This is page 73 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 24 Aug 2019. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
borð-sálmr, m. a 'board-psalm,' grace, Bb. 1. 15 (Mark xiv. 26).
borð-siðir, m. pl. rules for behaviour at table.
borð-skutill, m. a small movable table, Bs. i. 537, Mar.
borð-stokkr, m. the bulwarks of a ship, Grett. 125.
borð-stóll, m. a chair used at table, D. N.
borð-sveinn, m. a butler, waiter, Mag. 66; cp. skutilsveinn.
borð-tafl, n. a chess-board, Sturl. ii. 184, v.l.
borð-vegr, m. = borðstokkr, Bs. ii. 50, 179, Mar.
borð-vers, m. = borðsálmr, N. G. L. i. 406.
borð-viðr, m. boards, planks, Fms. viii. 374, D. N.
borð-þak, n. a 'thatch' or covering of planks, Hkr. ii. 11.
borð-þekja, þakti, to cover with planks, Fms. v. 331.
borð-þili, n. the sides of a ship, Gkv. 1. 7.
BORG, ar, f., pl. ir, [Ulf. baurgs = GREEK, and once Nehem. vii. 2 = arx, castellum; A. S. burg, burh, byrig, = urbs and arx; Engl. borough and burgh; O. H. G. puruc, purc; late Lat. burgus; Ital. borgo; Fr. bourg; cp. Gr. GREEK; the radical sense appears in byrgja, to enclose; cp. also berg, a hill, and bjarga, to save, defend. Borg thus partly answers to town (properly an enclosure); and also includes the notion of Lat. arx, Gr. GREEK, a castle. Old towns were usually built around a hill, which was specially a burg; the name is very freq. in old Teut. names of towns.] I. a small dome-shaped hill, hence the Icel. names of farms built near to such hills, v. Landn. (Gl.) Hel. once uses the word in this sense, 81; v. the Glossary of Schmeller; brann þá Borgarhraun, þar var bærinn sem nú er borgin (viz. the volcanic hill Eld-borg), Landn. 78; göngum upp á borgina (the hill) ok tölum þar, Ísl. ii. 216; er borgin er við kend, Landn. 127; Borgar-holt, -hraun, -dalr, -höfn, -fjörðr, -lækr, -sandr; Arnarbælis-borg, Eld-borg (above) in the west of Icel. It may be questioned, whether those names are derived simply from the hill on which they stand (berg, bjarg), or whether such hills took their name from old fortifications built upon them: the latter is more likely, but no information is on record, and at present 'borg' only conveys the notion of a 'hill;' cp. hólar, borgir og hæðir, all synonymous, Núm. 2. 99. II. a wall, fortification, castle; en fyrir innan á jörðunni görðu þeir borg (wall) umhverfis fyrir ófriði jötna ... ok kölluðu þá borg Miðgarð, Edda 6; cp. also the tale of the giant, 25, 26; borg Ása, Vsp. 28; þeir höfðu gört steinvegg fyrir framan hellismunnann, ok höfðu sér þat allt fyrir borg (shelter, fortification), Fms. vii. 81; hann let göra b. á sunnanverðu Morhæfi (Murrey), Orkn. 10, 310, 312, 396, Fms. i. 124, xi. 393, Eg. 160; the famous Moussaburg in Shetland, cp. Orkn. 398. III. a city, esp. a great one, as London, Hkr. ii. 10; Lisbon, iii. 234; York, 156; Dublin, Nj. 274; Constantinople, Fms. vii. 94; Nineveh, Sks. 592; Zion, Hom. 107, etc. This sense of the word, however, is borrowed from the South-Teut. or Engl. In Scandin. unfortified towns have -bæ or -by as a suffix; and the termin. -by marks towns founded by the Danes in North. E. COMPDS: borgar-armr, m. the arm, wing of a fort, Fms. v. 280. borgar-greifi, a, m. a borough-reeve, bur-grave (Engl.), Stj. borgar-görð, f. the building of a fort, Edda 26, Fms. viii. 180. borgar-hlið, n. the gate of a fort, Edda 26, Stj. 350, Hkr. i. 217, Ver. 25. borgar-hreysi, n. the ruins of a fort, Karl. 101. borgar-klettr, m. a rock on which a fort is built, Fms. viii. 284. borgar-kona, u, f. a townswoman, Stj. 426. borgar-lið, n. a garrison, Ver. 96. borgar-lím, n. lime for building a fort, Bret. 106. borgar-lýðr, m. townsfolk, Fms. viii. 416, v.l. borgar-maðr, m. a townsman, citizen, Eg. 244, Fms. i. 103, Sks. 649, mostly in pl., Lat. concivis is rendered by b., Hom. 17. borgar-múgr, m. the mob of a city, Fas. i. 4. borgar-múrr, m. a city-wall, Stj. 352. borgar-siðr, m. city-manners, urbanity, Clem. 27. borgar-smíð, f. the building of a town (fort), Stj., cp. Edda 28. borgar-staðr, m. the site of a town, Edda 152. borgar-veggr, m. the wall of a fort (town), Orkn. 376, Fms. i. 104, Hkr. i. 217, Ver. 24. Borgar-þing, n. the fourth political subdivision (þing) of Norway, founded by St. Olave, cp. O. H. L. 23, and Munch's Geography of Norway. borga-skipan, f. a (geographical) list of cities, Symb. 32.
borga, að, [Engl. to borrow and bargain; Germ. borgen; related to byrgja and bjarga; O. H. G. porgen only means parcere, spondere, not mutuare. In Icel. the word is of foreign origin; the indigenous expressions are, lána, ljá, to lend; gjalda, to pay; selja, veðja, to bail, etc.; the word only occurs in later and theol. writers] :-- to bail; vil ek b. fyrir Árna biskup með mínum peningum, Bs. i. 770 (thrice): now obsolete in this sense. 2. to pay, as in Matth. xviii. 25; but in old writers this sense hardly occurs.
borgan, borgun, f. bail, security, Bs. i. 749, 770, Dipl. v. 14, Stj. COMPD: borganar-maðr, m. a bailsman, Bs. i. 770, Jb. 112, Band. 33 new Ed.
borgari, a, m. [for. word; Germ. bürger; Dan. borger], a citizen, N. G. L. iii. 144; rare and hardly before A.D. 1280. COMPD: borgara-réttr, m. civic rights, id.
borg-firzkr, adj. one from the district Borgarfjörðr, Landn.
borg-hlið, f. = borgarhlið, Edda 30, Bret. 94.
borgin-móði, a, m., poët name of the raven, bold of mood, Lex. Poët.
borgin-orðr, adj. cautious in words, reticent, reserved ( = orðvarr), Fms. vi. 208: at present b. and borgin-mannligr, adj., mean vainglorious, braggart.
borr, m. (com. bor-járn, n.), a borer; stórviðar-borr, skipa-borr, Od. ix. 384: metaph. the pipe of a marrow-bone, Eg. (in a verse). II. a less correct form of börr, q.v.
BOSSI, a, m. [Swed. buss, cp. Germ. bursch], a boy, fellow; occurs once in the Jomsv. S., Fms. xi. (in a verse), from A.D. 994. It is still in use in Icel. in the compd word hvata-buss, a boyish fellow who is always in a bustle; hence also hvatabuss-legr, adj. hurried.
BOTN, m. [Lat. fundus; A. S. botm; Engl. bottom; Hel. bodm; Germ. boden; Swed. batten; Dan. bund] :-- the bottom; of a vessel, tunnu-botn, kistu-botn, etc., Nj. 133, Sturl. ii. 107, Hkr. ii. 245: the bottom of other things, e.g. of a haycock, Eb. 324; marar-botn, the bottom of the sea. β. the head of a bay, firth, lake, dale, or the like; fjarðar-botn, vatns-botn, vágs-botn, dals-botn: Botn is a local name in Icel., Fms. xi. 125: in pl. even = bays, nú er at segja hvat móts gengr við Grænaland ór botnum þeim er fyrir eru nefndir, MS. A. M. 294; Hafs-botnar, Trolla-botnar, the Polar Sea between Greenland and Norway; the ancients fancied that these bays were the abode of the giants.
botn-hola, u, f. a pit; in the phrase, at vera kominn í botnholu, to have got into a hole, i.e. into a scrape, metaphor from fox-hunting, Sturl. ii. 62, Fms. viii. 186.
bóand-, v. búand-.
BÓFI, a, m. [Germ. bube, büberl, spitzbube, v. Grimm], a knave, rogue, in Icel. only in a bad sense; cp. the rhyming phrase, þjófar og bófar, thieves and knaves; no reference from old writers is on record (though it is common enough at the present day), except that in Eb. it is used as a nickname, Freysteinn Bófi; in Swed. it occurs as a pr. name, Baut. 1478, 1483.
bóg-limir, m. pl., poët. = arms, Lex. Poët.
bóg-lína, u, f. bow-line, Edda (Gl.)
BÓGR, m., old acc. pl. bógu, Nj. 95, Fms. v. 163, etc.: mod. bóga; old dat. bægi, Hlt., Vkv. 31, Stj. 249, [A. S. bôg; Dan. boug; Engl. bow of a ship; and in Old Engl. bowres are the muscles of the shoulder] :-- the shoulder of an animal, (armr of a man); á hinum hægra bæginum, Stj. 249; ek hjó varginn í sundr fyrir aptan bóguna, Nj. l.c., Fms. l.c.; lær uxans tvau ok báða bógana, the shoulder-piece of the ox (the Ob. bóguna), Edda 45; cp. bœgsli or bæxli, the shoulder of a whale or dragon, v. Lex. Poët. :-- the bow of a ship, v. bóglína above. 2. mod. metaph. of the side of a person or thing; á hinn, þann bóginn, on this, on that side; á báða bóga, on both sides, etc.
BÓK, ar, f. [Lat. f&a-long;gus; Gr. GREEK; A. S. bôc; Engl. beech; Germ. buche (fem.); Swed. bok; Dan. böge, etc.] :-- a beech, Edda (Gl.), Lex. Poët. Owing to the absence of trees in Icel., the word rarely occurs; moreover the collect. beyki, n., is more freq.
BÓK, gen. bókar, but also in old writers bækr, pl. bækr, [Ulf. renders by bôca the Gr. GREEK, GREEK, GREEK, etc.; A. S. bôc; Engl. book; Germ. buch (neut.); Swed. bok; Dan. bog: the identity between bók f&a-long;gus and bók liber seems certain; the gender is in all Scandinavian idioms the same; modern German has made a distinction in using buche fem., buch neut.; both are akin to the Gr.-Lat. f&a-long;gus, GREEK; cp. also the analogy with Gr. GREEK and Lat. liber (book and bark): bók-stafr also properly means a beech-twig, and then a letter. In old times, before the invention of parchment, the bark of trees was used for writing on]: -- a book. I. the earliest notion, however, of a 'book' in Scandin. is that of a precious stuff, a textile fabric with figures, or perhaps characters, woven in it; it occurs three or four times in old poems in this sense; bók ok blæja, bjartar váðir, Skv. 3. 47; bækr (bekr) þínar enar bláhvítu ofnar völundum (of bed-sheets?), Hðm. 7, Gh. 4: bók-rúnar, Sdm. 19, may refer to this; or is it = runes engraven on beech-wood? II. a book in the proper sense. Icel. say, rita and setja saman bók (sögu), to write and compose a book (story); old writers prefer saying, rita 'á' bók (dat. or acc.) instead of 'í,' perhaps bearing in mind that the earliest writings were on scrolls, or even on stones or wooden slabs -- barbara fraxineis pingatur runa tabellis; they also prefer to use the plur. instead of sing. without regard to volumes (as in Engl. writings); það finst ritað á bókum, Fms. i. 157; á bókum Ara prests hins Fróða, iii. 106; historia ecclesiarum á tveim (sjau) bókum, Dipl. v. 18; á bókum er sagt, Landn. (pref.); á bókum Enskum, id.; á bók þessi (acc.) lét ek rita fornar frásagnir, Hkr. (pref.); but svá segir í bók þeirri sem Edda heitir, Skálda 222; þá hluti sem frammi standa í bók þessi, 159; svá sem hann (viz. Ari) hefir sjálfr ritað í sínum bókum, Ó. H. 188; þeir er Styrmir reiknar í sinni bók, Fb. ii. 68; hér fyrr í bókinni. III. a book, i.e. a story, history (Saga), since in Icel. histories were the favourite books; cp. Íslendinga-bók, Konunga-bók, bók Styrmis; Landnáma-bók; bækr þær er Snorri setti saman, Sturl. ii. 123. It is used of the Gospel in the law phrases, sem búar virða við bók, vinna eið at bók (bókar-eiðr), of a verdict given or an oath taken by laying the hand upon the Gospel, Grág. (Þ. Þ.) several times; as the Engl. phrase 'to swear on the book' is common; of a code (of law) = Jóns-bók, after A.D. 1272 or 1281,