This is page 74 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 14 Oct 2017. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.

74 BÓKAGULL -- BÓNDAHLUTR.

Bs. i. 720, 723, vide Ann. those years; hafa bók even means to hold the book, i.e. to hold the office of lögmaðr (law-man, judge); Þórðr Narfa son hafði bók, Ann. (Hol.) A.D. 1304; á bókarinnar vegna, on the part of the book, i.e. the law, D. N. ii. 492. Mod. phrases: skrifa, rita, semja bók, to write it; lesa í bók, to read it; but syngja á bók, to sing from a book; fletta bók, to turn over the leaves; líta, blaða, í bók, to peruse, look into a book (hann lítr aldrei í bók, he never looks into a book); lesa bók ofan í kjölinn, to read a book carefully, v. lesa bók spjaldanna í milli, to read it from end to end :-- sálma-bók, flokka-bók, a hymn-book; kvæða-bók, ljóða-bók, a book of poems; sögu-bók, of histories; lög-bók, of laws; Guðs orða-bók, God's word-book, a religious book :-- also of MSS., Flateyjar-bók (Cod. Flateyensis), Orms-bók, Uppsala-bók, Konungs-bók, Staðarfells-bók, Skálholts-bók, etc. :-- phrases relating to books: það er allt á eina bókina lært, all learnt from the same book, i.e. all of one piece (esp. denoting one-sidedness); blindr er bóklauss maðr, blind is a bookless man; læra utan-bókar, to learn without book, by heart; bókvit, 'bookwit,' knowledge got from books; mannvit, mother-wit, common sense; allra manna vit er minna en þeirra er af bókum taka mannvit sitt, Sks. 22 :-- also, setja e-n til bækr, to set one to book, i.e. put one to school in order to make him priest; berja e-n til bækr, to thrash one to the book, i.e. into learning, Bs. i; a book has spjöld, boards; kjöl, keel, back; snið, cut; brot, size. COMPDS: bóka-gull, n. gold for gilding books, Vm. 117. bóka-görð, f. the transcription (or writing) of books, Bs. i. 168. bóka-kista, u, f. a book-box, Bs. i. 423, D. I. i. 402, Vm. 71. bóka-lectari, a, m. a reading-desk, lectern, Vm. 91. bóka-list, f. book-lore, learning, scholarship, Bs. i. 127. bókar-blað, n. a leaf of a book, Mar. bókar-bót, f. an appendix to a book, 1812. 72. bókar-eiðr, m. an oath upon the Gospel, Dipl. ii. 2. bókar-eiðstafr, m. the wording of a b., D. N. bókar-lag, n. a lawful prize fixed in the code, Dipl. v. 5. bókar-skeyting, f. a written deed, Gþl. 225. bókar-skrá, f. an old scroll, Am. 100. bókar-stóll, m. a reading-desk, Vm. 22, 9. bókar-tak, n. the touching the Gospel in taking an oath, D. N. bókar-vitni, n. witness upon the Gospel, Gþl. 400, Jb. 276, D. N. bóka-skápr, m. book-shelves, (mod.) bóka-steinn, m. paint to illuminate MSS., Bs. i. 341. bóka-stokkr, m. a book-case, Pm. 112.

bóka, að, to affirm by oath on the book (Gospel), Gþl. 151; bókaðr eiðr, vitni, = bókareiðr, D. N. i. 81, ii. 230: mod. to record, register.

bók-fell, n. [A. S. bôcfell], 'book-skin,' parchment, vellum, Skálda 165, Vm. 12, Dipl. v. 18: an A. S. word, as writing materials were imported from abroad.

bók-fróðr, adj. book-wise, learned, Barl. 129.

bók-fræði, f. book-knowledge, Stj. 46, Bs. i. 138, Barl. 12.

bók-hlaða, u, f. a library, (mod.)

bók-lauss, adj. (bók-leysi, n.), book-less, void of learning, Bs. ii. 125, Mar. 145; = utanbókar, Clem. 60.

bók-lest, f. [lesa], a legend of the saints, N. G. L. i. 347.

bók-ligr, adi. bookish, literary, Bs. i. 680.

bók-list, f. book-lore, learning, Stj. 84, Sks. 16.

bók-ljóst, n. adj., so bright that one cannot see to read, Ann. 1341.

bók-lærðr, part. book-learned, Hom. 160: the clergy, Grág. ii. 165.

bók-mál, n. the book language, learned language, i.e. Latin, Hom. 138: en at bókmáli (in Latin) verða öll hundruð tíræð, Sks. 57, Rb. 54, 516; Heilagt b., the Holy Scriptures, Str.; blót þau sem fyrirboðin eru at bókmáli, i.e. in the canon of the church, N. G. L. i. 351.

bók-mánuðr, m. a calendar month, Clem. 22.

bók-nám, n. (bók-næmi, Bs. i. 793), book-training, learning; setja e-n til b., Bs. i. 793; vera at b., to be a-reading, opp. to at riti, a-writing, 91, 265.

bók-rúnar, v. bók.

bók-saga, u, f. a written narrative; hlýða bók sögum, Bs. i. 108.

bók-setja, setti, to commit to writing, Sks. 6.

bók-skygn, adj. sharp-sighted at reading a book, Sturl. ii. 185.

bók-speki, f. book-wisdom, Greg. 17.

bók-stafr, m. [Hel. bôcstabo; A. S. bócstæv; Germ. buchstabe], a letter of the alphabet, Skálda 168, Hom. 1.

bók-sögn, f. = bóksaga, Stj. 6.

bók-tal, n. a 'book-tale,' written computation, Rb. 4.

bók-vit, n. 'book-wit,' learning, erudition, Bs. i. 793, Acts xxvi. 24.

bók-víss, adj. 'book-wise,' a scholar, Landn. 13, Bs. i. 65. (a cognom.)

BÓL, n. [A. S. botl and bolt, byld, = aedes, mansio; cp. bytlian = aedificare; Engl. to build. In Scandin. contracted in the same way as nál for nadal: böl and böll are very freq. in Dan. local names, and even mark the line of Scandin. settlements] :-- 'built,' i.e. reclaimed and cultivated land, a farm, abode, esp. in Norway, where ból answers to Icel. jörð, Dan. gård; the value of the Norse farms is denoted by merkr-ból, eyris-ból, or the like; taka bóli, to take a farm, Gþl. 328, 354. In Icel. this sense is almost obsolete, and only remains in such words as, ból-staðr, ból-festa; in local names as, Hörðu-ból, Sæ-ból, Lauga-ból, Ból-staðr, Breiðaból-staðr; in such phrases as, á bygðu bóli (opp. to wilderness), hvergi á bygðu bóli, i.e. nowhere, nowhere among men; and in a few law passages, Grág. ii. 279, Fms. x. 153, Otherwise, in Icel. ból and bæli denote the lair or lying place of beasts or cattle; ból and kvía-ból, the place where sheep and cows are penned; bæla fé, to pen sheep during the night. β. a den, Eg. 41, Fas. iii. 345, cp. Edda 74 (the lair of a serpent); tóku sumir heyhjálma nokkura ok görðu sér af ból, a bed of hay, Fms. vii. 296; liggja í bólinn, to lie a-bed, of a lazy fellow; cp. bæli.

BÓLA, u, f. a blain, blister (cp. Engl. boil), Stj. 272, Mar. 655 xxxii. 2. small pox, Ann. 1349: also bólna-sótt, f., Ann. 1310, 1347.

bóla, að, impers., b. á e-u, to be just visible.

BÓLA, u, f. the boss on a shield, a for. word, perhaps the Lat. bulla, Valla L. 213.

ból-festa, u, f. abode, Gþl. 354: in the phrase, taka sér b., to abide.

bólginn, part, of a lost strong verb, swoln, Fas. iii. 307; b. sem naut, Bs. 1. 644: metaph. swollen with anger, reiði b., b. ilsku, Mar.; so, b. af retði, Fas. iii. 630; cp. bylgja, belgr.

bólgna, að, [Engl. 'boulne,' Levins Manipul.], to 'boulne,' grow swollen, Mar.: metaph., 655 xi. 2.

ból-göltr, m. a pig kept in the homestead, Nj. 109, v.l.

ból-skapr, m. household, D. N. (Fr.)

ból-staðr, m. a homestead; hon á þar bólstaði mikla, Edda, where Ed. A.D. 1848 has bústaði, which is a more household Icel. word; hálfan b., half the farm, Grág. i. 396, ii. 222 A. COMPD: bólstaðar-görð, f. the building a homestead, Eg. 130.

BÓLSTR, rs, [A. S. bolster; Germ, polster], a bolster, N. G. L. i. 351, 362, Am. 6, Gkv. 1. 15: rare and poët., metaph. in pl. piles of clouds, Bjarni 59; also ský-bólstrar.

BÓN, f. [A. S. bene; Engl. boon, in Chaucer bone], a petition, Fas. i. 408, Ann. 1418; cp. bæn. COMPDS: bónar-maðr, m. a beggarman, H. E. ii. 585. bóna-vetr, m. begging winter, Ann. l.c.

BÓNDI, a, in.: older form búandi, or even bóandi, pl. búendr or bóendr; gen. búanda, bóanda; dat. buöndum, bóöndum, Edda 28, Grág. i. 370, 371. Ó. H. 203, 209-211, 215, Nj. 14, 220; búanda (gen. pl.), 211, 212, 215-217, 220; búöndum, 219; bóandi, Grág. i. 114, 157, 187, 377, Nj. 52; but the common Icel. form is bóndi, pl. bændr; gen. dat. pl. in old writers either bónda, bóndum, or as at present keeping the æ throughout all plur. cases (bænda, (gen.) bændum): properly a part. act. from búa (turned into a noun subst., cp. frændi, fjándi), A. S. buan; Germ, bauer, and therefore originally a tiller of the ground, husbandman, but it always involved the sense of ownership, and included all owners of land (or bú, q.v.). from the petty freeholder to the franklin, and esp. the class represented by the yeoman of England generally or the statesman of Westmoreland and Cumberland: hence it came to mean the master of the house, A. S. bond and hûsbond, Engl. husband. I. a husbandman. The law distinguishes between a grið-maðr a labourer, búðsetu-maðr a cottager, and a búandi or bóndi a man who has land and stock. In the Icel. Commonwealth only the b. (but neither cottager or labourer) could act as judge or neighbour who gave witness in acquittal of a culprit (cp. þingheyjandi); the griðmaðr could only partly be admitted to the tylptarkviðr, not to the búakviðr, Grág. i. 35, 114; ek ryð þessa tvá menn ór kviðburðinum fyrir þá sök, at þeir eru búðsetu-menn en eigi bændr, Nj. 236; cp. l.c. below, where the distinction between both is defined. The Norse law, on the other hand, distinguishes between hersir or lendir menu (barons) and búandi, cp. the interesting passage Fms. vi. 279 (verðr mér þá lends manns nafn ekki at virðingu; nú vil ek heldr heita bóndi sem ek á ætt til); the Norse hauldr- or óðals-bóndi nearly answers to the Engl. 'yeoman.' In the more despotic Norway and Denmark, as in continental Europe, 'bóndi' became a word of contempt, denoting the common, low people, opp. to the king and his 'men' (hirð), the royal officers, etc.; just as the Engl. boor degenerated from A. S. gebur, Germ, bauer, Dutch boer; and in mod. Dan. bönder means plebs, a boor; such is the use of bóndi in the Fms., esp. Sverr. S. and Hák. S. In the Icel. Commonwealth the word has a good sense, and is often used of the foremost men -- Sighvatr bóndi, Sturl. ii. 78; Rafn bóndi (i.e. Sveinbjarnarsson), Bs. i. Rafn. S. several times; Rútr talaði þá til Marðar, hugsa þú svá um bóndi (Mord Gigja), Nj. 3; optar hefir þú glaðari verit, búndi, en nú, 174 (of Flosi); Njáll bóndi, id.; Þorsteinn bóndi, Illugi bóndi, Gunnl. S. Ísl. ii; Björn bóndi, Safn i. 657; Björn bóndi Einarsson (Jórsalafari), Ann. 1393; Ari bóndi, Daði bóndi, Bs. ii. 474, 505; it is only opp. to the clerks (clergy) or knights, etc. This notion of the word (a franklin) still prevails in the mind of Icelanders. 2. a husband, A. S. hûsbond; eigi var skegglauss Þorvaldr bóandi þinn, Nj. 52, Grág. i. 371, 377, Fms. i. 149; hjá hvílu búanda þíns, Nj. 14. [The learned Icel. clergyman Eyjulf on Vellir (died A.D. 1747) has written a short essay upoii the word bóndi, Icel. MSS. Bodl. no. 71.] COMPDS: -- (in mod. use always bænda- if pl., bónda- if sing.) -- bónda-bani, a, m. a slayer of a bóndi, Fms. vi. 104. bónda-ból, n. (bónda-bær, m.), a farm, Grett. 96 A. bónda-dóttir, f. a bóndi's daughter, Eg. 24, Snót 18. bónda-eiðr, m. a bundi's oath, Gþl. 67. bónda-far, n. a bóndi's ferry-boat, Hkr. ii. 292. bónda-fé, n. a provincial fund, Gþl. 11. bónda-fólk, n. a class of bændr, Fms. vii. 293. bónda-fylking (búanda-), f. a host of bændr, Fms. viii. 126. bónda-herr, m. an army of bændr, Fms. i. 162. bónda-hlutr. m. = bóndatíund.