This is page 83 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)
This online edition was created by the Germanic Lexicon Project.
Click here to go to the main page about Cleasby/Vigfusson. (You can download the entire dictionary from that page.)
Click here to volunteer to correct a page of this dictionary.
Click here to search the dictionary.
This page was generated on 13 Mar 2021. The individual pages are regenerated once a week to reflect the previous week's worth of corrections, which are performed and uploaded by volunteers.
The copyright on this dictionary is expired. You are welcome to copy the data below, post it on other web sites, create derived works, or use the data in any other way you please. As a courtesy, please credit the Germanic Lexicon Project.
tíð, f. the time when the ewes are blæsma (in Icel. usually the month of December), Bs. i. 873, Vm. 80.
BRUNI, a, m. [cp. Ulf. brunsts; Engl. to burn, burning], burning, heat; sólar-bruni, Hkr. i. 5; þá er húsit tók at falla ofan af bruna (from the fire), Orkn. 458; reykr eðr b., Nj. 201, Sks. 197. β. a barren heath or burnt lava-field as a local name in the west of Icel. 2. metaph. a burning passion, mostly in bad sense; b. öfundar, of envy, Fms. ii. 140; losta b., of lust, K. Á. 104; but also trúar b., fire of faith (but rarely), Fms. v. 239: medic. caustic, 655 xi. 2. COMPDS: bruna-belti, n. the torrid zone. bruna-dómr, m. a sentence to be burnt, Stj. 46. bruma-flekkr, m. a burnt fleck (spot), Fms. xi. 38. bruna-hraun, n. a burnt lava-field, Bárð. 179. bruna-vegr = brunabelti, Sks. 197. bruna-þefr m. a smell of burning, 656 B. Bruna-öld, f. the Burning-age, i.e. the heathen time when the dead were burnt, preceding the Hauga-öld (Cairn-age) according to Snorri, Hkr. pref.; at vér munim hafna átrúnaði várum þeim er feðr várir hafa haft fyrir oss, ok allt foreldri, fyrst um Bruna-öld, ok síðan um Hauga-öld, i. 141: the 'Burning-age' is in Scandin. pre-historical; relics are only found in the mythological time (v. above s.v. bál) and in law phrases and old sayings, such as branderfð, q.v., til brands ok báls, v. brandr: 'brendr' is synonymous to 'dead' in the old Hm.; at kveldi skal dag leyfa, konu er brend er, praise no wife till she is 'burnt' (i.e. buried), 70; and blindr er betri en brendr sé, nýtr mangi nás, better to be blind than burnt, i.e. better blind than dead and buried, 80; but it does not follow that burning was used at the time when the poem was composed; the saving had become proverbial.
brunn-lækr, m. a brooklet coming from a spring, = bæjarlækr, Grág. ii. 289, Jb. 247, Ísl. ii. 91, Fms. ii. 201.
brunn-migi, a, m. 'mingens in puteum,' a kind of hobgoblin who polluted the wells, Hálfs S. ch. 5. Fas. ii. 29, mentioned only here, and unknown to the present Icel. legends :-- name of the fox, Edda (Gl.); cp. the proverb, skömm hundum, skitu refar í brunn karls, shame on the hounds, the foxes defiled the carl's burn, Fms. vii. 21.
BRUNNR (old form bruðr), m. [Ulf. brunna; A. S. bærne; Scot. and North. E. burn; O. H. G. brunna; Germ. brunn, all of them weak forms, differing from the Scandin.-Icel. brunnr; Dan. brönd; Swed. brunn] :-- a spring, well; the well was common to all, high and low, hence the proverbs, (allir) eiga sama til brunns að bera, i.e. (all) have the same needs, wants, wishes, or the like; allt ber að sama brunni, all turn to the same well, all bear the same way, Grett. 137; seint að byrgja brunninn er barnið er í dottið, it is too late to shut the well when the bairn has fallen in; cp. the Engl. proverb, 'It is useless to lock the stable door when the steed is stolen.' In mythol., the brunnr of Mímer (Edda 10, 11) is the well of wisdom, for a draught of which Odin pawned his eye; probably symbolical of the sun sinking into the sea; the pit Hvergelmir (Edda 3) answers to the Gr. Tartarus; Stj. 612, Fms. ii. 83: the word may also be used of running water, though this is not usual in Icel., where distinction is made between brunnr and lækr, Grág. ii. 289, vide brunn-lækr. 2. metaph. a spring, fountain; b. hita (the sun), A. A. 5; esp. theol. of God, Christ, b. gæzku, miskunnar ..., Greg. 33; með brunni Guðlegrar spekðar, 673 A. 49; b. mælsku, Eluc. 56.
brunn-vaka, u, f. a third horn in the forehead of an ox with which he opened the ice during winter to get at the water; hit fjórða horn stóð ór enni, ok niðr fyrir augu honum, þat var b. hans, Ld. 120.
brunn-vatn, n. spring-water, Bs. ii. 177.
brunn-vígsla, u, f. consecration of wells, Bs. i. 450, cp. Ísl. Þjóð.
brutla (brutl, n., brutlan, f.), að, [brytja] :-- to waste, spend, esp. in trifles; prop. to chop.
BRÚ, gen. brúar; nom. pl. brúar, Grág. i. 149, ii. 277, Eg. 529; brúr, Bs. i. 65 (Hungrvaka), is a bad spelling, cp. Landn. 332 (Mantissa); mod. pl. brýr, which last form never occurs in old writers; dat. sing, brú, gen. pl. brúa, dat. brúm: [A. S. brycg and bricg; Scot. brigg; Germ. brücke; Dan. bro; cp. bryggja] :-- a bridge, Sturl. i. 244, 255, 256, iii. 24. In early times bridges, as well as ferries, roads, and hospitals, were works of charity, erected for the soul's health; hence the names sælu-hús (hospital), sælu-brú (soul-bridge). In the Swedish-Runic stones such bridges are often mentioned, built by pious kinsmen for the souls of the dead, Baut. 41, 97, 119, 124, 146, 559, 796, 829, 1112, etc. The Icel. Libri Datici of the 12th century speak of sheltering the poor and the traveller, making roads, ferries, churches, and bridges, as a charge upon donations (sálu-gjafir); þat fé þarf eigi til tíundar at telja, er áðr er til Guðs þakka gefit, hvart sem þat er til kirkna lagit eðr brúa, eðr til sælu-skipa, K. Þ. K. 142, cp. D. I. i. 279, 402. COMPDS: brúar-fundr, m. the battle at the Bridge, Sturl. ii. 256 (A.D. 1242). brúar-görð, f. bridge-making, Grág. ii. 266. brúar-sporðr, m. [sporðr, the tail of a fish], tête-de-pont, Germ. brückenkopf, whereas the Icel. takes the metaphor from fishes touching the banks with their tails, Nj. 246, Bs. i. 17.
brúa, að, to bridge over, Fms. i. 123: metaph., Sks. 788.
brúða, u, f. a doll, puppet, Fms. xi. 309; stól-brúða (literally chair-bride), the pillar in carved work on the side of an old-fashioned chair; in Fbr. 98 the head of Thor was carved on the chair; Gríma kona Gamla átti stól einn mikinn, en á brúðum stólsins var skorinn Þórr, ok var þat mikit líkneski, cp. the classical passage Eb. ch. 4; var hár hennar bundit við stólbrúðurnar, Bárð. 175 (in the vellum MS. distinctly bruðrnar UNCERTAIN): a distinction in form and inflexion is always made between brúðr, a bride, and brúða, puppet; hence the saying, 'to sit like a brúða,' i.e. motionless, not stirring a limb; bláum skrýddr skrúða, skikkanlegri en brúða, more quiet than a b., Sig. Pét. 229; the sense of GREEK and GREEK in Greek is analogous.
brúð-bekkr, m. the bride's bench; in old wedding feasts the bride and bridesmaids were seated on the bride's bench, the bride in the middle; the ladies were seated on the pallr or þverpallr (the dais or ladies' bench), turning their faces to look down the hall; the brúðbekkr was the seat of honour, and the central part of the dais; cp. the phrase, brúðr sat 'a midjum palli,' i.e. 'á brúðbekk,' Ld. 296, Sd. 151, Lv. 37, Ísl. ii. 250, Nj. 50; vide bekkr, pp. 56, 57.
brúð-fé, n. a bride's fee; cp. the 'duty to the priest and clerk' in the Engl. service; the bride's fee is mentioned in the beautiful heathen poem Þrymskviða (our chief authority in these matters), 29, 32; where it is a fee or gift of the bride to the giant maid. It seems to be a fee paid by the guests for attendance and waiting. Unfortunately there is a lacuna in verse 29, the last part of which refers to the bekkjargjöf (vide 57); the poem is only left in a single MS. and the text cannot be restored. It is carious that Þkv. 32 calls this fee 'shillings,' cp. Germ. braut schilling (Grimm); it shews that the bride's fee was paid in small pieces of money.
brúð-férð and brúð-för, f. a bride's journey, Landn. 304, cp. Fs. 124, Rd. 255, Fms. iv. 180, Eg. 701, Grág. i. 441 A; as a rule the bridegroom was to carry his bride home, or she was carried home to him, and the wedding feast was held at the house and at the cost of the bridegroom or his parents. The bride came attended and followed by her bridesmaids, friends, and kinsmen, sometimes a host of men; hence originate the words brúðferð, brúðför, and perhaps even brúðhlaup, etc. 'Dress the hall! now the bride is to turn homeward with me,' says the bridegroom-dwarf in the beginning of the poem Alvísmál; so the bride Freyja travels to the wedding at the giant's, Þkv., cp. Rm. 37; -- báðu hennar, ok heim óku, giptu Karli, gékk hón und líni, Ld. ch. 7, Nj. ch. 34, Harð. S. ch. 4, Sturl. iii. 181 sqq. In some cases, to shew deference to the father of the bride, the feast might be held at his house, Nj. ch. 2 (skyldi boð vera at Marðar), ch. 10, 14, Lv. ch. 12; cp. the curious case, Sturl. i. 226. In Icel., where there were no inns, the law ordered that a bride and bridegroom, when on the bride's journey, had the same right as members of parliament on their journey to the parliament; every farmer was bound to shelter at least six of the party, supposing that the bride or bridegroom was among the number, K. Þ. K. 94. One who turned them out was liable to the lesser outlawry, Grág. i. 441.
brúð-gumi, a, m. [Ulf. uses bruþfaþs, not bruþguma; A. S. brydguma; Hel. brudigomo; O. H. G. prutigomo; Germ. bräutigam; Dan. brudgom; Swed. brudgumme; from brúðr, a bride, and gumi, a man = Lat. homo; the Engl. inserts a spurious r, bridegroom] :-- a 'bride's man,' bridegroom; svá sem gumi er kallaðr í brúðför, Edda 107, Grág. i. 175, Nj. 25, Sturl. iii. 182, Ísl. ii. 250. COMPD: brúðguma-reið, f. a 'bridegroom's ride;' at weddings the bridegroom, as the host, had to meet his guests (boðsmenn) a quarter of a mile from his house; here he entertained them in tents, where they remained and enjoyed themselves till evening; when darkness began to set in, the party rode home in a procession drawn up two and two; this was called brúðguma-reið. The last bridegroom's ride on record in Icel. was that of Eggert Olafsson, just a hundred years ago, at his wedding at Reykholt in the autumn of 1767 A.D. A minute description of this last Icel. b. exists in a MS. (in the possession of Maurer, in Munich). An interesting treatise upon the wedding feasts in Icel. in the Middle Ages, down to the 18th century, is among the Icel. MSS. in the Bodleian Library, no. 130.
brúð-hjón, n. pl. the wedding pair.
brúð-hvíla, u, f. a bridal bed (lectus nuptialis), Bret.
brúð-kaup and brul-laup, n. a wedding feast, bridal; these two words are identical in sense, but different in etymology; brúðkaup, prop. bride's bargain, refers to the old notion, that marriage was a bargain or purchase, not that the bride was bought herself, but the word refers to the exchange of mundr (by the bridegroom) and heimanfylgja (by the bride's father), vide these words; hence the allit. phrase, mey mundi keypt, and mundr and mey ('mund' and maid); again, brullaup, [qs. brúð-hlaup, bride's leap, cp. Germ. brautlauf, M. H. G. brûtlouf, Swed. bröllopp, Dan. bryllup; Grimm mentions an A. S. brydlop (not found in Grein's Glossary or Bosworth's A. S. Dictionary); the full form brúðhlaup scarcely occurs in very old MSS., it is found in the Játv. S. MS. A.D. 1360, but only assimilated, Grág. i. 303, 311, l. i] refers either to the bride's journey = brúðför, or to some bridal procession on the wedding day, probably the first; but in fact both words are only used of the wedding feast, the Engl. 'bridal,' A. S. bryd-eala. At the wedding feast the contract, though agreed upon at the espousals (festar), was to be read: to make a lawful 'brúðkaup' there must be at least six guests -- þá