This is page 50 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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50 BAGALL -- BALDRSBBA.

common language, and alien to all Scandin. idioms: it seems prop, to

be used of the branches of a tree (in flower); hár b., the high tree, Vsp.

18; á berki skal þær rista ok á baðmi viðar, Sdm. 11 (referring to the

lim-rúnar). Even used metaph. = gremium, sinus; er þá Véa ok Vilja

| létztu þér Viðris kvæn | báða í baðm um tekið, when thou tookest both

of them into thy arms, embraced them both, Ls. 26; vaxi þér á baðmi

(bosom) barr, Hkv. Hjörv. 16. Cp. hróðrbaðmr (barmr is a bad reading),

Vtkv. 8, a fatal twig.

BAGALL, m. [Lat. baculus] , an episcopal staff, crozier, Fms. i. 233,

iii. 168, Bs. i. 42, Vm. 68.

bagga, að, to hinder, with dat.

BAGGI, a, m. [Engl. bag, baggage; Germ, pack, gepäck], a bag,

pack, bundle, Edda 29, Eg. 218, Fms. ii. 197, Fas. ii. 516.

bagi, a, m. inconvenience; baga-legr, adj. inconvenient.

baglaðr, part. [cp. bagr, begla], broken, maimed, Fas. iii. 195.

bagr, adj. [cp. bágr], awkward, clumsy, clownish, opp. to hagr, q. v.,

Fas. iii. 195: baga, u, f., in mod. usage means a plain common ditty;

böguligr and amböguligr, adj., means awkward.

BAK, n. [A. S. bäc], Lat. tergum, back, Eg. 218, Edda 29, 30, Hkr.

i. 337: in metaph. phrases, bera sök á baki, to be guilty, Gþl. 539;

leggja bleyðiorð á bak e-m, to load, charge one with being a coward. Fas.

ii. 530; hafa mörg ár á baki, to 'carry a weight of years' Ísl. ii. 456: of

horseback, léttr á baki, Sturl. ii. 195; fara á bak, to mount; stíga af baki,

to dismount, Eg. 397, Grág. ii. 95: in other relations, as adv., at hurðar-

baki, behind the door; at húsa-baki, at the back of the houses; að fjalla-baki,

behind the mountains; handar-bak, the back of the hand. 2. á bak or

á baki used as a prep. or as an adv.; á bak (acc.) if denoting motion, á

baki (dat.) if without motion: α. loc. behind, at the back of; á baki

húsunum, Háv. 49, Nj. 28; at baki þeim, at their back, Eg. 91, Nj. 261,

262, 84, Eg. 583; Hrútr kveðst þat ætla, at hans skyldi lítt á bak

at leita, he should not be found in the rear, Ld. 278; berr á baki,

unbacked, helpless, in the proverb, Nj. 265, Grett. 154: metaph., ganga

á bak e-u, orðum, heitum ..., to elude, evade one's pledged word, Fms.

ii. 209, Ísl. ii. 382; göra e-t á baki e-m, in one's absence, behind one's back,

N. G. L. i. 20; á bak aptr ( = aptr á bak), backward; falla; á b. a., Eb.

240, Nj. 9, Eg. 397, Háv. 48 new Ed.; til baks, better til baka, to back,

Sturl. ii. 203; brjóta á bak, prop, to break one's back, Fms. viii. 119;

to break, subdue, and also to make void, annul; brjóta á bak Rómverja,

to 'break the back' of the R., defeat them, 625. 65; Heiðrekr vildi öll rúð

fóður síns á bak brjóta, Fas. i. 528. β. temp. with dat. past, after;

á bak Jólum, after Yule, Fms. viii. 60; á b. Jónsvöku, ix. 7: metaph.,

Héðinn kvaðst eigi hirða hvat er á bak kæmi, H. said he did not care

for what came after, Fas. i. 402; muntú eigi vera mót Njáli, hvat sem

á b. kemr, Nj. 193.

baka, að, [Gr. GREEK, cp. also the Lat. focus; A. S. bacan; Engl. to

bake; Germ. backen.] 1. prop. to bake; b. brauð, N. G. L. i.

349; b. ok sjóða, to bake and cook, Gþl. 376. In Icel. steikja is to

roast; baka, to bake; but in mod. usage steikja may also be used of

baking on embers, opp. to baka, baking in a pan or oven; elda ofn til

brauðs ok b., Hom. 113; b. í ofni, Fas. i. 244; people say in Icel. steikja

köku (on embers), but baka brauð. 2. metaph. and esp. in the

reflex. bakast, to bake, i. e. to warm and rub the body and limbs, at a

large open fire in the evening after day-work; v. bakeldr and bakstreldr;

v. also the classical passages, Grett. ch. 16, 80, Fms. xi. 63, 64 (Jómsv.

ch. 21), Orkn. ch. 34, 89, 105, Hkr. iii. 458. In Icel. the same fire

was made for cooking and warming the body, Ísl. ii. 394, Eb. ch. 54, 55;

hence the phrase, hvárt skal nú búa til seyðis (is a fire to be made for

cooking) ... svá skal þat vera, ok skaltú eigi þurfa heitara at baka, it

shall be hot enough for thee to bake, Nj. 199 (the rendering of Johnsonius

is not quite exact); skaltú eigi beiðast at baka heitara en ek mun

kynda, Eg. 239: used of bathing, bakaðist hann lengi í lauginni, Grett.

ch. 80, MS. Cod. Upsal. This 'baking' the body in the late evening before

going to bed was a great pastime for the old Scandinavians, and seems

to have been used instead of bathing; yet in later times (12th and 13th

centuries) in Icel. at least bathing (v. above) came into use instead of it.

In the whole of Sturl. or Bs. no passage occurs analogous to Grett. l. c. or

Jómsv. S. β. bóndi bakar á báðar kinnr, blushed, Bs. ii. 42; þanneg sem

til bakat er, as things stand, Orkn. 428; bakaði Helgi fótinn, H. baked

the (broken) leg, Bs. i. 425; vide eldr. γ. (mod.) to cause, inflict; b.

e-m öfund, hatr, óvild (always in a bad sense): af-baka means to distort,

pervert. II. to put the back to, e. g. a boat, in floating it, (mod.)

bakari, a, m. a baker, Stj. 200. bakara-meistari, a, m. a master-

baker, Stj. 201.

bak-borði, a, m. (bakborð, m., Jb. 407 A), [Dutch baakbord], the

larboard side of a ship, opp. to stjórnborði, Fb. i. 22, Jb. l. c., Fms.

vii. 12, Orkn. 8.

bak-brjóta, braut, to violate, transgress, B. K. 108.

bak-byrðingar, m. pl. the crew on the larboard side, opp. to stjórn-

byrðingar, Fms. viii. 224.

bak-byrðr, f. a burden to carry on the back, Ísl. ii. 364.

bak-eldr and bakstreldr, m. an evening fire to bake the body and limbs

at (v. baka); sitja við bakelda, Fs. 4, Orkn. 112, 74, Korm. 236, Grett.

91: metaph., bændr skulu eiga ván bakelda, they shall get it hot enough,

Fms. viii. 201; göra e-m illan bakeld, 383, ix. 410. bakelda-hrif,

n. pl. rubbing the back at a b., Grett. l. c. A. As the evening bakeldar

are not mentioned in the Sturl., it may be that bathing had put them out

of use because of the scarcity of fuel.

bak-fall, n. falling backwards, Fas. iii. 569: esp. in pl. in the phrase, róa

bakföllum, to take a long pull with the oars, i. 215: milit. attack from

behind = bakslag, Fms. viii. 115, ix. 405.

bak-ferð, f. mounting on horseback, Grett. 91 A.

bak-ferla, að, [ferill], prop, to step backwards; þat (viz. the word ave)

sýnir öfgað, bakferlað (read backwards) nafnit Eva, 655 xxvii. 18, to

break, annul; b. ofbeldi e-s, Stj. 233; at b. þat allt er Domitianus hafði

boðit, 623. 13; rjúfa ok b., to break and make void, Sturl. i. 171 C.

bak-hlutr, m. the hind part, Stj. 253, Fs. 48.

bak-hold, n. pl. the flesh on the back of cattle, Grett. 91.

bak-hverfask, ð, reflex, to turn one's back upon, abandon, Eg. 20, v. l.

bak-jarl, m., milit. a foe attacking in the rear, Sturl. iii. 66, Karl. 164.

bakki, a, m. [Engl. and Germ, bank], a bank of a river, water, chasm, etc.;

árbakki, sjávarbakki, marbakki, flæðarbakki, Gísl. 54; síkisbakki, gjár-

bakki; út eptir áinni ef Hákon stæði á bakkanum, Fms. vi. 282, ix. 405,

Nj. 158, 224: Tempsar b., banks of the Thames, Fms. v. (in a verse). 2.

an eminence, ridge, bank; gengu þeir á land ok kómu undir bakka einn,

Dropl. 5; hann settist undir b. í hrísrunni, Bjarn. 15; cp. skotbakki, butts

on which the target is placed; setja spán í bakka, to put up a target, Fms.

ii. 271. β. heavy clouds in the horizon. 3. [ = bak], the back of

a knife, sword, or the like, opp. to edge; blað skilr bakka ok egg, Jónas,

Grett. 110 new Ed. COMPDS: bakka-fullr, adj. full to the bank,

brim-full; bera í b. lækinn, a proverb, cp. Lat. ligna in silvam ferre,

and Engl. to carry coals to Newcastle. bakka-kólfr, m., prob. a

bird-bolt, thick arrow without a point, to be shot from a cross-bow, Fms.

iii. 18. bakka-stokkar, m. pl. the stocks on which a ship is built,

Gþl. 80, Hkr. i. 293.

bak-klæði, n. tapestry, Hkr. iii. 437.

bak-lengja, u, f. the dark stripe along the back of cattle, Grett. 91,

Eg. 149, v. l.

bak-máligr (and bakmáll), adj. backbiting, Hom. 34, 656 B. 1.

bak-mælgi, f. and bakmæli, n. backbiting, Hom. 86; liable to the

lesser outlawry, Grág. ii. 145.

bak-rauf, f. anus, a cognom., Fms. vii. 21.

bak-sárr, adj. a horse with a sore back, Lv. 58.

bak-sig, n., medic, exania, Fél. ix.

bak-skiki, a, m. a back flap, a cognom., Bjarn. 12.

bak-skyrta, u, f. the back flap of a skirt, Fms. vii. 21.

bak-slag, n. a back-stroke, attack in rear, Fms. viii. 399.

bak-sletta, u, f. and bakslettr, m., Al. 27, 44; acc. pl. bakslettu,

90: milit. an attack in rear, Fms. viii. 319, ix. 357: drawback, at rétta

þann bakslett, Al. l. c.

bak-spyrna, d, to spurn or kick against; N. T. of 1540 (Acts ix. 5)

GREEK is rendered by b. móti broddunum.

bak-stakkr, m. the back part of a cloak. Fas. ii. 343.

bakstr, rs, m. baking, Fms. ix. 530: baked bread, pund b., B. K. 89,

esp. wafer, Bs. ii. 15: a poultice, fomentation, i. 786: warming, heating,

ii. 10. COMPDS: bakstr-brauð, n. baked bread, B. K. 89. bakstr-

buðkr, m. a box in which wafers were kept, Pm. 5. bakstr-eldr,

v. bakeldr. bakstr-hús, n. a bake-house, Fms. ix. 531. bakstr-

járn, n. an iron plate for baking sacramental wafers, Vm. 15, 37.

bakstr-kona, u, f. a female baker, N. G. L. iii. 15. bakstr-munn-

laug, f. a vessel in which wafers were kept, Dipl. iii. 4. bakstr-

sveinn, m. a baker boy, N. G. L. iii. 15.

bak-verkr, m., medic, a pain in the back, lumbago, Nj. 130, Fél. ix.

bak-verpast, ð and t, dep., b. við e-m, to turn the back to, set at defi-

ance, Stj. 362, 431, 449, Eg. 20.

bak-þúfa, u, f. a horse block.

BAL, n. vagina, in poems of the 15th century.

bala, d and að, to drudge, live hard, (cant word.)

baldakin, and bad forms baldrsskinn (the skin of Balder!) and

baldskin [from Baldak, i. e. Bagdad], a baldaquin, canopy, Bs. i. 713,

803, Sturl. iii. 306, Fms. x. 87, Dipl. v. 18, Vm. 52, 97, 117, Ám. 44,

Hb. 544, 22. COMPDS: baldrskinns-hökull, m., literally a surplice

of b., Ám. 87. baldrskinns-kápa, u, f. a cape of b., Ám. 15.

baldinn, adj. [A. S. beald], untractable, unruly, Grett. 90 A, Fms. xi.

445; cp. bellinn, ballr, ofbeldi.

BALDR, rs, m. [A. S. baldor. princeps, seems to be a different root from

the Goth. balþs, A. S. bald, which answers to the Icel. ball- or bald- with-

out, r], prop. = Lat. princeps, the best, foremost; in compds as mann-baldr,

her-baldr, fólk-baldr. β. meton. the god Balder, because of his noble

disposition, Edda. Baldrs-bra, f. Balder's eye-brow, botan. cotida

foetida, Ivar Aasen ballebraa and baldurbraa, pyrethrum inodorum,

Edda 15; the B. is there called the fairest and whitest of all flowers (allra

grasa hvítast). Perhaps the eye-bright or euphrasy.