This is page 76 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.

Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.

This page was generated on 13 Mar 2021. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.

The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.


Hkv. Hjörv. 32, Ragn. S. Fas. i. 345. It is likely that the b. was mostly used at funeral banquets, though the passages in the Ragn. and Hervar. S. (cp. also Hænsaþ. S. ch. 12) seem to imply its use at other festivals, as weddings; cp. also the description of the funeral banquet, Hkr. i. 231, where 'minni hans' (the toast of the dead king) answers to bragarfull; cp. also the funeral banquet recorded in Jómsvik. S., where the Danish king Sweyn made the vow 'at bragarfulli' to conquer England within three winters. This is said to have been the prelude to the great Danish invasion A.D. 994, Fagrsk. 44, and Hkr. to l.c. The best MSS. prefer the reading bragar- (from bragr, princeps), not braga-. II. nearly like Lat. mos, a fashion, habit of life, in compds as, bæjar-bragr, heimilis-bragr, híbýla-bragr, house life; sveitar-bragr, country life; bónda-bragr, yeoman life; héraðs-bragr, lands-bragr, etc. Icel. say good or bad bæjarbragr, Bb. I. 15. III. poetry; gefr hann (viz. Odin) brag skáldum, Hdl. 5, Edda 17: in mod. usage chiefly melody or metre. COMPDS: bragar-bót, f. a sort of metre, Edda 130: mod. palinode. bragar-fræði, f. prosody, Icel. Choral Book (1860), pref. 7. bragar-laun, n. pl. a gift for a poem dedicated to a king or great person, Eg. 318, Ísl. ii. 223, 230 (Gunnl. S.), etc. bragar-mál, n. pl. poetical diction, Edda 134; of using obsolete poët. forms, Skálda 189.

BRAK, n. [Ulf. brakja = GREEK; A. S. and Hel. ge-bræc; cp. Lat. fragor], a creaking noise, Hkr. iii. 139, Bárð. 160, Fms. ii. 100.

braka, að, [cp. Ulf. brikan = GREEK; A. S. brecan; Engl. to break; Lat. frangere] :-- to creak, of timber, Hom. 155, Fs. 132, Gísl. 31, Fas. ii. 76.

brakan, f. a creaking, Fms. iv. 57.

BRAKUN, m. [Engl. word], a broker, Fms. v. 183; O. H. L. 56 reads brakkarnir.

BRALLA, að, to trick, job; hvat er það sem börn ei b., Jón. Þorl.

BRAML, n. (bramla, að), a crash, Safn i. 93, Ísl. Árb. v. ch. 128.

BRANA, u, f. a freq. name of a cow, [brana = juvenca, cited by Du Cange from old Spanish Latin deeds; it probably came into Spain with the Goths.] brönu-grös, n. pl., botan. Satyrium Albidum; in Icel. lore this flower plays the same part as the German alraun or English mandrake; the b. are also called 'Friggjar-gras' (Frigg = Freyja, the goddess of love), and 'elsku-gras,' flower of love, as it is thought to create love between man and woman, Ísl. Þjóðs. i. 648. Gen. xxx. 14.

branda, u, f. a little trout: the Manks call the salmon braddan.

brand-erfð, f. a Norse law term, originating from the heathen age when dead bodies were still burnt, vide arfsal, a sort of clientela, giving life-long support to a man; 'til brands eðr báls,' i.e. ad urnam, and inheriting him when dead; defined N. G. L. i. 50.

brand-gás, f. anas tadorna, Edda (Gl.)

brand-krossóttr, adj. brindled-brown with a white cross on the forebead (of an ox), Brand. 59; cp. bröndóttr, a brindled ox.

BRANDR, m. I. [cp. brenna, to burn; A. S. brand (rare)], a brand, firebrand; even used synonymous with 'hearth,' as in the Old Engl. saying, 'este (dear) buith (are) oun brondes,' E. Engl. Specimens; b. af brandi brenn, Hm. 56; at bröndum, at the fire-side, 2, Nj. 195, 201; hvarfa ek blindr of branda, id., Eg. 759; cp. eldi-brandr. 2. [cp. Dan. brand, Germ, brand], a flame; til brands, ad urnam, N. G. L. i. 50 (rare); surtar-brandr, jet; v. brand-erfð. II. [A. S. brand, Beow. verse 1454; Scot. brand = ensis; cp. to brandish], the blade of a sword; brast þat (viz. the sword) undir hjaltinu, ok fór b. grenjandi niðr í ána, Fas. ii. 484, Korm. 82, Eb. 238, Fms. i. 17, Bs. ii. 12; víga-brandr, a war-brand, a meteor. III. a freq. pr. name of a man, Brand.

B. On ships, the raised prow and poop, ship's beak, (svíri and brandr seem to be used synonymously, Konr. S. l.c.); fellr brattr breki bröndum hærri, the waves rise high above the 'brandar,' Skv. 2. 17; brandar af knerri (a b. on a merchant-ship), Grett. 90 new Ed., Fms. ix. 304; hann tók um skipstafninn; en menn hans tóku af hendr hans, því at bráð var eigi af brandinum (sing. of the 'high prow' of a ship), viii. 217; leiddist mér fyrir Þórsbjörgum, er brandarnir á skipum Bagla stóðu í augu mér, 372, 247; gyltir brandar ok höfuð, Konr., where some MSS. 'höfuð ok svirar.' 2. ships' beaks used as ornaments over the chief door of dwellings, always in pl.; af knerri þeim eru brandar veðrspáir fyrir dyrum, before (above?) the door, Landn. 231, cp. Grett. 116, where it can be seen that the b. were two, one at each side of the door; hann sá fatahrúgu á bröndum, heaps of clothes on the b., 179; b. ákafliga háfir fyrir höllinni svá at þeir gnæfðu yfir bust hennar (b. exceeding high over the door so that they rose above the gable), gyltir vóru knappar á ofanverðum bröndunum, Konr. S.: these doors are hence called branda-dyrr, Sturl. ii. 106, iii. 200, 218.

brand-reið, f. [A. S. brandreda], a grate, Stj. 310, 315, Exod. xxx. 3, xxxvii. 26, Mar. 50; steikja á b., to roast on a grate, Mar. (Fr.)

brand-skjöldóttr, adj. of cattle, brindled, red and white spotted.

brand-stokkr, m. a dub. GREEK a high trunk of a tree in the middle of the hall of the mythical king Völsung, Fas. 1. 119; Vr. 142 reads botstokk.

branga, u, f. an GREEK and dub., Hðm. 21: cp. old Germ. brang = pracht.

brasa, að, to braze (Shakesp.), to harden in the fire: cp. brösur, f. pl. in the metaph. phrase, eiga í brösum, to be always in the fire, always quarrelling.

BRASS (cp. brasaðr, Fms. viii; brasi, ix. 8), m. [cp. Germ, bras = epulae; Swed. brasa; Dan. brase = to roast; Engl. to braze], a cook, an GREEK, Am. 59.

brasta, að, [Germ, brasten], to bluster. Band. 8.

bratt-gengni, f. skill in climbing, Fms. ii. 275.

bratt-gengr, adj. skilful in climbing, Fms. ii. 169: steep, Greg. 62.

bratt-leitr, adj. with projecting forehead, Fb. i. 540.

BRATTR, adj. [A. S. brant, bront; Swed. brant; North. E. brant and brent], steep, of hills, etc.; brött brekka, a 'brent' hill, Hrafn. 20; bárur, high waves, Sks. 40: metaph., bera bratt halann, metaphor from cattle, to carry the tail high (in mod. usage vera brattr), opp. to lægja halann, to droop the tail, Ísl. ii. 330, cp. Hkv. Hjörv. 20; reynt hefi ek fyr brattara, cp. Lat. graviora passus, I have been in a worse plight, Ann. 56; einatt hefi ek brattara átt, Grett. 133: mér hefir opt boðizt brattara, id., etc.,--a metaphor from mountaineers.

bratt-steinn, m. a stone column, Hým. 29.

BRAUÐ, n. [A. S. bread; Engl. bread; Germ, brod; Dan. bröd]. This word, which at present has become a household word in all branches of the Teutonic, was in early times unknown in its present sense: Ulf. constantly renders GREEK as well as GREEK by hlaibs; Engl. loaf; A. S. hlâf; the old A. S. poetry also has hlâf, and the old heathen Scandin. poems only hleifr, Hm. 40, 51, Rm. 4, 28. In Engl. also, the words lord, lady,--A. S. hlâfvord, hlâfdige, which properly mean loaf-warder, loaf-maid,--bear out the remark, that in the heathen age when those words were formed, breâd, in the sense of panis, was not in use in England; in old A. S. the word is only used in the compd beobreâd of the honeycomb (Gr. GREEK), cp. Engl. bee-bread; O. H. G. bibrod; Germ, bienenbrod; and this seems to be the original sense of the word. The passage in which doubtless the Goths used 'braud,' Luke xxiv. 42--the only passage of the N. T. where GREEK occurs--is lost in Ulf. Down to the 9th century this word had not its present sense in any Teut. dialect, but was, as it seems, in all of them used of the honeycomb only. The Icel. calls thyme 'bráð-björg' or 'broð-björg' (sweet food?); cp. the Lat. 'redolentque thymo fragrantia mella;' the root of 'brauð' is perhaps akin to the Lat. 'fragrare.' The transition from the sense of honeycomb to that of bread is obscure: in present usage the 'bread' denotes the substance, 'loaf' the shape; b. ok smjör, Eg. 204; b. ok kál, Mar.; heilagt b., Hom. 137; the Icel. N. T. (freq.) 2. food, hence metaph. living, esp. a parsonage, (mod.) The cures in Icel. are divided into þinga-brauð and beneficia.

brauð-bakstr, m. bread-baking, Greg. 55.

brauð-diskr, m. a bread-plate, Post. 686 B.

brauð-görð, f. bread-making, Stj. 441.

brauð-hleifr, m. a loaf of bread, Greg. 57, Orkn. 116.

brauð-járn, n. a 'bread-iron,' Scot. and North. E. girdle, D. N.

brauð-kass, n. a bread-basket, Fms. ii. 164.

brauð-moli, a, m. a crumb of bread, Stj. 155.

brauð-ofn, m. a bread-oven, H. E. i. 394, N. G. L. ii. 354.

brauð-skífa, u, f. a slice of bread, Andr. 68.

brauð-skorpa, u, f. a bread-crust.

brauð-sneið, f. = brauðskífa.

brauð-sufl., n. spice eaten with bread, Anal. 180.

brauk, n., braukan, f. cracking, Konr. 30, Mag. 5; cp. Brak.

BRAUT, f., dat. brautu, pl. ir, [a purely Scandin. word, formed from brjóta, braut, as Engl. road from Ital. rotta, via rupta] :-- a road cut through rocks, forests, or the like, and distinguished from vegr, stigr, gata (path, track); Önundr konungr lét brjóta vegu um markir ok mýrar ok fjallvegu, fyrir því var hann Braut-Önundr kallaðr, Hkr. i. 46; ryðja b., to cut a road, Ísl. ii. 400; braut ... eigi breiðari en götu breidd, Eg. 582. II. as adv. away, either with or without the prep. 'á' or 'í,' á braut or á brautu, which is the oldest form; but the common form in the old writers is brot, or with a double consonant, brott; later by metath. burt, burtu [Dan.-Swed. bort], which are the mod. forms, but not found in very early MSS.: it occurs in a verse in the Skálda -- reið Brynhildar bróðir | 'bort' sá er hug né 'skorti:'--braut, brautu; braut hvarf or sal sæta, Korm. (in a verse), Hm. 88; þraut, fer ek einn á brautu, Grett. (in a verse); in the Grág. freq., esp. in the old fragment Ed. A.D. 1852, pp. 19-26, where Kb. reads brott; the Miracle-book, Bs. i. 333 sqq., constantly gives braut; so also Ó. H. vellum of the middle of the 13th century: brott, Eg. 603, Nj. 132, Grág. i. 275: burt, burtu, in MSS. of the 15th century; the MSS. freq. use an abbreviated spelling UNCERTAIN (UNCERTAIN denoting ro and or), so that it is difficult to see whether it is to be read brot or burt or bort. It is used with or without notion of motion; the acc. forms braut, brott, burt, originally denote going away; the dat. brautu, burtu, being away; but in common use both are used indiscriminately; þat var brott frá öðrum húsum, far off from other bouses, Eg. 203; vera rekinn brott (braut), to be driven away, Nj. 132; fara braut, to go away, Fms. x. 216; af landi brott, Grág. i. 275, 331, 145, 258, 264, cp. also Nj. 10, 14, 26, 52, 196, Fms. ix. 431, Eg. 319, 370, and endless instances. COMPDS: brautar-gengi, n. a law term, help, furtherance, Ísl. ii. 322, Ld. 26 (advance-