This is page 28 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
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a pupil, Fms. i. 8; nema fræði at e-m, xi. 396. 2. of receiving,
acquiring, buying, from; þiggja e-t at e-m, to receive a thing at his
hands, Nj. 51; líf, to be pardoned, Fms. x. 173; kaupa land at e-m, to
buy it from, Landn. 72, Íb. II, (now af is more freq. in this sense);
geta e-t at e-m, to obtain, procure at one's hands, impetrare; þeirra
manna er þeir megu þat geta at, who are willing to do that, Grág. i.
I; heimta e-t at e-m (now af), to call in, demand (a debt, money),
279; fala e-t at e-m (now af), to chaffer for or cheapen anything, Nj.
73; sækja e-t at e-m, to ask, seek for; sækja heilræði ok traust at
e-m, 98; leiga e-t at e-m (now af), to borrow, Grág. ii. 334; eiga e-t
(fé, skuld) at e-m, to be owed money by any one, i. 399: metaph. to deserve
of one, Nj. 113; eiga mikit at e-m, to have much to do with, 138; hafa veg,
virðing, styrk, at, to derive honour, power from, Fms. vi. 71, Eg. 44,
Bárð. 174; gagn, to be of use, Ld. 216; mein, tálma, mischief, disadvantage, 158, 216, cp. Eg. 546; ótta, awe, Nj. 68. VI. denoting
conformity, according to, Lat. secundum, ex, after; at fornum sið,
Fms. i. 112; at sögn Ara prests, as Ari relates, on his authority, 55; at
ráði allra vitrustu manna, at the advice of, Ísl. ii. 259, Ld. 62; at lögum,
at landslögum, by the law of the land, Grág., Nj.; at líkindum, in all
likelihood, Ld. 272; at sköpum, in due course (poet.); at hinum sama
hætti, in the very same manner, Grág. i. 90; at vánum, as was to be expected, Nj. 255; at leyfi e-s, by one's leave, Eg. 35; úlofi, Grág. ii. 215;
at ósk, vilja e-s, as one likes...; at mun, id. (poet.); at sólu, happily
(following the course of the sun), Bs. i. 70, 137; at því sem ..., as to
infer from ..., Nj. 124:' fara, láta, ganga at' denotes to yield, agree to,
to comply with, give in, Ld. 168, Eg. 18, Fms. x. 368. VII. in
phrases nearly or quite adverbial; gróa, vera græddr, at heilu, to be quite
healed, Bárð. 167, Eb. 148; bíta at snöggu, to bite it bare, Fms. xi. 6;
at þurru, till it becomes dry, Eb. 276; at endilöngu, all along, Fas. ii;
vinnast at litlu, to avail little, 655 x. 14; at fullu, fully, Nj. 257, Hkr. i.
171; at vísu, of a surety, surely, Ld. 40; at frjálsu, freely, 308; at líku,
at sömu, equally, all the same, Hom. 80, Nj. 267; at röngu, wrongly,
686 B. 2; at hófi, temperately, Lex. Poët.; at mun, at ráði, at marki, to a
great extent; at hringum, utterly, all round, (rare), Fms. x. 389; at einu,
yet, Orkn. 358; svá at einu, því at einu, allt at einu, yet, however, nevertheless. VIII. connected with comparatives of adverbs and adjectives, and strengthening the sense, as in Engl. ' the, ' so much the more,
all the more; 'at' heldr tveimr, at ek munda gjarna veita yðr öllum,
where it may be translated by so much the more to two, as I would
willingly grant it to all of you; hon grét at meir, she grat (wept) the
more, Eg. 483; þykir oss at líkara, all the more likely, Fms. viii. 6; þess
at harðari, all the harder, Sturl. iii. 202 C; svá at hinn sé bana at nær,
Grág. ii. 117; at auðnara, at hólpnara, the more happy, Al. 19, Grett. 116 B;
þess at meiri, Fms. v. 64; auvirðismaðr at meiri, Sturl. ii. 139; maðr at
vaskari, id.; at feigri, any the more fey, Km. 22; maðr at verri, all the worse,
Nj. 168; ok er' at' firr..., at ek vil miklu heldr, cp. Lat. tantum abest...
ut, Eg. 60. ß. following after a negation; eigi at síðr, no less, Nj. 160,
Ld. 146; eigi... at meiri maðr, any better, Eg. 425, 489; erat héra at borgnara, any the better off for that, Fms. vii. 116; eigi at minni, no less for that,
Edda (pref.) 146; eigi at minna, Ld. 216, Fms. ix. 50; ekki at verri drengr,
not a bit worse for that, Ld. 42; er mér ekki son minn at bættari, þótt...,
216; at eigi vissi at nær, any more, Fas. iii. 74. IX. following
many words: 1. verbs, esp. those denoting, a. to ask, enquire,
attend, seek, e. g. spyrja at, to speer (ask) for; leita at, to seek for; gæta,
geyma at, to pay attention to; huga, hyggja at; hence atspurn, to enquire, aðgæzla, athugi, attention, etc. ß. verbs denoting laughter, play,
joy, game, cp. the Engl. to play at. .., to laugh at.. .; hlæja, brosa at e-u,
to laugh, smile at it; leika (sér) at e-u, to play at; þykja gaman at, to
enjoy; hæða, göra gys at..., to make sport at... γ. verbs denoting
assistance, help; standa, veita, vinna, hjálpa at; hence atstoð, atvinna,
atverk :—mode, proceeding; fara at, to proceed, hence atför and atferli :—compliance; láta, fara at e-u, v. above :—fault; e-t er at e-u, there is
some fault in it, Fms. x. 418; skorta at e-u, to fall short of, xi. 98: —care, attendance; hjúkra at, hlýja at, v. these words :—gathering, collecting; draga, reiða, flytja, fá at, congerere :—engagement, arrival, etc.;
sækja at, to attack; ganga at, vera at, to be about; koma at, ellipt. to
arrive: göra at, to repair: lesta at, to impair (v. above); finna at, to
criticise (mod.); telja at, id.: bera at, to happen; kveða at e-m, to address
one, 625. 15, (kveða at (ellipt.) now means to pronounce, and of a child
to utter (read) whole syllables); falla at, of the flood-tide (ellipt.):
metaph. of pains or straits surrounding one; þreyngja, herða at, to press
hard: of frost and cold, with regard to the seasons; frjósa at, kólna at,
to get really cold (SI. 44), as it were from the cold stiffening all things:
also of the seasons themselves; hausta, vetra að, when the season really
sets in; esp. the cold seasons, 'sumra at' cannot be used, yet we may say
'vára að' when the spring sets in, and the air gets mild. δ. in num-
berless other cases which may partly be seen below. 2. connected
ellipt. with adverbs denoting motion from a place; norðan, austan,
sunnan, vestan at, those from the north, east...; utan at, innan at, from
the outside or inside. 3. with adjectives (but rarely), e. g. kærr, elskr,
virkr (affectionate), vandr (zealous), at e-m; v, these words. WITH ACC. TEMP.: Lat. post, after, upon, esp. freq. in poetry, but rare in prose
writers, who use eptir; nema reisi niðr at nið (= maðr eptir mann), in succession, of erecting a monument, Hm. 71; in prose, at þat. posthac, deinde,
Fms. x. 323, cp. Rm., where it occurs several times, 2, 6, 9, 14, 18, 24,
28, 30, 35; sonr á at taka arf at föður sinn, has to take the inheritance
after his father, Grág. i. 170 new Ed.; eiga féránsdóm at e-n, Grág. i. 89;
at Gamla fallinn, after the death of G., Fms. x. 382; in Edda (Gl.) 113 ought
to be restored, grét ok at Oð, gulli Freyja, she grat (wept) tears of gold
for her lost husband Od. It is doubtful if it is ever used in a purely loc.
sense; at land, Grág. (Sb.)ii. 211, is probably corrupt; at hönd = á hönd,
Grág. (Sb.) i. 135; at mót = at móti, v. this word. ILLEGIBLE In compounds (v. below) at- or að- answers in turn to Lat. ad-
or in- or con-; atdráttr e. g. denotes collecting; atkoma is adventus: it
may also answer to Lat. ob-, in atburðr = accidence, but might also be
compared with Lat. occurrere.
AT and að, the mark of the infinitive [cp. Goth, du; A. S. and Engl.
to; Germ. zu]. Except in the case of a few verbs 'at' is always placed
immediately before the infinitive, so as to be almost an inseparable part
of the verb. I. it is used either, 1. as, a simple mark of the
infinitive, only denoting an action and independent of the subject, e. g. at
ganga, at hlaupa, at vita, to go, to run, to know; or, 2. in an objec-
tive sense when following such verbs as bjóða segja..., to invite, command ...; hann bauð þeim at ganga, at sitja, be bade, ordered them to
go, sit, or the like; or as gefa and fá; gefa e-m at drekka, at eta, to give
one to drink or to eat, etc. etc. ß. with the additional notion of intention, esp. when following verba cogitandi; hann ætlaði, hafði í hyggju at
fara, he had it in his mind to go (where 'to go' is the real object to
ætlaði and hafði í hyggju). 3. answering to the Gr. GREEK denoting
intention, design, in order to; hann gékk í borg at kaupa silfr, in order
to buy, Nj. 280; hann sendi riddara sína með þeim at varðveita þær, 623.
45: in order to make the phrase more plain, 'svá' and 'til' are frequently
added, esp. in mod. writers, 'svá at' and contr. 'svát' (the last however is
rare), 'til at" and 'til þess at,' etc. II. in the earlier times the
infin., as in Greek and Lat., had no such mark; and some verbs remain
that cannot be followed by 'at;' these verbs are almost the same in Icel.
as in Engl.: a. the auxiliary verbs vil, mun (GREEK), skal; as in Engl.
to is never used after the auxiliaries shall, will, must; ek vil ganga, I will go; ek mun fara, (as in North. E.) I mun go; ek skal göra þat, I shall do that, etc. ß. the verbs kunna, mega, as in Engl. I can or may
do, I dare say; svá hygginn at hann kunni fyrir sökum ráða, Grág. ii. 75;
í öllu er prýða má góðan höfðingja, Nj. 90; vera má, it may be; vera kann
þat, id.: kunnu, however, takes 'at' whenever it means to know, and esp. in
common language in phrases such as, það kann að vera, but vera kann þat,
v. above. γ. lata, biðja, as in Engl. to let, to bid; hann let (bað) þá fara,
he let (bade) them go. δ. þykkja, þykjast, to seem; hann þykir vera, he
is thought to be: reflex., hann þykist vera, sibi videtur: impers., mér þykir
vera, mibi videtur, in all cases without 'at.' So also freq. the verbs hugsa,
hyggja, ætla, halda, to think, when denoting merely the act of thinking;
but if there be any notion of intention or purpose, they assume the 'at;'
thus hann ætlaði, hugði, þá vera góða menn, he thought them to be, acc. c.
inf.; but ætlaði at fara, meant to go, etc. ε. the verbs denoting to
see, bear; sjá, líta, horfa á ... (videre); heyra, audire, as in Engl. I saw
them come, I heard him tell, ek sá þá koma, ek heyrði hann tala. ζ.
sometimes after the verbs eiga and ganga; hann gékk steikja, be went
to roast, Vkv. 9; eiga, esp. when a mere periphrasis instead of skal,
móður sína á maðr fyrst fram færa (better at færa), Grág. i. 232;
á þann kvið einskis meta, 59; but at meta, id. l. 24; ráða, nema,
göra ..., freq. in poetry, when they are used as simple auxiliary verbs,
e. g. nam hann sér Högna hvetja at rúnum, Skv. 3. 43. η. hljóta and
verða, when used in the sense of must (as in Engl. he must go), and
when placed after the infin.of another verb; hér muntu vera hljóta,
Nj. 129; but hljóta at vera: fara hlýtr þú, Fms. 1. 159; but þú hlýtr
at fara: verða vita, ii. 146; but verða at vita: hann man verða
sækja, þó verðr (= skal) maðr eptir mann lifa, Fms. viii. 19, Fas. ii.
552, are exceptional cases. θ. in poetry, verbs with the verbal neg.
suffix '-at,' freq. for the case of euphony, take no mark of the infinitive,
where it would be indispensable with the simple verb, vide Lex. Poët.
Exceptional cases; hvárt sem hann vill 'at' verja þá sök, eða, whatever
he chooses, either, Grág. i. 64; fyrr viljum vér enga kórónu at bera, en
nokkut ófrelsi á oss at taka, we would rather bear no crown than ...,
Fms. x. 12; the context is peculiar, and the 'at' purposely added. It may
be left out ellipt.; e. g. þá er guð gefr oss finnast (= at finnast), Dipl. ii.
14; gef honum drekka (= at drekka), Pr. 470; but mostly in unclassical
writers, in deeds, or the like, written nastily and in an abrupt style. AT and að, conj. [Goth. þatei = GREEK; A. S. þät; Engl. that; Germ, dass;
the Ormul. and Scot, at, see the quotations sub voce in Jamieson; in all
South-Teutonic idioms with an initial dental: the Scandinavian idioms
form an exception, having all dropped this consonant; Swed. åt, Dan. at].
In Icel. the Bible translation (of the 16th century) was chiefly based upon
that of Luther; the hymns and the great bulk of theol. translations of