This is page 95 of An Icelandic-English Dictionary by Cleasby/Vigfusson (1874)

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DAGATAL -- DAN. 95

Óðinsdag, eðr Þórsdag, ok svá um alla vikudaga, etc., Bs. i. 237, cp. 165.

Thus bishop John (died A.D. 1121) caused them to name the days as

the church does (Feria sccunda, etc.); viz. Þriði-d. or Þriðju-d., Third-day = Tuesday,

Rb. 44, K.Þ.K. 100, Ísl. ii. 345; Fimti-d., Fifth-day -- Thursday, Rb. 42, Grág.

i. 146, 464, 372, ii. 248, Nj. 274; Föstu-d.,

Fast-day = Friday; Miðviku-d., Midweek-day = Wednesday, was borrowed from

the Germ. Mittwoch; throughout the 12th and 13th centuries, however, the old and new

names were used indiscriminately. The

question arises whether even the old names were not imported from

abroad (England); certainly the Icel. of heathen times did not reckon by

weeks; even the word week (vika) is probably of eccl. Latin origin

(vices, recurrences). It is curious that the Scandinavian form of Friday,

old Icel. Frjádagr, mod. Swed.-Dan. Fredag, is A.S. in form; 'Frjá-,'

'Fre-,' can hardly be explained but from A.S. Freâ-, and would be an

irregular transition from the Norse form Frey. The transition of ja

into mod. Swed.-Dan. e is quite regular, whereas Icel. ey (in Frey)

would require the mod. Swed.-Dan. ö or u sound. Names of weekdays

are only mentioned in Icel. poems of the 11th century (Arnór,

Sighvat); but at the time of bishop John the reckoning by weeks was

probably not fully established, and the names of the days were still new

to the people. 5. the day is in Icel. divided according to the posi-

tion of the sun above the horizon; these fixed traditional marks are

called dags-mörk, day-marks, and are substitutes for the hours of

modern times, viz. ris-mál or miðr-morgun, dag-mál, há-degi, mið-degi

or mið-mundi, nón, miðr-aptan, nátt-mál, vide these words. The middle

point of two day-marks is called jafn-nærri-báðum, in modern pronunciation

jöfnu-báðu, equally-near-both, the day-marks following in the genitive;

thus in Icel. a man asks, hvað er fram orðið, what is the time? and the

reply is, jöfnubáðu miðsmorguns og dagmála, half-way between mid-morn-

ing and day-meal, or stund til (to) dagmála; hallandi dagmál, or stund af

(past) dagmálum; jöfnu-báðu hádegis og dagmúla, about ten or half-

past ten o'clock, etc. Those day-marks are traditional in every farm, and

many of them no doubt date from the earliest settling of the country.

Respecting the division of the day, vide Pál Vídal. s.v. Allr dagr til

stefnu, Finnus Johann., Horologium Island., Eyktamörk Íslenzk (published

at the end of the Rb.), and a recent essay of Finn Magnusson. II. denoting a term, but only in compounds, dagi, a, m.,

where the weak form is used, cp. ein-dagi, mál-dagi, bar-dagi, skil-

dagi. III. jis a pr. name, Dagr, (freq.); in this sense the dat. is

Dag, not Degi, cp. Óðinn léði Dag (dat.) geirs síns, Sæm. 114. COMPDS:

daga-tal, n. a tale of days, Rb. 48. dags-brun, v. above. dags-

helgi, f. hallowedness of the day, Sturl. i. 29. dags-ljós, n. daylight,

Eb. 266. dags-mark, v. above. dags-megin, n., at dags magni,

in full day, 623. 30. dags-munr, m. a day's difference; svá at d.

sér á, i.e. day by day, Stj.

dag-ráð, n. [A.S. dagrêd = daybreak], this word is rarely used, Eg.

53, 174, Fms. i. 131; in the last passage it is borrowed from the poem

Vellekla, (where it seems to be used in the A.S. sense; the poet speaks

of a sortilege, and appears to say that the sortilege told him to fight at

daybreak, then he would gain the day); the passages in prose, however,

seem to take the word in the sense of early, in good time.

dag-ríki, n. (dag-rikt, n. adj., N. G. L. i. 342, 343, v.l.), in the

phrase, bæta sem d. er til, of the breach of a Sunday or a holy day, to pay

according to 'the day's might,' i.e. according to the time of the day at

which the breach is committed, N.G.L. i. 342, 343, 348, 349; or does

it mean 'the canonical importance' of the day (Fr.) ?

dag-róðr, m. a day's rowing, A.A. 272.

dag-sanna, u, f. true as day, Nj. 73, Fær. 169, Fas. i. 24, cp. Eb. 60.

dag-setr (dag-sáter, Sturl. iii. 185 C), n. 'day-setting,' nightfall; um

kveld nær dagsetri, Landn. 285; í d., Fms. v. 331, ix. 345; leið til dag-

setrs, Grett. III; d. skeið, Fms. ix. 383. dag-sett, n. adj. id., Háv.

40; vide dagr.

dag-sigling, f. a day's sailing, journey by sea, Rb. 482.

dag-skemt, f. a day's amusement, games, telling stories, or the like,

Sturl. i. 63 C, (dagskemta, gen. pl.)

dag-skjarr, adj. 'day-scared,' shunning daylight, poët. epithet of a

dwarf, Ýt. 2.

dag-slátta, u, f. a day's mowing, an Icel. acre field, measuring 900

square fathoms (Icel. fathom = about 2 yards), to be mown by a single

man in a day, Dipl. v. 28, Ísl. ii. 349.

dag-stingr, m. the 'day-sting,' daybreak, Greg. 57, (rare.)

dag-stjarna, u, f. the morning star, Lucifer, Al. 161, Sl. 39.

dag-stund, f. day time, a whole day, K.Þ.K. 6; dagstundar Leið, a

'Leet' (i.e. meeting) lasting a day, Grág. i. 122 :-- elsewhere dagstund

means an hour in the day time = stund dags.

dag-stæddr, adj. fixed as to the day, Thom. 56, Fms. xi. 445.

dag-tíð, f. [A. S. dagtid], day-service, 673. 60, 625. 177, Sks. 19.

dag-veizla, u, f. help to win the day, = liðveizla, Fas. iii. 336.

dag-verðr and dög-urðr, m., gen. ar, pl. ir, [Dan. davre], 'day-

meal,' the chief meal of the old Scandinavians, taken in the forenoon at

the time of dagmál, opp. to nátturðr or náttverðr (mod. Dan. nadver), supper; corresponding as to time with the mod. Engl. breakfast, as to

the nature of the meal with the Engl. dinner. The old Scandinavians

used to take a hearty meal before going to their work; cp. Tac. Germ.

22. An early and a hearty meal were synonymous words (vide árlegr);

the old Hávamál advises men to go to the meeting 'washed and with

full stomach' (þveginn ok mettr), but never to mind how bad their dress,

shoes, or horse may be; and repeats the advice to take 'an early meal'

even before visiting a friend, 32, cp. Hbl. 3. Several places in Icel. took

their name from the settlers taking their first ' day-meal, ' e.g. Dög-

urðar-nes, Dögurðar-á, Landn. 110, 111, cp. also Gísl. 12. The Gr.

GREEK is rendered by dagverðr, Greg. 43. Matth. xxii. 4; but in the

Icel. N. T. of 1540 sq. GREEK is constantly rendered by kveld-máltíð;

eta dögurð, Landn. l.c., Nj. 175, Gísl. 1. c.; sitja yfir dagverði, Eg. 564,

577, Ísl. ii. 336, Fms. iv. 337, ix. 30; dögurðar borð, a day-meal table,

in the phrase, sitja at dögurðar borði, to sit at table, Fms. i. 40, vi. 411,

Hkr. i. 153, iii. 157; dögurðar-mál and dögurðarmál-skeið, the day-meal

time, time of the day-meal, Fms. viii. 330, v.l.; um morguninn at dag-

verðar máli, 443, Eg. 564, Edda 24, Hom. 91 (in pl.), O. H. L. 19.

COMPD: dagverðar-drykkja, f. = dagdrykkja, the drinking after dag-

verðr, Fas. iii. 530, Mag. 3.

dag-villr, adj. 'day-wild,' i. e. not knowing what day it is, K. Á. 190,

N. G. L. i. 342.

dag-vöxtr, m. daily growth; in the phrase, vaxa dagvöxtum, to wax

day by day, Finnb. 216, Eb. 318.

dag-þing, n. and dag-þingan, f. a conference, Ann. 1391; vera í d.

við e-n, Fms. iii. 201, Bs. i. 882, freq. in Thom.

dag-þinga, að, to hold conference with one, D. N., Thom. (freq.)

dala, að, to be dented; dalaði ekki né sprakk, Eg. 769, cp. Fas. iii.

12 (the verse).

dal-búi (dalbyggi, Sd. 214), a, m, a dweller in a dale, Grett. 141 A.

dal-bygð, f. a dale-country, Stj. 380, Hkr. ii. 8.

dal-land, n. dale-ground, Grág. ii. 257.

DALLR, m. a small tub, esp. for milk or curds; bæði byttur og dallar,

Od. ix. 222, Snót 99.

dalmatika, u, f. a dalmatic, Stj., Fms. iii. 168, Vm. 2, 123.

DALR, s, m., old pl. dalar, acc. dala, Vsp. 19, 42, Hkv. i. 46; the

Sturl. C still uses the phrase, vestr í Dala; the mod. form (but also used

in old writers) is dalir, acc. dali, Hkv. Hjörv. 28; old dat. sing, dali,

Hallr í Haukadali, Íb. 14, 17; í Þjórsárdali, í Örnólfsdali, 8, Hbl. 17;

mod. dal; dali became obsolete even in old writers, except the earliest,

as Ari: [Ulf. dais = GREEK Luke iii. 10, and GREEK vi. 39; A.S. dæl;

Engl. dale; Germ, tal (thal); cp. also Goth, dalaþ = GREEK and dala above;

up og dal, up hill and down dale, is an old Dan. phrase] :-- a dale; allit.

phrase, djúpir dalir, deep dales, Hbl. 1. c.; dali döggótta, bedewed dales,

Hkv. 1. c.; the proverbial saying, láta dal mæta hóli, let dale meet hill,

'diamond cut diamond,' Ld. 134, Fms. iv. 225: dalr is used of a dent

or hole in a skull, dalr er í hnakka, Fas. iii. 1. c. (in a verse): the word

is much used in local names, Fagri-dalr, Fair-dale; Breið-dalr, Broad-

dale; Djúpi-dalr, Deep-dale; Þver-dalr, Cross-dale; Langi-dalr, Lang-

dale; Jökul-dalr, Glacier-dale, (cp. Langdale, Borrodale. Wensleydale, etc.

in North. E.); 'Dale' is a freq. name of dale counties, Breiðatjarðar-dalir,

or Dalir simply, Landn.: Icel. speak of Dala-menn, 'Dales-men' (as in

Engl. lake district); dala-fífi, a dale-fool, one brought up in a mean or

despised dale, Fas. iii. 1 sqq.: the parts of a dale are distinguished, dals-

botn, the bottom of a dale, ii. 19; dals-öxl, the shoulder of a dale; dals-

brún, the brow, edge of a dale; dals-hlíðar, the sides, slopes of a dale; dala-

drög, n. pl. the head of a dale; dals-mynni, the mouth of a dale, Fms. viii.

57; dals-barmr, the 'dale-rim,' = dals-brun; dals-eyrar, the gravel beds

spread by a stream over a dale, etc. :-- in poetry, snakes are called dale-

fishes, dal-reyðr, dal-fiskr, dal-ginna, etc., Lex. Poët. [It is interesting

to notice that patronymic words derived from 'dale' are not formed with

an e (vowel change of a), but an œ, æ (vowel change of ó), Lax-drœlir,

Vatns-dœlir, Hauk-dœlir, Hit-dœlir, Sýr-drœll, Svarf-dœlir ..., the men

from Lax(ár)dalr, Vatnsdal, Haukadal, Hitardal, etc.; cp. the mod.

Norse Dölen = man from a dale; this points to an obsolete root word

analogous to ala, ól, bati, bót; vide the glossaries of names to the

Sagas, esp. that to the Landn.] II. a dollar (mod.) = Germ.

Joachims-thaler, Joachims-thal being the place where the first dollars

were coined.

dalr, m., gen. dalar, poët. a bow. Lex. Poët.; this word has a different

inflexion, and seems to be of a different root from the above; hence in

poetry the hand is called dal-nauð, the need of (force applied to) the bow,'

and dal-töng, as the bow is bent by the hand.

dal-verpi, n. a little dale, Nj. 132, Fms. vi. 136, Al. 41.

damma, u, f. [domina], a dame, Fr. (for. and rare); hence in mod.

use madama, madame.

dammr, m. a dam, D. N. COMPDS: damm-stokkr, m. a sluice.

damm-stæði, n. a dam-yard, D. N. (for. and rare).

dampr, danpr, m. [Germ, dampf], steam, (mod. word.) 2. a pr.

name, Rm., Yngl. S.

dan, m. [dominus], sir. D.N.; hence comes perhaps the mod. Icel. word