This is page 33 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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AUFUSUGESTR -- AUK. 33

mönnum, we will thank them, Fms. viii. 250; var mönnum mikil ö. á því,

much pleased by it, Fs. 123; hafa í móti þökk ok ö., Band. 19 new Ed.

COMPDS: aufusu-gestr, m. a welcome guest, Valla L. 217, Sturl. i. 178.

aufusu-orð, n. thanks, Gísl. 100. aufvisu-svipr, m. friendly mien;

sýna á sér au., Fs. 14.

au-fúss, adj. in a verse by Arnór, perhaps akin to the above, meaning

eager, Orkn. 126: vide, however, Lex. Poët. s. v. ófur.

AUGA, n., gen. pl. augna, [Lat. oculus, a dimin. of an obsolete ocus;

Gr. GREEK (Boeot. GREEK); Sanskr. aksha: the word is common to

Sanskrit with the Slavonic, Greek, Roman, and Teutonic idioms: Goth.

augo; Germ, auge; A. S. eâge; Engl. eye; Scot. ee; Swed. öga; Dan.

öje, etc. Grimm s. v. suggests a relationship to Lat. acies, acutus, etc.

The letter n appears in the plur. of the mod. northern languages; the

Swedes say 'ögon,' oculi, the Danes 'öjne;' with the article 'ögonen'

and 'öjnene;' Old Engl. 'eyne;' Scot, 'een'] :-- an eye It is used

in Icel. in a great many proverbs, e. g. betr sjá augu en auga, ' two

eyes see better than one,' i. e. it is good to yield to advice: referring to

love, unir auga meðan á sér, the eye is pleased whilst it can behold (viz.

the object of its affection), Fas. i. 125, cp. Völs. rím. 4. 189; eigi leyna

augu, ef ann kona manni, the eyes cannot bide it, if a woman love a

man, i. e. they tell their own tale, Ísl. ii. 251. This pretty proverb is an

GREEK. 1. c. and is now out of use; it is no doubt taken from a poem in a

dróttkvætt metre, (old proverbs have alliteration, but neither rhymes nor

assonance, rhyming proverbs are of a comparatively late date): medic.,

eigi er sá heill er í augun verkir, Fbr. 75; sá drepr opt fæti (slips) er

augnanna missir, Bs. i. 742; hætt er einu auganu nema vel fari, he who

has only one eye to lose will take care of it (comm.); húsbóndans auga

sér bezt, the master's eye sees best; glögt er gests augat, a guest's eye

is sharp; mörg eru dags augu, the day has many eyes, i. e. what is to be

hidden must not be done in broad daylight, Hm. 81; náið er nef augum,

the nose is near akin to the eyes (tua res agitur paries quum proximus

ardet), Nj. 21; opt verðr slíkt á sæ, kvað selr, var skotinn í auga, this

often happens at sea, quoth the seal, when he was shot in the eye, of

one who is in a scrape, Fms. viii. 402. In many phrases, at unna (to

love) e-m sem augum í höfði sér, as one's own eye-balls, Nj. 217; þótti

mér slökt it sætasta ljós augna minna, by his death the sweetest light of

my eyes was quenched, 187: hvert grætr þú nú Skarphéðinn? eigi er

þat segir Skarphéðinn, en hitt er satt at súrnar í augum, the eyes smart

from smoke, 200: renna, líta augum, to seek with the eyes, to look upon:

it is used in various connections, renna, líta ástaraugum, vánaraugum,

vinaraugum, trúaraugum, öfundaraugum, girndarauga, with eyes of love,

hope, friendship, faith, envy, desire: mæna a. denotes an upward or praying

look; stara, fixed; horfa, attentive; lygna, blundskaka, stupid or

slow; blína, glápa, góna, vacant or silly; skima, wandering; hvessa augu,

a threatening look; leiða e-n a., to measure one with the eyes; gjóta, or

skjóta hornauga, or skjóta a. í skjálg, to throw a side glance of dislike or

ill-will; gjóta augum is always in a bad sense; renna, líta mostly in a

good sense: gefa e-u auga, oculum adjicere alicui; hafa auga á e-u, to

keep an eye on it; segja e-m e-t í augu upp, to one's face, Orkn. 454; at

augum, adverb. with open eyes, Hervar. S. (in a verse), etc. As regards

various movements of the eyes; ljúka upp augum, to open the eyes; láta

aptr augun, to shut the eyes; draga auga í pung, to draw the eye into a

purse, i. e. shut one eye; depla augum, to blink; at drepa titlinga (Germ.

äugeln, blinzen), to wink, to kill tits with the suppressed glances of the

eye; glóðarauga, a suffusion on the eye, hyposphagma; kýrauga. proptosis;

vagl á auga, a beam in the eye; skjálgr, Lat. limus; ský, albugo; tekinn

til augnanna, with sunken eyes, etc., Fél. ix. 192; a. bresta, in death:

hafa stýrur í augum, to have prickles in the eyes, when the eyes ache for

want of sleep: vatna músum, 'to water mice,' used esp. of children weep-

ing silently and trying to hide their tears. As to the look or expression

of the eyes there are sundry metaph. phrases, e. g. hafa fékróka í augum,

to have wrinkles at the corners of the eyes, of a shrewd money getting

fellow, Fms. ii. 84, cp. Orkn. 330, 188, where krókauga is a cognom.;

kvenna-króka, one insinuating with the fair sex; hafa ægishjalm í augum

is a metaphor of one with a piercing, commanding eye, an old mythical

term for the magical power of the eye, v. Grimm's D. Mythol. under

Ægishjalmr: vera mjótt á milli augnanna, the distance between the eyes

being short, is a popular saying, denoting a close, stingy man, hence

mjóeygr means close: e-m vex e-t í augu (now augum), to shrink

back from, of a thing waxing and growing before one's eyes so that

one dares not face it. As to the shape, colour, etc. of the eye, vide

the adj. ' eygr' or ' eygðr' in its many compds. Lastly we may mention

the belief, that when the water in baptism touches the eyes, the child

is thereby in future life prevented from seeing ghosts or goblins, vide

the words úfreskr and skygn. No spell can touch the human eye;

en er harm sá augu hans (that of Loki in the shape of a bird), þá grunaði

hann (the giant) at maðr mundi vera, Edda 60; í bessum birni þykist hón

kenna augu Bjarnar konungs sonar, Fas. i. 51, vide Ísl. Þjóðs. II.

meton. and metaph. auga is used in a great many connections: α.

astron.; þjaza augu, the eyes of the giant Thiazi, is a constellation, probably

the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux; the story is told in the Edda 47, cp.

Harbarðsljóð 19; (Snorri attributes it to Odin, the poem to Thor.) β.

botan., auga = Lat. gemma, Hjalt. 38; kattarauga, cat's eye, is the

flower forget-me-not. γ the spots that form the numbers on dice,

Magn. 530. δ. the hole in a millstone; kvarnarauga, Edda 79, 221,

Hkr. i. 121: the opening into which an axe handle is fastened, Sturl.

ii. 91: a pit full of water, Fs. 45: nálarauga, a needle's eye: vindauga,

wind's eye or window (which orig. had no glass in it), A. S. eag-dura

(eye-door); also gluggi, q. v.: gleraugu, spectacles. ε. anatom., the

pan of the hip joint, v. augnakarl, Fms. iii. 392: gagnaugu, temples. ζ.

hafsauga, the bottom of the ocean, in the popular phrase, fara út í hafsauga,

descendere ad tartara. η. poët, the sun is called heimsauga, dagsauga,

Jónas 119. COMPDS either with sing. auga or pl. augna; in the latter

case mod. usage sometimes drops the connecting vowel a, e. g. augn-

dapr, augn-depra, augn-fagr, etc. auga-bragð (augna-), n. the

twinkling of an eye, Hm. 77; á einu a., in the twinkling of an eye, Ver. 32,

Edda (pref.) 146, Sks. 559, Rb. 568: a glance, look, snart a., Fms. ii.

174; mikit a., v. 335; úfagrligt a., Fs. 43; hafa a. af e-u, to cast a look at,

Fbr. 49, Fms. xi. 424: in the phrase, at hafa e-n (or verða)

at augabragði, metaph. to make sport of, to mock, deride, gaze at, Stj.

627, 567, Hm. 5, 29. auga-brun, f. the eye-brow. auga-staðr,

m. an eye-mark; hafa a. á e-u, to mark with the eye. auga-steinn

(augna-), m. the eye-ball, Hkr. iii. 365, Fms. v. 152. augna-bending,

f. a warning glance, Pr. 452. augna-blik, n. mod. = augnabragð, s.

augna-bólga, u, f. ophthalmia. augna-brá, f. the eye-lid, D. N. i. 216.

augna-fagr and aug-fagr, adj. fair-eyed, Fas. ii. 365, Fms. v. 200.

augna-fró, f. a plant, eye-bright, euphrasia, also augna-gras, Hjalt. 231.

augna-fræ, n. lychnis alpina. augna-gaman, n. a sport, delight

for the eyes to gaze at, Ld. 202, Bær. 17, Fsm. 5 (love, sweetheart).

augna-gróm, n. (medic.) a spot in the eye; metaph., ekki a., no mere

speck, of whatever can easily be seen. augna-hár, n. an eye-lash.

augna-hvannr, m. the eye-lid. augna-hvita, u, f. albugo.

augna-karl, n. the pan of the hip joint; slíta or slitna or augnaköllunum,

Fas. iii. 392. augna-kast, n. a wild glance, Barl. 167. augna-

kláði, a, m. psorophthalmi. augna-krókr, n. the corner of the eye.

augna-lag, n. a look, Ld. 154. augna-lok, n. 'eye-covers,' eye-lids.

augna-mein, n. a disease of the eye. augna-mjörkvi, a, m. dimness

of the eye, Pr. 471. augna-ráð, n. expression of the eye. augna-

skot, n. a look askance, Gþl. 286, Fs. 44 (of cats). augna-slím,

n. glaucoma. augna-staðr, m. the socket of the eye, Magn. 532.

augna-sveinn, m. a lad leading a blind man, Str. 46. augn-tepra,

u, f. hippus. augna-topt, f. the socket of the eye. augna-verkr,

m. pain in the eye, Hkr. ii. 257, Bs. i. 451, Pr. 471, Bjarn. 58. augna-

vik, n. pl. = augnakrókr. augna-þungi, a, m. heaviness of the eye,

Hkr. ii. 257.

aug-dapr, adj. weak-sighted, Fms. ii. 8: augdepra, u, f. amblyopia,

Fél. ix. 191.

aug-lit, n. a face, countenance; fyrir a. alls lýðs, Stj. 326; fyrir Guðs a.,

before the face of God, Orkn. 170; í a. postulans, 623. 25, Ver. 7. Gen. vii.

I ('before me'); fyrir konungs a., Sks. 283. Now much used, esp. theol.

aug-ljós, n. 'eye light,' in the phrase, koma í a., to appear. Fas. i. 80.

aug-ljóss, adj. clear, manifest, Fms. i. 229, Hkr. ii. 225.

aug-lýsa, t, to make known, manifest: subst. auglýsing, f.

aug-sjándi, part. seeing ocularily, Mart. 117.

aug-súrr, adj. blear-eyed, Stj. 171 (of Leah): súreygr is more freq.

aug-sýn, f. sight; koma í a. e-m, to appear before him, Eg. 458, 623.

12; í a. e-m, in the face of, Blas. 46.

aug-sýna, d, to shew, Fms. v. 200.

aug-sýniligr, adj. and -liga, adv. evident, visible, Gþl. 42.

AUK, adv. [cp. Goth, auk, freq. used by Ulf. as translation of Gr.

GREEK; jah auk = GREEK; A. S. eâc; Engl. eke; Germ. auch] . I.

it originally was a noun = augmentum, but this form only remains in the

adverbial phrase, at auk, to boot, besides, Bs. i. 317 (freq.): adverbially

and without 'at' besides; hundrað manna ok auk kappar hans,

a hundred men and eke his champions, Fas. i. 77; þriggja marka fé, en konungr

þat er auk er, the surplus, N. G. L. i. 350: cp. also such phrases as,

auk þess at, besides that; auk heldr, v. heldr. II. as a conj.

also, Lat. etiam, occurs in very old prose, and in poetry; svá mun

ek auk bletza þá konu es þú baðsk fyr, 655 ix. B. 2 (MS. of the 12th

century), Hkr. ii. 370 (in a poem of Sighvat); this form, however, is

very rare, as the word soon passed into ok, q. v. III. used to

head a sentence, nearly as Lat. deinde, deinceps, the Hebrew HEBREW, or

the like; the Ormulum uses ac in the same way; in MSS. it is usually

spelt ok; but it may be seen from poetic assonances that it was pro-

nounced auk, e. g. auk und jöfri fræknum; hitt var auk at eykir, Vellekla,

Hkr. i. 216: auk at járna leiki, Lex. Poët.; it is sometimes even

spelt so, e. g. auk nær aptni skaltu Óðinn koma, Hm. 97, Hkr. i. 29,

v. 1.; it is also freq. in the Cod. Fris. of the Hkr. This use of auk' or

'ok' is esp. freq. in old narrative poems such as the Ynglingatal (where it

occurs about thirty-five times), in the Háleygjatal (about six times), and

the Vellekla (about ten times): vide ok. IV. simply for ok, and,

as spelt on some Runic stones, but seldom, if ever, in written documents.