This is page 29 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 15 Jul 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.

AT -- ATFOR. 29

that time were also derived from Germany; therefore the germanised form

það frequently appears in the Bible, and was often employed by theol.

authors in sermons since the time of the Reformation. Jón Vidalin, the

greatest modern Icel. preacher, who died in 1720, in spite of his

thoroughly classical style, abounds in the use of this form; but it never

took root in the language, and has never passed into the spoken dialect.

After a relative or demonstr. pronoun, it freq. in mod. writers assumes

the form eð, hver eð, hverir eð, hvað eð, þar eð. Before the prep, þú

(t u), þ changes into t, and is spelt in a single word attú, which is freq. in

some MS.; -- now, however, pronounced aððú, aððeir, aððið ..., = að

þú..., with the soft Engl. th sound. It gener. answers to Lat. ut, or to

the relat. pron. qui. I. that, relative to svá, to denote proportion,

degree, so..., that, Lat. tam, tantus, to t..., -ut; svá mikill lagamaðr,

at..., sogr eat a lawyer, that..., Nj. I; hárið svá mikit, at þat..., 2;

svá kom um síðir því máli, at Sigvaldi, it came so far, that..., Fms. xi.

95, Edda 33. Rarely and unclass., ellipt. without svá; Bæringr var til

seinn eptir honum, at hann ... (= svá at), -Bær. 15; hlífði honum, at hann

sakaði ekki, Fas. iii. 441. II. it is used, 1. with indic, in a

narrative sense, answering partly to Gr. GREEK Lat. quod, ut, in such phrases

as, it came topass, happened that...; þat var einhverju sinni, at Höskuldr

hafði vinaboð, Nj. 2; þat var á palmdrottinsdag, at Ólafr konungr gékk út

um stræti, Fms. ii. 244. 2. with subj. answering to Lat. acc. with infin.,

to mark the relation of an object to the chief verb, e. g. vilda ek at þú

réðist, I wished that yon -would, Nj. 57. β. or in an oblique sentence,

answering to ita ut...;.; ef svá kann verða at þeir láti..., if it may be so that

they might..., Fms. xi. 94. γ with a subj. denoting design, answering

to GREEK or Lat. ut with subj., in order that; at öll veraldar bygðin viti,

ut sciat totus orbis, Stj.; þeir skáru fyrir þá melinn, at þeir dæi eigi af sulti,

ut ne fame perirent, Nj. 265; fyrsti hlutr bókarinnar er Kristindómsbálkr,

at menn skili, in order that men may understand, Gþl. p. viii. III.

used in connection with conjunctions, 1. esp. þó, því, svá; þó at

freq. contr. þótt; svát is rare and obsolete. a. þóat, þótt (North. E.

'thof'), followed by a subjunctive, though, although, Lat. etsi, quamquam

(very freq.); þóat nokkurum mönnum sýnist þetta með freku sett... þá

viljum vér, Fms. vi. 21: phrases as, gef þú mér þó at úverðugri, etsi indignae (dat.), Stj. MS. col. 315, are unclass., and influenced by the Latin:

sometimes ellipt. without' þó, ' eigi mundi hón þá meir hvata göngu sinni,

at (= þóat) hon hraeddist bana sinn, Edda 7, Nj. 64: ' þó' and ' at' sepa-

rated, svarar hann þó rétt, at hann svari svá, Grág. i. 23; þó er rétt at

nýta, at hann sé fyrr skorinn, answering to Engl. yet -- though, Lat. attamen

-- etsi, K. þ. K. β. því at, because, Lat. nam, quia, with indic.; því

at allir vóru gerfiligir synir hans, Ld. 68; því at af íþróttum verðr maðr

fróðr, Sks. 16: separated, því þegi ek, at ek undrumst, Fms. iii. 201; því

er þessa getið, at þat þótti, it i s mentioned because ..., Ld. 68. γ. svá

at, so that, Lat. ut, ita ut; grátrinn kom upp, svá at eingi mátti öðrum

segja, Edda 37: separated, so ... that, svá úsvúst at ..., so bad weather,

that, Bs. i. 339, etc. 2. it is freq. used superfluously, esp. after rela-

tives; hver at = hverr, quis; því at = því, igitur; hverr at þekkr ok

þægiligr mun verða, Fms. v. 159; hvern stvrk at hann mundi fá, 44; ek

undrumst hvé mikil ógnarraust at liggr í þér, iii. 201; því at ek mátti eigi

þar vera elligar, því at þar var kristni vel haldin, Fas. i. 340. IV.

as a relat. conj.: 1. temp, when, Lat. quum; jafnan er (est) mér þá

verra er (quum) ek fer á braut þaðan, en þá at (quum) ek kem, Grett. 150

A; þar til at vér vitum, till we know, Fms. v. 52; þá at ek lýsta (= þá er),

when, Nj. 233. 2. since, because; ek færi yðr (hann), at þér eruð í

einum hrepp allir, because of your being all of the same Rape, Grág. i.

260; eigi er kynlegt at (though) Skarphéðinn sé hraustr, at þat er mælt

at..., because (since) it is a saying that..., Nj. 64. V. in mod.

writers it is also freq. superfluously joined to the conjunctions, ef að = ef,

si, (Lv. 45 is from a paper MS.), meðan að = meðan, dum; nema að, nisi;

fyrst að = fyrst, quoniam; eptir að, síðan að, postquam; hvárt að = hvárt,

Lat. an. In the law we find passages such as, þá er um er dæmt eina sök,

at þá eigu þeir aptr at ganga í dóminn, Grág. i. 79; ef þing ber á hina helgu

viku, at þat á eigi fyrir þeim málum at standa, 106; þat er ok, at þeir skulu

reifa mál manna, 64; at þeir skulu með váttorð þá sök sækja, 65: in all

these cases ' at' is either superfluous or, which is more likely, of an ellipt.

nature, 'the law decrees' or 'it is decreed' being understood. The pas-

sages Sks. 551, 552, 568, 718 B, at lokit (= at ek hefi lokit), at hugleitt

(= at ek hefi h.), at sent (= at ek hefi sent) are quite exceptional

AT and að, an indecl. relat. pronoun [Ulf. þatei = GREEK etc.; Engl. that, Ormul. at], with the initial letter dropped, as in the

conj. at, (cp. also the Old Engl. at, which is both a conj. and a pronoun,

e. g. Barbour vi. 24 in Jamieson: ' I drede that his gret wassalage, | And

his travail may bring till end, | That at men quhilc full litil wend. ' | ' His

mestyr speryt quhat tithings a t he saw. ' -- Wyntoun v. 3. 89.) In Icel.

'er' (the relat. pronoun) and 'at' are used indifferently, so that where

one MS. reads' er, ' another reads ' at, ' and vice versâ; this may easily be

seen by looking at the MSS.; yet as a rule ' er' is much more freq. used.

In mod. writers ' at' is freq. turned into ' eð, ' esp. as a superfluous particle

after the relative pron. hverr (hver eð, hvað eð, hverir eð, etc.), or the

demonstr. sá (sá eð, þeir eð, hinir eð, etc.) :-- who, which, that, enn bezta ' grip at (which) hafði til Íslands komið, Ld. 202; en engi mun sá at (cui)

minnisamara mun vera, 242; sem blótnaut at (quae) stærst verða, Fms.

iii. 214; þau tiðendi, at mér þætti verri, Nj. 64, etc. etc.

AT, n. collision (poet.); odda at, crossing of spears, crash of spears,

Höfuðl. 8. β. a fight or bait of wild animals, esp. of horses, v. hesta-at

and etja.

AT, the negative verbal suffix, v. -a.

ata, u, f. an obscure word, and probably a corrupt reading; nú skýtr

maðr á hval í atu ok hnekkir Guðs gáfu, N. G. L. i. 59.

ata, að, to stain, defile, smear; líkþrá Naaman skal atast á þik ok

þína ætt, Stj. 618. 2 Kings vi. 27 (now freq.)

atall, ötul, atalt, adj. [at, n.; Ormul. attel = turpis] , fierce, Lat. atrox;

ötul augu, fierce, piercing eyes, Hkv. i. 3; þetta folk er atalt ok illt, Hkr.

iii. 313: ötul, amatlig, fierce and loathsome, used of a witch, Hkv. I. 38:

Atli ek heiti, a. skal ek þér vera, where the poet plays on the likeness

between the pr. name Atli and the adj. atall, my name is 'Savage;'

savage shall I prove to thee, Hkv. Hjörv. 15. At the present day, freq.

in the changed form ötull, in a good sense, brisk, strenuous.

atan or ötun, f. defiling.

atatata, an onomatopoëtic interj., imitating the chattering of the teeth

through cold, Orkn. 326 (in a verse).

at-beini, a, m. assistance, support, Fms. vi. 66; vera í a. með e-m, to

assist one, Fas. i. 265.

at-bot, f. repair (now aðgjörð), Vm. 4, Dipl. ii. 13.

at-burðr, ar, m. pl. ir, [bera at, accidere.] 1. a chance, hap, acci-

dent; verðr sá a., it so happened, Nj. 54, Vápn. 49; af (með) atburð,

accidentally, perchance, Mart. 126, El. 5, 9, Mar. 656 ii. 16; með hverjum

atburðum, how, by what chance? Róm. 287, Eluc. 12; slikt kalla ek a. en

eigi jartein, such things I call an accident but not a miracle, Sturl. ii. 54; fyrir

a. sakir hreysti hans, because of his valour, Skálda 189, Sks. 147. 2.

esp. in pl., events, matters, circumstances; dráp Bárðar ok þá atburði er þar

höfðu orðit, Bard's death and the events that had happened, Eg. 222; Ólafr

sagði honum alla atburði um sitt mál, O. told him minutely how his matters

stood, Hkr. i. 193; þær sem skýra í hverjum atburðum menn fella á sik

fullkomið bann, under what circumstances ..., H. E. i. 462.

at-búnaðr, ar, m. attention, care, especially of funeral rites; veita a.

dauðum mönnum, to lay out dead bodies, Eg. 34, v. 1. 2. now gener.

accommodation or assistance in all that regards domestic life, esp. cloth-

ing; góðr, illr a.

at-djúp and atdýpi, n. deep water close to shore, Háv. 48.

at-djupt, n. adj. id., 623. 45; superl. aðdjúpast, Fms. xi. 70.

at-dráttr, ar, m. pl. drættir, [draga at], provisions, supplies for house-

hold use; hafði hann a. at þeirra búi, he supplied their household, Háv.

39; atdrættir ok útvegar, means and provisions, Fms. xi. 423; a. af

fiskum, Hrafn. 22. β. metaph. support, H. E. i. 244. COMPD:

atdrátta-maðr, m., mikill a., a good housekeeper, Eb. 26.

at-dugnaðr, m. [at-duga, to assist], assistance, Fas. ii. 296.

at-eggjan, f. egging on, instigation, Al. 5.

at-fall, n. [falla at], 'on-fall, ' = of the flood-tide, Ld. 56, Orkn. 428.

at-fang, n. [fá at, to provide] , only in pl., provisions, victuals, Bs. i.

130. Esp. used with dagr, or kveld, of the eve of great festivals, and

partic. that of Yule: atfanga-dagr, pronounced affanga, m., a. Jóla,

Yule Eve, Christmas Eve, Grett. 97, 140, Fms. ii. 37, Ísl. ii. 232, Orkn. 186

old Ed., where the new Ed. p. 242 reads atfangs- (in sing.), which is very

rare, jþórð. 11. atfangadags-kveld, n. Christmas Eve, Bárð. 176. at-fanga-maðr, m. = atdráttamaðr, Grett. 119 A.

at-fara-, v. atför.

at-ferð, f. (neut. 655 xxxii.) a. aggression, incursion, in a hostile

sense, Fms. ix. UNCERTAIN , v. 1. β. more freq. in a good sense, exertion, acti-

vity, Fs. 4; vikjast eptir atferðum enna fyrri frænda þinna, to imitate their

good deeds, id.; atferð ok eljun, energy, Ld. 318. γ a law term, execution; með dómrofum ok atferðum, Gþl. 183. δ. behaviour, pro-

ceeding, conduct; hverja a. vér skulum hafa, Nj. 194, Rb. 390, Sks. 239,

655 xxxii. 2; -- now freq. in the last sense. COMPDS: atferðar-leysi,

n. idleness, inactivity, helplessness, Fær. 232, 544. 23. atferðar-maðr,

m. a skilful man, Bs. i. 639.

atferð-ligr, adj, fit or manly, Fms. viii. 53, v. 1.

at-ferli, n. [ferill], action, proceeding, used esp. as a law term, proceed-

ing, procedure; með enu sama a., Grág. ii. 405: plur. skal sá slík atferli

hafa öll um lýsingar sem áðr er tint, 27, H. E. ii. 75. β. method; þá

eru mörg a. jafnrett til þess, Rb. 38. γ. hann spurðist fyrir um a.

héraðsmanna, what they were doing, Grett. 123 A. δ. gramm., a. parta

(modi partium orationis) eru tólf, Skálda 185.

at-flutning, f. (now ˜ingr, m.), purveyance, supply, in plur., Eg. 275,

Fms. ii. 68, viii. 179.

at-fylgi, n. and atfylgja, u, f. help, backing, support, Fms. ii. 105, Stj.

384, Hom. 139, Fms. x. 60, v. 1.

at-færsla, u, f. exertion, courage, K. Þ. K. 94 (rare). COMPD: at-fœrslu-maðr, m. a man of vigour, Bret. 12, 155.

at-för, ar, f. 1. prop, a going to; as a Norse law term, execution,

domr ok atför, Gþl. 361, 389: mod. Dan. adfœrd, cp. atferð, 7. 2. in