This is page 36 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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36 AUSTRTROG -- Á.

austr-trog, n. a scoop, bucket,

austr-vegr, s, m. the eastern way, east, esp. Russia, Wenden, the east

Baltic; fara í Austrveg is a standing phrase for trading or piratical expeditions

in the Baltic, opp. to víking or vestr-víking, which only refer to

expeditions to the British Islands, Normandy, Brittany, etc.; austr-víking,

Landn. 221, is a false reading; hann var farmaðr mikill (Hólmgarðs-fari)

ok kaupmaðr; fór opt í Austrveg (Baltic), Landn. 169, Nj. 41, Eg. 228,

Fms. freq., vide vol. xii, s. v. In the Edda fara í A. is a standing phrase for

the expeditions of Thor against giants, Þórr var farinn í A. at berja tröll,

26, cp. Ls. 59, where a. means the eastern region of heaven. Sometimes

it is used of the east in general, Ver. 9, Rb. 412, 623. 13, Baut. no. 813.

COMPDS: austrvegs-konungar, m. pl. the three kings or Magi ('wise

men') from the east, Stj. 16; a king of Russia, Fms. x. 397. austrvegs-maðr, m. an inhabitant of Austrvegir, Hkr. i. 44.

austr-ætt, v. austrátt.

aust-rœna, u, f. eastern breeze.

aust-rœnn, adj. [Hel. ostroni; A. S. easterne; cp. norrænn, suðrænn],

eastern, of the wind; a. gola, eastern breeze, Sturl. iii. 59; vindr, Orkn.

(in a verse); viðr, timber from Norway or Scandinavia, Grág. i. 149, the

Eistland tymmer of the old Scotch inventories (Jamieson, Suppl. s. v.);

Austrænir menn, Norsemen in Iceland, Fms. ix. 276; as a nickname, Eb.

12, and Landn. The name denotes the inhabitants of the Scandinavian

continent as opp. to the British Islands and Iceland.

aust-skota, u, f. = austrsker, Grág. ii. 171; Ísl. ii. 382 spelt ausskota.

au-virð and auvirði, mod. auðvirði, n. [af, off, and verð, value; the

change of letter caused by the following v; a purely Icel. form, the

Norse being 'afv-;' the mod. Icel. form is auð-v., as if it were to be

derived from auð- and verð]: 1. a worthless wretch, a laggard,

bungler; sel þú upp, auvirðit, knálegar bytturnar, Bungler! hand thou

up stoutly the buckets, Fbr. 131; hygg ek at eingi maðr eigi jafnmikil

a. at frændum sem ek, Hrafn. II; verða at a., Bret. 163, Sturl. i.

73. 2. a law term, damage, anything impairing the value of a

thing; hann ábyrgist við þeim auvirðum er þat fær af því skaða, Grág.

i. 431. COMPDS: auvirðs-maðr, m. a wretch, laggard, 655, vide

Sturl. ii. 139, Fær. 74, Þorf. Karl. 426. auvirðs-skapr, m. naughtiness,

Gullþ. 12.

au-virðast, d, to become worthless, Eg. 103, Glúm. 377 C. 2.

in the act. to think unworthy, disparage, Barl. 21, 57, 123, 190, Mar.

83: seldom used except in Norse writers, and consequently spelt with

an 'af-:' in reflex, sense. Stj. 483.

au-virðliga, Norse afvirð-, and mod. Icel. auðvirðil-, adv. despicably,

Sturl. iii. 220, Fs. 71.

au-virðligr, etc., adj. worthless, Fas. i. 87, Bret. 31, 72, Sturl. iii. 225,

Barl. 75; at skurðarskírn sé afvirðilig (indigna) Kristnum mönnum, 159.

au-visli, and contr. ausli and usli, a, m.; etym. uncertain, ausli,

Gþl. 385 A; usli, N. G. L. i. 246, Fms. i. 202, viii. 341, xi. 35, Edda

(Gl.) In the Grág. auvisli, spelt with au or av; in the Ed. of 1829

sometimes with ö where the MSS. have au I. a law term,

damages, Lat. damnum; bæta auvisla is a standing law term for to pay

compensation for damages done, the amount of which was to be fixed

by a jury; bæta skal hann a. á fjórtán nóttum sem búar fimm virða,

Grág. i. 383, 418, ii. 229, 121, 223 (Ed. 1853), 225 (twice): hence auvislabót.

In Norse law, gjalda a., Gþl. 384; ábyrgi honum garðinn

ok allan ausla þann er, 385 A; beiða usla bótar, N. G. L. i. 246. II.

metaph. hurt, injury in general; mondi þeim þá ekki vera gjört til auvisla,

Ld. 76; ok er þat þó líkast, at þú setir eigi undan öllum avvisla

(thou wilt not get off unscathed), ef þú tekr eigi við, Fms. iii.

144. 2. devastation, Fms. xi. 81: esp. by fire and sword in the

alliterative phrase, eldr (fire) ok usli; fara með eld ok usla, i. 202; heldr

en þar léki yfir eldr ok usli, viii. 341; þá görði á mikit regn, ok slökði

þann eld vandliga, svá at menn máttu þá þegar fara yfir usla þann inn

mikla (embers and ruins), xi. 35. In the Edda (Gl.) usli is recorded as

one of the sixty names of fire: cp. also the mod. verb ösla, to plunge

through: auvisli is now an obsolete word, usli a common word, gjöra

usla, to desolate, in the metaph. sense. COMPDS: auvisla-bót and

usla-bót (N. G. L. i. 246), f. a law term, compensation fixed by a jury of

five, cp. above; distinction is made between a. hin meiri and hin minni,

first rate or second rate compensation, Grág. ii. 344: in pl. 225: ausla-gjald

and usla-gjald, n. compensation, Gþl. 387.

AX, n. [Goth. aks, cp. Goth, asans = harvest], an ear of corn, Stj. 201,

Thom. 98.

axar-, v. öx, an axe.

ax-helma, u, f. a blade of corn, ear and stem, Stj. 422, Ruth ii. 2

(Engl. Vers. 'ears of corn').

ax-korn, n. an ear of corn, Edda (Ub.) ii. 283.

axla, að, to shoulder, Fms. iii. 228.

axlar-, v. öxl, shoulder.

axl-byrðr, f. a shoulder-load, Orkn. 346, Grett, 177 new Ed.

axl-hár, adj. shoulder high, Js. 101.

axull, m., v. öxull, axis, an axle-tree.

ay, interj. dolendi, ay mér veslugri, Mar. Fr.

Á

Á, á, prep., often used elliptically, or even adverbially, [Goth, ana;

Engl. on; Germ. an. In the Scandinavian idioms the liquid n is absorbed.

In English the same has been supposed to happen in adverbial phrases,

e. g. 'along, away, abroad, afoot, again, agate, ahead, aloft, alone,

askew, aside, astray, awry,' etc. It is indeed true that the Ormulum in

its northern dialect freq. uses o, even in common phrases, such as 'o boke,

o land, o life, o slæpe, o strande, o write, o naht, o loft,' etc., v. the glossary;

and we may compare on foot and afoot, on sleep (Engl. Vers. of Bible)

and asleep; A. S. a-butan and on-butan (about); agen and ongean (again,

against); on bæc, aback; on life, alive; on middan, amid. But it is

more than likely that in the expressions quoted above, as well as in

numberless others, as well in old as in modern English, the English a-

as well as the o- of the Ormulum and the modern Scottish and north

of England o- are in reality remains of this very á pronounced au or ow,

which was brought by the Scandinavian settlers into the north of England.

In the struggle for supremacy between the English dialects after

the Conquest, the Scandinavian form á or a won the day in many cases

to the exclusion of the Anglo-Saxon on. Some of these adverbs have

representatives only in the Scandinavian tongues, not in Anglo-Saxon;

see below, with dat. B. II, C. VII; with acc. C. I. and VI. The prep. á

denotes the surface or outside; í and ór the inside; at, til, and frá,

nearness measured to or from an object: á thus answers to the Gr. GREEK

the Lat. in includes á and i together.]

With dat. and acc.: in the first case with the notion of remaining

on a place, answering to Lat. in with abl.; in the last with the notion of

motion to the place, = Lat. in with acc.

WITH DAT.

A. Loc. I. generally on, upon; á gólfi, on the floor,

Nj. 2; á hendi, on the hand (of a ring), 48, 225; á palli, 50; á steini,

108; á vegg, 115; á sjá ok á landi, on sea and land. In some instances

the distinction between d and i is loose and wavering, but

in most cases common sense and usage decide; thus 'á bók' merely

denotes the letters, the penmanship, 'í' the contents of a book; mod.

usage, however, prefers 'í,' lesa í bók, but stafr á bók. Old writers on

the other hand; á bókum Enskum, in English books, Landn. 24, but

í Aldafars bók, 23 (in the book De Mensurâ Temporum, by Bede),

cp. Grág. i. 76, where á is a false reading instead of at; á bréfi, the

contents of a letter: of clothing or arms, mítr á höfði, sverð á hlið,

mitre on head, sword on side, Fms. i. 266, viii. 404; hafa lykil á sér, on

one's person, 655 xxvii. 22; möttull á tyglum, a mantle hanging on (i.e.

fastened by) laces, Fms. vii. 201: á þingi means to be present at a meeting;

í þingi, to abide within a jurisdiction; á himni, á jörðu, on (Engl. in)

heaven and earth, e. g. in the Lord's Prayer, but í helviti, in hell; á

Gimli, Edda (of a heavenly abode); á báti, á skipi denote crew and

cargo, ' í' the timber or materials of which a ship is built, Eg. 385; vera

í stafni á skipi, 177: á skógi, to be abroad in a wood (of a hunter,

robber, deer); but to be situated (a house), at work (to fell timber), í

skógi, 573, Fs. 5, Fms. iii. 122, viii. 31, xi. 1, Glúm. 330, Landn. 173; á

mörkinni, Fms. i. 8, but í mörk, of a farm; á firðinum means lying in

a firth, of ships or islands (on the surface of the water), þær eyjar liggja

á Breiðafirði, Ld. 36; but í firði, living in a district named Firth; á

landi, Nj. 98, Fms. xi. 386. II. á is commonly used in connection

with the pr. names or countries terminating in 'land,' Engl. in, á

Englandi, Írlandi, Skotlandi, Bretlandi, Saxlandi, Vindlandi, Vínlandi,

Grænalandi, Íslandi, Hálogalandi, Rogalandi, Jótlandi, Frakklandi, Hjaltlandi,

Jamtalandi, Hvítramannalandi, Norðrlöndum, etc., vide Landn. and

the index to Fms. xii. In old writers í is here very rare, in modern

authors more frequent; taste and the context in many instances decide.

An Icelander would now say, speaking of the queen or king, 'á Eng-

landi,' ruling over, but to live 'í Englandi,' or 'á Englandi;' the rule in

the last case not being quite fixed. 2. in connection with other

names of countries: á Mæri, Vörs, Ögðum, Fjölum, all districts of Norway,

v. Landn.; á Mýrum (in Icel.), á Finnmörk, Landn., á Fjóni (a

Danish island); but í Danmörk, Svíþjóð (á Svíþjóðu is poët., Gs.

13). 3. before Icel. farms denoting open and elevated slopes and

spaces (not too high, because then 'at' must be used), such as 'staðr,

völlr, ból, hjalli, bakki, heimr, eyri,' etc.; á Veggjum, Landn. 69; á

Hólmlátri, id.: those ending in '-staðr, ' á Geirmundarstöðum, Þórisstöðum,

Jarðlangsstöðum..., Landn.: '-völlr,' á Möðruvöllum: á Fitjum

(the farm) í Storð (the island), í Fenhring (the island) á Aski (the

farm), Landn., Eg.: '-nes' sometimes takes á, sometimes í (in mod.

usage always 'í'), á Nesi, Eb. 14, or í Krossnesi, 30; in the last case the

notion of island, GREEK, prevails: so also, 'fjörðr,' as, þeir börðust á Vigrafirði

(of a fight o n the ice), Landn. 101, but orusta í Hafrsfirði, 122:

with '-bær,' á is used in the sense of a farm or estate, hón sa á e-m bæ

mikit hús ok fagrt, Edda 22; 'í bæ' means within doors, of the buildings:

with 'Bær' as pr. name Landn. uses 'í,' 71, 160, 257, 309, 332. 4.

denoting on or just above; of the sun, when the time is fixed by regarding