This is page 24 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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24 APTRKALL -- ARI.

aptr-kall, n. withdrawal, recalling, Fr.

aptr-kast, n. a hurling back, repulse, Stj. 288.

aptr-kemba, u, f. one whose hair is combed back, Finnb. 250.

aptr-kváma and later form aptrkoma, u, f. return, coming back, Sks. 550 B; Fms. xi. 312, a vellum MS. of the end of the 15th century, has aptrkoma.

aptr-kvæmt, n. adj. return from exile, used substantively as a law term in the phrase, eiga (eigi) a., of a temporary or lifelong exile; þat varðar skóggang... eigi eigi a. nema lof biskupa ok lögréttumanna fáist framar, ... not to be suffered to return from exile unless the leave of the bishops and the legislature be first got, Grág. i. 347: in a gener. sense, sýnist mér sem engum várum sé a., ef hans er eigi hefnt, it seems to me that not one of us can shew his face again, if he be not revenged, Glúm. 332.

aptr-lausn, f. redemption, ransom, Hom. 118; a law term, right of redeeming, Gþl. 304: hence COMPD aptrlausnar-jörð, f. land which is redeemable, N. G. L. i. 344.

aptr-mjór, adj. tapering behind, Edda 40 (of the salmon's tail).

aptr-mundr, m. [munr], in the phrase, vera a. at e-u, to want a thing back again, Fas. iii. 278.

aptr-reka and aptr-reki, adj. ind. (navig.), verðr a., to be driven back by stress of weather, Landn. 148, Bs. i. 76, Grág. i. 274; a. skip, Ann. 1347, Bs. Laur. S.

aptr-rekstr, rs, m. a driving back, repulse, Grág. ii. 230 (of cattle grazing).

aptr-sjá, f. regret, longing, v. eptirsjá.

aptr-velting, f. recoil, rolling back, Stj. 49.

ap-ynja, u, f. [old Swed. epin], a she-ape, Stj. 68, 95, Sks. 115.

AR, n. (qs. arð?), an atom in a sunbeam, mote, Germ. sonnenstäubchen, vide Vídal. Post. 276 (Ed. 1829), Njóla.

arða, u, f. medic. scabrum, a little wart.

arðga, að, to make upright, and arðigr, adj. erect, arduus, v. örð-.

ARÐR, rs, m. [Lat. aratrum; Gael. arad; cp. erja, Ulf. arjan, arare; A. S. erian; Old Engl. ear, etc.; in Norse ar or al is a small plough], a sort of plough, probably different in size and shape from plógr, which is a later word, of foreign stamp, as are all that have p for their initial letter. The poem Rm. distinguishes between both, göra arðr (acc.) and keyra plóg, 19. The first colonisers of Iceland used arðr, as shewn by Landn. 35 (relating events of the year 875); hann átti einn oxa, ok lét hann þrælana draga arðrinn; eykr fyrir plógi eðr arðri (plough or ard), N. G. L. ii. 115; ef maðr stel jarni af arðri eðr plógi, id.; höggva má maðr sér til plógs eðr arðs (gen. dropping the radical r), id.; draga arðr, Al. 52; arðri (dat.), Karl. 471, Mar. (Fr.), Stj.: um allt þat er miklu varðar er betri sígandi arðr en svífandi (emend. of Dr. Hallgrim Scheving), a proverb, better a slow but deep trenching plough than a quick and shallow one, Bs. i. 139; the old arðr was probably bulky and heavy. 2. metaph. in Icel. at present arðr (gen. arðs, arðar, Snót 90), as well as plógr, means gain, produce, profit: arðsamr, adj. profitable. COMPD: arðs-geldingr, m. a plough-ox, Fms. vii. 21.

arðr-för, f. a plough-furrow, trench, Stj. 593, 1 Kings xviii. 32.

arðr-gangr, m. a coulter, goad, N. G. L. iii. 198.

arðr-járn, n. a coulter, ox goad, Stj. 386, Judges iii. 31.

arðr-oxi, a, m. a plough-ox, Grág. i. 502, Jb. 346.

arfa, u, f. [Ulf. arbio], an heiress, N. G. L. i. 191 (rare).

arf-borinn, adj. part., prop. a legitimate son or daughter, Fms. i. 86; defined, sá er a. er kominn er til alls réttar, N. G. L. ii. 211. Freq. spelt árborinn by suppressing the f (so N. G. L. ii. 50), and used in Norse law of a freeman, v. the quotation above from N. G. L., which clearly shews the identity of the two words, i. 171; algildis vitni tveggja manna árborinna ok skilvænna, ii. 211: the alliterated phrase alnir ok árbornir (the phrase aldir og óbornir may be a corruption from arb.), freeborn and freebred, 310. The passage in Stor. verse 2 is in Lex. Poët. explained by olim ablatus: the poet probably meant to say genuine, pure, in a metaph. sense, of the true poetic beverage, not the adulterated one, mentioned in the Edda 49; the cup from the right cask.

arf-gengr, adj. entitled to inherit, legitimate heir, Grág. i. 178, Eg. 345.

arfi, a, m. [Ulf. arbia; O. H. G. arpis, erpo; Germ. erbe; Hel. abaro = filius; A. S. eafora, afora per metath.], an heir, heiress (and poët. a son in gener.): with gen. pers., arfar veganda, his heirs, Gþl. 131; þar næst var Ósk hennar a., her heiress, heir to her property, Ld. 58; Guðríðr ok Þorgerðr lögligir arfar (heiresses) Sölva, Dipl. v. 1: with gen. of the thing, er hann þá a. hvársttveggja, heir of both things, Grág. i. 221; a. óðala, Gþl. 294; a. at e-u, heir to a property, Sturl. ii. 197. Not freq., erfingi being the common word. II. an ox, bull, Edda (Gl.), vide arfr.

ARFI, sometimes spelt arbi, a, m. chickweed, alsine media; arfa-sáta, u, f. a weed rick, Nj. 194.

arfingi, ja, m. an heir, Eg. (in a verse), vide erfingi.

arf-kaup, n. sum paid for inheritance, Grág. i. 200.

arf-leiða, dd, to adopt as an heir, = ættleiða, Jb. 144 A.

arf-leiðing, f. adoption, Ann. 1271.

arf-nyti, ja, m. (poët.) an heir, Eb. (in a verse).

ARFR, s, m. [Ulf. arbi, neut.; A. S. yrfe.] It originally meant cattle, pecus, pecunia, as may be inferred from the A. S. orf = pecus, cattle, and yrfe = opes; Hel. arf and urf; Ormul. errfe; v. Ihre, Glossar., and Grimm R. A. p. 467. Edda (Gl.) also mentions an arfi or arfr, bos, v. above. I. inheritance, patrimony; taka arf eptir e-n, Grág. i. 170, 178; hon á allan arf eptir mik, is my sole heir, Nj. 3, Eb. 162, Gþl. 252. II. a bull, v. above. COMPDS: arfa-skipti, n. and arfs-sókn, f., v. arf- below, Gþl. 267, Grág. i. 170. arfa-þáttr, m. section of law treating of inheritance, Grág. i. 170.

arf-rán, n. injustice, cheating in matters of inheritance, Háv. 52.

arf-ræning, f. id., Mar. 656.

arf-ræningr, m. one stripped of his inheritance, Al. 105.

arf-sal, n. cession of right of inheritance, Grág. i. 205, 225, 227, (cp. branderfð, Dan. fledföre, mod. Icel. prófenta, and gefa prófentu sína); a law term, to hand over one's own property to another man on condition of getting succour and support for life. In the time of the Commonwealth, arfsal had a political sense, and was a sort of 'clientela;' the chiefs caused rich persons, freedmen, and monied men of low birth to bequeath them all their wealth, and in return supported them in lawsuits during life. Such is the case in Vápn. 13, Hænsaþór. S. ch. 7, Eb. ch. 31; eptir þat handsalaði Ulfarr (a wealthy freedman) Arnkatli fé sitt allt, ok gerðist hann (viz. Arnkell) þá varnaðarmaðr (protector) Úlfars: v. also Þórð. S., hann bjó á landi Skeggja ok hafði görzt arfsalsmaðr hans (his client), 50: it was humiliating; engar mátti hann (the bishop) ölmusur gefa af líkamlegri eign, heldr var hann haldinn sem arfsalsmaðr, Sturl. ii. 119. To the chiefs in olden times it was a source of wealth and influence, often in an unfair way. COMPDS: arfsals-maðr, m., v. above. arfsals-máldagi, a, m. a deed concerning arfsal, Grág. i. 227.

arf-skipti, n. sharing of arfr, Grág. i. 172, Gþl. 266, Fas. iii. 39.

arf-skot, n. fraud, cheating in matters of inheritance, Eb. 178, Grág. i. 202, 203, 267.

arf-sókn, f. a suit in a case of arfr, Gþl. 263.

arf-stóll, m. an hereditary throne, Eg. (in a verse).

arf-svik, n. pl. fraud, cheating in matters of arfr, Eb. 178, Gþl. 254, 292.

arf-svipting, f. disinheriting, cheating in matters of arfr, Stj. 425.

arf-tak, n. and arf-taka, u, f. the act of receiving arfsal; taka e-n arftaki, Grág. i. 267, 268, 187, 229. COMPD: arftöku-maðr, m. an heir, successor to an inheritance, Grág. i. 62, Sturl. i. 98, Fms. v. 53.

arf-takari, a, m. and arf-taki, a, m. = arftökumaðr, Jb. 148 A, N. G. L. i. 234, Barl. 199.

arf-tekinn, adj. part. taken by inheritance, Fms. xi. 306.

arf-tekja, u, f. = arftaka, Grág. i. 219. COMPD: arftekju-land, n. land taken by inheritance, patrimony, Fms. i. 117.

arf-tæki, n. = arftaka, Stj. 232.

arf-tækr, adj. = arfgengr, Eg. 343.

arfuni, a, m. [an old obsol. form], an heir, Edda 108 and in the compd skaporfoni (the vowel change is caused by the following o), legal heir, q.v.

arf-ván, f. hereditary expectancy, Grág. i. 200, Jb. 177, Sturl. i. 94.

arf-vörðr, m. [A. S. yrfeveard; Hel. erbivard], (poët.) an heir, Lex. Poët.

arf-þegi, ja, m. [cp. Ulf. arbinumja], (poët.) an heir, Id. 28.

arga-fas, n. [argr, craven, and fas = flas by dropping the l (?); flas, n. means praecipitatio, and flasa, að, precipitare, which are common words; this etymology is confirmed by the spelling of the word in Gþl. 188, where some of the MSS. have faas or fias, the last is perh. a false reading = flas; fas, n. gait, manner, is a modern word: v. Pál Vídal. in Skýr.; his etymology, however, is doubtless bad], a law term, a feint, a cowardly assault, an aiming at one's body and drawing deadly weapons without carrying the threat into effect, termed 'a coward's assault;' in Icel. it was punishable by fjörbaugsgarðr, cp. Grág.; ef maðr mundar til manns ok stöðvar sjálfr, ok varðar fjörbaugsgarð, ok á hinn eigi vígt í gegn (the injured party must not kill the offender on the spot) skal stefna heiman ok kveðja til níu heimilisbúa þess á þingi er sóttr er, Vsl. ch. 90: ef maðr hleypr at manni, ok heldr hann sér sjálfr; þat er a. ok er þat sektalaust (liable to no punishment, only a dishonourable act; so the Norse law), N. G. L. i. 164, Gþl. 188.

arga-skattr, m. an abusive word, a dog's tax, Ölkofr. 36.

arg-hola, u, f. scortum, Hb. 31 (1865).

ARGR, adj. [Paul Diac. inertem et inutilem et vulgari verbo 'arga,' 6. 24; A. S. earg, ignavus; the Scottish arch or argh, v. Jamieson sub voce; and the mod. Engl. arch, archness; Germ. arg; Gr. GREEK], emasculate, effeminate, an abusive term; hefir þú börn borit, ok hugða ek þat args aðal, Ls. 24; mik munu æsir argan kalla, ef ek bindast læt brúðarlíni, Þkv. 17: it is more abusive than thrall, cp. the proverb, þrællinn hefnir en argr aldri, a thrall takes revenge, but not the a., Grett. 92; and, argr er sá sem engu verst (a proverb), he is truly an 'argr' who does not defend himself; argr and ragr are synonymous, vide the Grág.: þau eru orð þrjrú er skóggang varða öll, ef maðr kallar mann ragan eðr stroðinn eðr sorðinn, ii. 147. 2. metaph. a wretch, craven, coward; örg vættr, Fas. ii. 254, Fs. 147: cp. ergi and úargr.

arg-skapr, m. cowardice, cowardliness, Fas. i. 487 (in a verse).

arg-vítugr, adj. infamous, (cant.)

ARI, a, m. [Ulf. ara; O. H. G. aro; cp. Germ. adler = edel-aro; cp. also the lengthened Icel. form örn, A. S. earn, Engl. earn], an eagle, rare and