This is page 40 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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40 ÁFANG -- A'HALD,

á-fang, n. (áfangl, rrt., Grág. i. 433), [fá á, to grasp] , a grasping,

seizing, laying hands upon, esp. of rough bundling; harm hló mjök mot

áfangi manna, Fms. vi. 203; varð hann fyrir miklu spotti ok ufangi,

209. 2. a law term, a mulct, fine, incurred by illegal seizure of

another man's goods; ef maðr hleypr ú bak hrossi manns úlofat, þat

varðar sex aura á., if a man jumps on the back of another man's horse

without leave, that is visited with a fine of six ounces, Grág. i. 432, Gþl.

520; hvatki skip er tekr skal sitt a. gjalda hverr ..., á. á maðr á hrossi

sínu hvárt er hann ekr eðr ríðr, N. G. L. i. 45; at hann haíï riðit hrossi

manns um þrjá bæi ... varðar skóggang ok áf. uiga (where it is used

masc. acc. pl.) með, Grág., vide above.

a-fangi, a betting-place, v. ui-fangi.

a-fastr, adj. made fast, fastened to, joined to; ef hapt er a. hrossi,

Grág. i. 436; eldhúsit var á. útibiírinu, Nj. 75; þær (the comets) eru

á. hiinni, Rb. 478: nietaph., andlignrn hlutuni afastar, connected with,

H. E. i. 511.

á-fátt, n. adj. defective, faulty, Nj. 49, Bad. 74: with gen., mikils er

á., H. E. i. 244.

a-felli, n. a hardship, shock, calamity; þat á. (spell) hafði legit á því

fólki, at hver kona fseddi dauðan frurnburð sinn er hon ol, Mar. 656;

afskaplig á., Stj. 90 (also of a spell); þreynging ok á., 121; með hversu

miklu á. (injustice) Sigurðr konungr vildi heimta þetta mál af honum, Hkr.

iii. 257; standa undir a., to be wider great lordship, Fms. iv. 146, vi. 147;

með miklu á. (of insanity), vii. i. ^o; þeir vóru sex vetr í þessu á., viz.

in bondage, x. 225; hvert á. jarl hafði veitt honum, what penalties the

earl bad laid upon him, Orkn. 284, Fms. iv. 310. |3. damnation,

condemnation, = afall; nu vil ek at þú sniíir eigi svá skjótt málinu til

áfellis honum, Band. 4. COMPD: áfellis-dómr, m. condemnation,

Grág. Introd. clxviii, Gþl. 174.

á-fenginn, adj. part, [fá á, to lay hold on, to intoxicate] , intoxicating,

used of drinks, cp. the Engl. 'stinging ale;' mjöðr, Edda 76; drykkr,

Fms. viii. 447; vin, Stj. 409, Joh. 84.

a-fengr, adj. now more freq., id., Hkr. i. 244, Bárð. 174.

áf-ergja, u, f. (qs. af-ergja, af- intens. ?), eagerness, and -ligr, adj. im-

petuous.

a-flog, n. pl. [fljugast a], a brawl, fighting, Fms. vi. 361.

a-flutningr, m., Vm. 157, of right of laying up fish.

a-form, n. a design, purpose, H. E. ii. 167, in a deed of the I4th cen-

tury, (Lat. word.)

á-forma, að, prop, to form, mould; steina sem úðr höfðu þeir úformat,

Stj. 562, í Kings v. 17 (' hewn stones'). In mod. usage only metaph. t o

design, perform, Fas. iii. 449; verðu vér at á. (design) ok ræða, Fms.

vii. 89; a. um e-t, því mundi hann þetta hafa vakit, at hann mundi

ú. vilja um gleðinas ... c arry it out, vi. 342, Pass. 7. 2.

ÁFR (peril, better afr), m. [the r belongs to the root, cp. air, f.

pl.] 1. a beverage, Eg. 204, translated by Magnaeus by sorbitio

avenacea, a sort of common ale brewed of oats; this explanation is con-

firmed by the Harbarðsljóð, verse 2, where Thor says, át ek í hvíld áðr

ek heiman for sildr ok afra (acc. pl.), saðr em ek enn þess; the single

vellum MS. (Cod. Reg.) here reads hafra. In the Eg. 1. c., the Cod.

Wolf, reads afra, the Cod. A. M. 132 afr, acc. sing.: cp. the passage Ls. 3,

where jöll seems to be the Scot, yill (v. Burns' Country Lassie), and úfo

in Cod. Reg. a false spelling for áfr, -- jöll ok áfr færi tk ása sonum,

ok blend ek þeini svá meini mjöð: áftr, pronounced áir, now means

buttermilk (used in Icel. instead of common beer): cp. also ábrystur, f. pl.

curds of cow's milk in the first week after the cow has calved; the milk

is cooked and eaten warm and deemed a great dainty; opt eru heitar

úbrcstur, Snot 299 (Ed. 1865); probably qs. áfr ystr.

a-fram, adv. a. loc. with the face downward, forward; fell hann a.,

on the face, Nj. 253, Vd. 52, Grett. 99 new Ed. J3. temp, along,

forward (rare); haun er nú með jarli sumarit á., he i s now with the earl

till late in the summer, Finnb. 274. y. further on; komst aldri Icngra

a. fyrir honum um skáldskapinn, be never got any further on with his

poem, Fms. iii. 102; héldu þeir á. leiðina, they held forward on their

way, 0. T. 31. In mod. usage freq. with verbs denoting to go, move;

hnlda, ganga ... áfram, to go on.

á-frá = orïrá -- frá, / ro m, cp. Swed. if ran.

á-frýja, ð, to reprove, blame; úfrý ek þó engan (better engum) yðar,

Fas. i. 103.

á-frýja, u, f. reproach, scolding, Bs. i. 622.

a-fysa and áfýsi, f. l. = aufusa, gratification, q. v. 2. in

mod. usage = exhortation, and áfýsa, t, to exhort, á. e-n til e-s.

á-fœra, ð, to reproach, Fms. v. 90.

á-fœri, n. a law term; thus defined, af tveir menn fella einn við jörðu,

þá skal aunarr þeirra bæta rétt, því at þat verðr á. at lögum, where it

seems to mean unfair dealing, shame, N. G. L. i. 309.

a-ganga, u, f. task-work, forced labour, the French corvee, = atverk,

q. v.; hón (the church) á tveggja manna á. ú hval í Kjölsvík, Vm. 155;

veita e-m á., D. N. ii. 133.

a-gangr, m. aggression, invasion; fyrir ú. Skota ok Dana, Eg. 267,

Fms. 1. 224, iii. * 43) Eg-33/. COMPDS: 6g(uasa-ma, &r, m. an aggressive man, Lv. 79, Stj. 65. agangs-samr, adj. aggressive, Fs. 9, Fms. vi.

102, Sks. 208.

á-gauð, n. [geyja á], barking, metaph. foul language, Gísl. 53; cp.

þá geyr hón á þá, 139.

á-gengiligr, adj. plausible; görði hann þetta á. fyrir Hæringi, Grett.

149 A, mod. aðgengiligt.

a-gengt, n. adj. trodden, beaten, of a place or path, Finnb. 336:

metaph., e-m verðr á., to be trodden upon; hón byggir her í miðri

frændleifð sinni, ok verðr henni því her ekki a., Stj. 613. i Kings iv. 13.

The mod. use of the phrase e-m verðr ú. is to succeed or make progress

in a thing.

a-gildi, n. value of a ewe (XT), Vm. 159, Pm. 40.

a-gildr, adj. of a ewe's value, Grág. i. 502; cp. kúgildi and kugildr.

a-girnast, d and t, dep. to lust after, in a bad sense, with an acc., Fms.

i. 76, 223, Orkn. 38; with an inf., Orkn. 6 old Ed.

a-girnd, f. in old writers always for greed of power or passion

generally: a. ambition, Sks. 113 B, Fms. ix. 460; á. ok ofsi, greed

and insolence, viii. 195, Stj. 143, 145, 146. 0. passion; ágirndar-logi,

Rb. 424; á. blindleiki, bli n d passion (in love), H. E. i. 505, 655 xxx;

thirst for revenge, Sks. 739. -y- since the Reformation it has been

exclusively used of avarice or greed of gain; in old writers the signi-

fication is more general; we, however, find á. fjár, Hom. 68; hann hafði

dregit undir sik Finnskattinn með á., Fms. vii. 129.

a-girndligr, adj. passionate, Sks. 720 B.

a-girni, f.; used as neut., Mar. 91, O. H. L. 22: o. = agirnd, ambi-

tion; mikit á., great ambition, O. H. L. 1. c., Sks. 343. p. cupidity; a.

manna lofs, Hom. 83; á. áts ok drykkju, 53; fjur, 25, 623. 20; á. fjár

ok metnadar, Edda (pref.) 144, 145.

a-gjarn, adj. ambitious; er eruð ágjarnir heima í héraði ok ranglatir,

ambitious and wrongful, Nj. 223, Orkn. 38, 66; a. ok fégjarn, ambitious

and covetous, Fms. xi. 294, Hkr. ii. 146; ú. til rikis, iii. 174; á. til

fjár, covetous, Fms. xi. 440, Orkn. 66: dauntless, fierce, kappar ugjarnir

ok óhræddir, fierce and fearless champions, Fms. x. 179; hógværir í friði

sem lamb, en í úfriði ú. (fierce) sem Icon, viii. 253. The use since the

Reformation is solely that of avaricious, greedy after money.

a-gjarnliga, adv. insolently, Sks. 450 B.

a-gjarnligr, adj. insolent; á. ran, Sks. 336, 509 B, 715.

á-góði, a, m. gain, profit, benefit, D. I. i. 476, Ísl. ii. 432 (freq.)

COMPD: ágóða-hlutr, ar, m. a profitable share, Grug. ii. 359.

a-grip, n. [grípa á, to tou c h], in the phrase, lítill ágripum, small of

size, D. N. iv. 99. p. at present ágrip means a compendium, abridge-

ment, epitome.

á-gæta, tt, to laud, praise highly, Ld. 220, Fms. vi. 71.

á-gœti, n. renown, glory, excellence; göra e-t til ágætis sór, a s a glory t o

himself, Fms. xi. 72, 109; reyna á. e-s, to put one on his trial, 142; þú

hyggr at engu öðru en ákafa einum ok á., o nly bent upon rushing on and

shewing one's prowess, 389; vegr ok á., fame and glory, Fas. i. 140,

Sks. 241. In pl. glorious deeds; mikil á. vóni sögð frá Gunnari, Nj. 41:

in the phrase, göra e-t at ágætum, to laud, praise highly, Fms. viii. 139,

vii. 147: in the proverb, hefir hverr til sins ágætis nokkuð, every one's

fame rests upon some deed of his own, no one gets his fame for naught,

the context implies, a n d thou ha s t done what will make thee famous, Nj.

116. 2. in COMPDS ágœtis- and ágœta- are prefixed to a great

many words, esp. in mod. use, to express something capital, excellent;

ágæta-skjótr, adj. very swift, Fms. vii. 169; agæta-vel, adv. excel-

lently well, Nj. 218: and even to substantives, e. g. ágæta-gripr and

ágætis-gripr, m. a capital thing, Fms. ix. 416, x. 254, Ld. 202;

ágæta-naut, n. a fine ox, Eb. 318; ágœtis-maðr, m. a great man,

Landn. 324, Fms. vii. 102, xi. 329.

á-gætingr, m. a goodly man, O. H. L. 55 (rare).

á-gœtliga, adv. capitally, Fms. i. 136, vi. 307, Boll. 346, Sks. 623.

á-gætligr, adj. excellent, goodly, Fms. ii. 300, x. 223, 231, xi. 396,

Sks. 622, Hom. 132, Ver. 42.

á-gœtr, adj. [v. the words above, from á- intens. and geta -- gat --

gátu, to get and to record; the old etymology in glossaries of the last

century from the Greek âya~ós cannot be admitted], famous, goodly,

excellent; á. maðr um allt land, Nj. 106; á. at afli, Edda 19; ágætir

gimsteinar, precious stones, Fms. i. 15; á. skjöldr, Eg. 705; compar,

mun hann verða ágætari (more famous) en allir þínir fraendr, Fms. i.

256; superl., úgætaztr, Nj. 282, Eg. 311; ágæztr, contr., Edda 5, íb. 14,

Fms. vii. 95, Greg. 53. In the Landn. ' maðr ágætr' is freq. used in a

peculiar sense, viz. a noble man, nearly synonymous to gæðingr in the

Orkneys, or hersir in Norway, e. g. 143, 149, 169, 190, 198, 201, 203,

279, 281, 308, 312; hersir á., 173, etc.; cp. also Kristni S. ch. I.

á-görð, f. gain, profit, -- úvöxtr; til sölu ok á., for sale and profit,

Bs. i. 426.

á-hald, n., prop, laying hand on: 1. used esp. in pl. áhöld =

brawl, fight, Eb. 152, Fas. i. 92; verða á. með mönnum, they came toa

tussle, Sturl. iii. 262, Bs. 1. 635: the phrase, hafa eingi úhöld við e-m, to have

no power of resistance, to have so great odds against one that there is no

chance, Eg. 261: hence comes probably the popular phrase, áhöld eru um