116 A; hversu þeir öptruðu sér þá er þeir kómu á þingit, how they hesitated, wavered, withdrew, Bs. i. 741, Flor. 7: now a. e-u is to hinder, prohibit.
aptran and öptrun, f. a revoking, renouncing, keeping back, 655 xxvii.
aptr-bati, adj. ind. convalescent, on the road to recovery, Al. 150, Korm. 220: now used as a masc. (-bati, a, m.), vera í aptrbata, to be getting better, Fas. iii. 524.
aptr-beiðiligr, adj. reciprocal, Skálda 195.
aptr-borinn, adj. part. regenerate, born again; þars hón aptrborin aldri verði, the sense is doubtful, it seems to mean = endrborin, regenerate; it will suit the context only if we suppose that suicides could not be born again; they certainly could walk again, v. aptrganga. Högni seems to fear that, if she died a natural death, Brynhilda would perhaps be endrborin, Skv. 3. 44.
aptr-byggi, ja, m., esp. in pl. stern-sitters (opp. to frambyggjar) in a ship of war, Fms. ii. 312, Hkr. iii. 243.
aptr-dráttr, m. the undertow, outward suck of the tide, Barl. 130.
aptr-drepa, u, f. relapse, shock, adversity; meðan þeir vissu sér enga ván a., Bs. i. 752, Finnb. 312.
aptr-elding, f. = elding, dawning, Anal. 193.
aptr-ferð and aptr-för, f. return, Eg. 279.
aptr-færsla, u, f. bringing back, Gþl. 361.
aptr-ganga, u, f. [ganga aptr], a ghost, apparition, the French revenant; about this superstition vide Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 222-317, Grett. ch. 34-37 (the ghost Glám), Eb. ch. 34, 50-55, 63 (Thorolf Bægifót), Ld. ch. 17, Sd. ch. 17-22, 30 (Klaufi), Háv. 41, Flóam. ch. 28, etc. etc.
aptr-gangr, m. = aptrganga, Grett. ch. 78 new Ed.
aptr-gjald, n. repayment, Bs. i. 734.
aptr-hald, n. a checking, holding back. COMPD: aptrhalds-maðr, m. who impedes a thing, Bs. i. 733.
aptr-hlaup, n. a hurling back, recoil, Fs. 158.
aptr-hnekking, f. a bending backwards, metaph., Fms. ix. 509.
aptr-hryggr, m. the chine, the lower part of the back, of a slaughtered animal, Dipl. vi.
aptr-hvarf, n. a turning back, return, Sturl. ii. 16; illr aftrhvarfs, disinclined to face the enemy again, Fms. vii. 325. β. relapse, Fms. ii. 47, where it is used of apostasy. Since the Reformation always used by theologians in a good sense, repentance, turning away from sin; iðran ok a. are freq. used together, iðran being repentance, the internal condition, aptrhvarf the movement away from sin, or the repentance put into act.